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University of Helsinki, Full Time MSc Degrees

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Would you like to be involved in finding solutions to future challenges of food and energy production, such as climate change, population growth and limited energy resources? Are you interested in animal welfare, clean soil, environmental issues or the newest methods in biological and genetic engineering? Would you like to learn about automation and robotics in agriculture?. Read more
Would you like to be involved in finding solutions to future challenges of food and energy production, such as climate change, population growth and limited energy resources? Are you interested in animal welfare, clean soil, environmental issues or the newest methods in biological and genetic engineering? Would you like to learn about automation and robotics in agriculture?

Join the Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences on the Viikki Campus to find solutions for the challenges of today and tomorrow. The University of Helsinki is the only university in Finland to offer academic education in this field.

In the Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences, you can pursue studies in plant production sciences, animal science, agrotechnology, or environmental soil science, depending on your interests and previous studies. For further information about the study tracks, see Programme contents.

Upon completing a Master’s degree, you will:
-Be an expert in plant production science, animal science, agrotechnology, or environmental soil science.
-Be able to assess the sustainability and environmental impact of food and energy production.
-Be able to apply biosciences, ecology, chemistry, physics or statistics, depending on your study track, to the future needs of agriculture.
-Have mastered the key issues and future development trends of your field.
-Have mastered state-of-the-art research and analysis methods and techniques.
-Be able to engage in international activities, project work and communication.
-Be able to acquire and interpret scientific research information in your field and present it orally and in writing.
-Have the qualifications to pursue postgraduate studies in a doctoral programme or a career as an expert or entrepreneur.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences comprises four study tracks:
Plant production sciences – plants as sources of food, feed, energy, beauty and wellbeing
During your studies, you will have the opportunity to apply biology to the breeding, cultivation, protection and production ecology of crop or horticultural plants. Producing sufficient food is one of the great challenges facing humanity. Plant production sciences have an important mission in finding solutions to this challenge. Plants are cultivated not only for food and feed, but also for bioenergy, green landscapes and ornamental purposes; plant production sciences seek new, improved solutions for all these purposes.

Animal science – animal health and wellbeing
During your studies, you will become familiar with issues pertaining to the wellbeing, nutrition and breeding of production and hobby animals as well as with the relevant biotechnology. In this study track you will apply biochemistry, animal physiology, genetics and molecular biology for the benefit of sustainable animal production. The Viikki Research Farm, in urban Helsinki, provides plenty of opportunities for hands-on learning!

Agrotechnology – technology with consideration for the environment
This study track provides you with the opportunity to study technologies that are key to agricultural production and the environment, from the basics to the latest innovations. Advances in technology and automation offer new horizons to fearless inventors interested in developing machinery and engineering for the reorganisation, implementation and adjustment of production in accordance with the needs of plants and animals.

Environmental soil science – dig below the surface
These studies allow you to literally dig beneath the surface. The soil is a central factor for the production of renewable natural resources, the diversity of nature, and the quality of water systems. As an expert in environmental soil science you will know how the soil serves as a substrate for plants and affects the quality of food, and how it can be improved.

Selection of the Major

The Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences comprises four study tracks, allowing you to focus on a specialisation according to your interests and previous studies: plant production sciences (quota of 40 students), animal science (quota of 25 students), agrotechnology (quota of 15 students), and environmental soil science (quota of 5 students).

You can be admitted to the Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences either directly from the relevant Bachelor’s programme or through a separate admissions process. A total of 80 students will be admitted through these two admissions channels.

Programme Structure

With a scope of 120 credits (ECTS), the Master’s programme can be completed in two academic years. The degree comprises:
-60 credits of advanced studies in the selected study track, including your Master’s thesis (30 credits)
-60 credits of other studies from the curriculum of your own or other degree programmes

The study tracks of the Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences collaborate across disciplinary boundaries to construct thematic modules around importance topical issues: the bioeconomy, the recycling of nutrients, food systems, and the production and exploitation of genomic information.

You must also complete a personal study plan (PSP). Your studies can also include career orientation and career planning.

Various teaching methods are used in the programme, including lectures, practical exercises, practical laboratory and field courses, practical training, seminars, project work and independent study.

Career Prospects

As a graduate of the Master’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences, you will have the competence to pursue a career or to continue your studies at the doctoral level.

According to the statistics of the Finnish Association of Academic Agronomists, the current employment situation for new graduates is positive. Graduates have found employment in Finland and abroad as experts in the following fields:
-Research and product development (universities, research institutes, companies, industry).
-Administration and expert positions (ministries, supervisory agencies, EU, FAO).
-Business and management (companies).
-Teaching, training and consultation (universities, universities of applied sciences, organisations, development cooperation projects).
-Communication (universities, media, companies, ministries, organisations).
-Entrepreneurship (self-employment).

As a graduate you can apply for doctoral education in Finland or abroad. A doctoral degree can be completed in four years. With a doctoral degree you can pursue a career in the academic world or enter the job market. The qualifications required for some positions may be a doctoral rather than a Master’s degree.

Other admission details

Applications are also accepted from graduates of other University of Helsinki Bachelor’s programmes as well as from graduates of other Finnish or international universities. In these cases, admission will be based on your previous academic performance and the applicability of your previous degree. For the latest admission requirements see the website: https://www.helsinki.fi/en/masters-admission-masters-programme-in-agricultural-sciences-master-of-science-agriculture-and-forestry-2-years/1.2.246.562.20.29558674254

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Are you looking forward to a future as an expert in Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Economics? As a graduate of our Master’s Programme in Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Economics, you can find employment in the national or international market, for example at universities, research institutes, the public sector or in business, or you can become a self-employed entrepreneur. Read more
Are you looking forward to a future as an expert in Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Economics? As a graduate of our Master’s Programme in Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Economics, you can find employment in the national or international market, for example at universities, research institutes, the public sector or in business, or you can become a self-employed entrepreneur.

The Viikki Campus offers optimal resources for studying the unique range of subjects offered by our programme. Upon graduating you will be a professional in applied economics in agricultural, environmental and resource-focused fields. You will be well versed in topics such as climate policy, sustainable agriculture and food security.

The Master's programme comprises two study tracks:
1. Agricultural economics
-Languages of instruction: Finnish, Swedish, English

2. Environmental and resource economics
-Language of instruction: English

As a graduate of the study track in Agricultural Economics you will have the ability to:
-Support decision-making in the public and private sectors in various roles as a consultant, researcher or public servant.
-Analyse and communicate the impact of policies on fields relating to agriculture, the environment and natural resources.
-Apply economic theories and quantitative methodologies, such as econometrics and numerical modelling, to issues in the field.

As a graduate of the study track in Environmental and Resource economics you will have the ability to:
-Identify the socio-economic drivers of natural resource use and environmental degradation.
-Analyse the effects of policies on the environment and on natural resource usage.
-Formulate recommendations to support decision-making in both the public and private sectors.
-Apply microeconomic theory and quantitative methods (econometrics, analytical and numerical dynamic modelling, game theory).

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

Studytrack: Agricultural economics
After completing the study track in agricultural economics you will be able:
-To apply the concepts and central theories of agricultural economics.
-To apply perspectives of economic, ecological and social sustainability.
-To analyse and develop the business operations of agricultural and rural enterprises as well as intensify production in a sustainable manner.
-To analyse the operation of agricultural and food markets.
-To analyse the international political steering of agriculture.

The study track of agricultural economics combines expertise in business administration and economics with knowledge of the special features of agriculture, rural enterprises, the food market and related policies. Through studies in agricultural economics, you will learn to apply theories and models used to define the profitability and competiveness of agricultural and rural enterprises and the farm-level factors contributing to profitability and competiveness. You will examine the operation of the market and assess various policy options. The studies include practice-oriented assignments that build your decision-making and career skills, and your self-confidence to apply theoretical knowledge in practice.

Studytrack: Environmental and Resource Economics
In this studytrack you will receive a state-of-the-art economic education in environmental and natural resources policy. The courses are divided into three groups:
-Theoretically focused courses in which you will gain a deep understanding of static and dynamic models and applications of game theory.
-Courses focusing on quantitative methods in which you will gain the ability to run numerical simulations and apply econometric methods.
-Thematic courses focusing on relevant challenges in environmental and resource policy.

Selection of the Major

Studytrack: Agricultural economics
Graduates of the Bachelor’s Programme in Environmental and Food Economics can continue directly to the Master’s Programme in Agricultural, Environmental and Resource Economics, provided that they specialised in agricultural, environmental and resource economics for their Bachelor’s degree. In addition, graduates of the Bachelor’s Programme in Agricultural Sciences can continue directly to the study track in agricultural economics, provided that they have completed the module in agricultural economics for their Bachelor’s degree.

Applicants from other programmes and universities must have completed a sufficient amount of studies in economics, mathematics and statistics. Some of these studies may be incorporated into the Master’s degree as optional studies. If there are more applicants than student places, admission will be based on your previous academic performance and the applicability of your Bachelor’s degree.

Studytrack: Environmental and Resource Economics
The studytrack offers three mandatory modules and several optional modules. You can choose two thematic modules in order to focus on issues of interest to you. See the research focus below.

Programme Structure

Studytrack: Agricultural economics
The scope of the Master’s level studies is 120 credits, including both field-specific advanced studies and optional studies in the field or from other degree programmes. The minimum scope of field-specific advanced studies is 60 credits, 30 of which are accounted for by the Master’s thesis. You are recommended to focus on your Master’s thesis during your second year of Master’s studies.

The advanced studies comprise at least two modules of 15 credits. The modules are:
-Agricultural markets and policy
-Business economics
-Rural entrepreneurship
-Environmental and natural resources

In addition, your studies must include at least 15 credits of methodological studies. The studies encompass a practical training period and seminars, and they can include career orientation and career planning. You will also need to complete a personal study plan (PSP).

The scope of optional field-specific studies and studies offered by other degree programmes is 30–40 credits.

Studytrack: Environmental and Resource Economics
The studytrack lasts four semesters, lasting approximately 22 months (1st year beginning of August- 2nd year beginning of June).

Core modules (45 ECTS)
-Environmental economics
-Natural Resource Economics, dynamic optimisation and numerical models
-Environmental valuation, applied econometrics and cost-benefit analysis

Thematic modules (30 ECTS) Choose two of the following:
-Climate change
-Baltic Sea protection
-Agricultural economics and agri-environmental policy
-Forest economics

Internship and Master’s thesis seminar 15 credits (ECTS)

Master’s thesis 30 credits (ECTS)

Career Prospects

According to the labour market surveys conducted by the Finnish Association of Academic Agronomists, graduates from the study track in agricultural economics have been successful in finding employment – often before graduation. The programme alumni have found positions in various organisations in the public and private sectors in Finland, and many have pursued international careers in Europe or further afield. This study programme provides you with wide-ranging skills for starting a business and for serving in various expert or managerial positions, even if the focus of studies is on applied agriculture. Consequently, possible job titles are numerous: specialist, teacher, entrepreneur, researcher, senior officer, product manager, head of finance, etc. If you are interested in developing your expertise further, you can pursue postgraduate studies in the doctoral programmes offered by the University of Helsinki or another university in Finland or abroad.

The Environmental and Resource Economics Master of Science offers promising career paths in government, research, consultancy, industry, NGOs and international organisations.

Internationalization

-You can complete a practical training period abroad or go on a student exchange.
-You can work as a member of an international research group in Finland or abroad.
-You can complete part of your degree in English by taking courses given by international teachers.

As a student in the programme, you will have opportunities for internships, visits and study exchanges with partner universities. Visiting foreign lecturers give intensive courses as part of the thematic modules. As a student you will also be able to join our international research networks.

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Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Read more
Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Not only must further research be done, but industry and business also need environmental specialists with a strong background in natural sciences. As new regulations and European Union directives are adopted in practice, people with knowledge of recent scientific research are required.

Upon graduating from the Programme you will have competence in:
-Applying experimental, computational and statistical methods to obtain and analyse atmospheric and environmental data.
-Knowledge applicable to solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.
-Making systematic and innovative use of investigation or experimentation to discover new knowledge.
-Reporting results in a clear and logical manner.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The six study lines are as follows:
Aerosol Physics
Aerosol particles are tiny liquid or solid particles floating in the air. Aerosol physics is essential for our understanding of air quality, climate change and production of nanomaterials. Aerosol scientists investigate a large variety of phenomena associated with atmospheric aerosol particles and related gas-to-particle conversion using constantly improving experimental, theoretical, model-based and data analysis methods. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the most recent theoretical concepts, measurement techniques and computational methods applied in aerosol research.

Geophysics of the Hydrosphere
Hydrospheric geophysics studies water in all of its forms using physical methods. It includes hydrology, cryology, and physical oceanography. Hydrology includes the study of surface waters such as lakes and rivers, global and local hydrological cycles as well as water resources and geohydrology, the study of groundwater. Cryology focuses on snow and ice phenomena including glacier mass balance and dynamics, sea ice physics, snow cover effects and ground frost. Physical oceanography covers saline water bodies, focusing on describing their dynamics, both large scale circulation and water masses, and local phenomena such as surface waves, upwelling, tides, and ocean acoustics. Scientists study the hydrosphere through field measurements, large and small scale modelling, and formulating mathematical descriptions of the processes.

Meteorology
Meteorology is the physics of the atmosphere. Its best-known application is weather forecasting, but meteorological knowledge is also essential for understanding, predicting and mitigating climate change. Meteorologists study atmospheric phenomena across a wide range of space and time scales using theory, model simulations and observations. The field of meteorology is a forerunner in computing: the development of chaos theory, for example, was triggered by the unexpected behaviour of a meteorological computer model. Meteorology in ATM-MP is further divided into dynamic meteorology and biometeorology. Dynamic meteorology is about large-scale atmospheric dynamics, modelling and observation techniques, whereas biometeorology focuses on interactions between the atmosphere and the underlying surface by combining observations and modelling to study the flows of greenhouse gases and energy with links to biogeochemical cycles, for example. As a graduate of the meteorology line, you will be an expert in atmospheric phenomena who can produce valuable new information and share your knowledge.

Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeochemistry studies the processes involved in cycling of elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by integrating physics, meteorology, geophysics, chemistry, geology and biology. Besides natural ecosystems, it also studies systems altered by human activity such as forests under different management regimes, drained peatlands, lakes loaded by excess nutrients and urban environments. The most important elements and substances studied are carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, water and phosphorus, which are vital for ecosystem functioning and processes such as photosynthesis. Biogeochemistry often focuses on the interphases of scientific disciplines and by doing so, it also combines different research methods. It treats ecosystems as open entities which are closely connected to the atmosphere and lithosphere. You will thus get versatile training in environmental issues and research techniques. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the functioning of ecosystems and the interactions between ecosystems and the atmosphere/hydrosphere/lithosphere in the context of global change. You will have knowledge applicable for solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.

Remote Sensing
Remote sensing allows the collection of information about the atmosphere, oceans and land surfaces. Various techniques are applied for monitoring the state and dynamics of the Earth system from the ground, aircraft or satellites. While Lidar and radar scan from the surface or mounted on aircraft, instruments on polar orbiting or geostationary satellites permit measurements worldwide. In atmospheric sciences remote sensing has found numerous applications such as observations of greenhouse and other trace gases, aerosols, water vapour, clouds and precipitation, as well as surface observations, for example of vegetation, fire activity, snow cover, sea ice and oceanic parameters such as phytoplankton. Synergistic satellite data analysis enables the study of important processes and feedback in the climate system. Remote sensing advances climate research, weather forecasting, air quality studies, aviation safety and the renewable energy industry. As a graduate of the remote sensing line you will have broad expertise in the operational principles of remote sensing instruments as well as methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation.

Atmospheric Chemistry and Analysis
Atmospheric chemistry studies the composition and reactions of the molecules that make up the atmosphere, including atmospheric trace constituents and their role in chemical, geological and biological processes, including human influence. The low concentrations and high reactivity of these trace molecules place stringent requirements on the measurement and modelling methods used to study them. Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter and plays an essential role in the development of science. Environmental analysis consists of the most recent procedures for sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis and learning how to choose the best analytical methods for different environmental samples. Physical atmospheric chemistry studies focus on the reaction types and reaction mechanisms occurring in the atmosphere, with emphasis on reaction kinetics, thermodynamics and modelling methods. As a graduate of this line you will have understanding of the chemical processes of the atmosphere and the latest environmental analytical methods, so you will have vital skills for environmental research.

Programme Structure

The basic degree in the Programme is the Master of Science (MSc). The scope of the degree is 120 credits (ECTS). As a prerequisite you will need to have a relevant Bachelor’s degree. The possible major subjects are Physics, Meteorology, Geophysics, Chemistry, and Forest Ecology. The programme is designed to be completed in two years. Studies in ATM-MP consist of various courses and project work: lecture courses, seminars, laboratory work and intensive courses.

Your first year of studies will consist mainly of lecture courses. During the second year, you must also participate in the seminar course and give a presentation yourself. There is also a project course, which may contain laboratory work, data analysis, or theoretical or model studies. You will have to prepare a short, written report of the project. There are also several summer and winter schools as well as field courses for students in the Programme. Many of the courses take place at the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Southern Finland. The intensive courses typically last 5–12 days and include a concise daily programme with lectures, exercises and group work.

Career Prospects

There is a global need for experts with multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and environmental issues. Governmental environmental agencies need people who are able to interpret new scientific results as a basis for future legislation. Industry, transportation and businesses need to be able to adapt to new regulations.

As a Master of Science graduating from the Programme you will have a strong background of working with environmental issues. You will have the ability to find innovative solutions to complex problems in the field of environmental sciences, climate change and weather forecasting. Graduates of the Programme have found employment in Meteorological Institutes and Environmental Administration in Finland and other countries, companies manufacturing instrumentation for atmospheric and environmental measurements and analysis, and consultancy companies. The Master's degree in ATM-MP also gives you a good background if you intend to proceed to doctoral level studies.

Internationalization

The Programme offers an international study environment with more than 30% of the students and teaching staff coming from abroad.

The ATM-MP is part of a Nordic Nordplus network in Atmosphere-Biosphere Studies, which gives you good opportunities to take courses currently in fourteen Nordic and Baltic universities. There are also several Erasmus agreements with European universities. The PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX) project provides you with opportunities to carry out part of your studies especially in China and Russia.

Research Focus

All the units teaching in the Programme belong to the National Centre of Excellence (FCoE) in Atmospheric Science – From Molecular and Biological processes to the Global Climate (ATM), which is a multidisciplinary team of the Departments of Physics, Forest Sciences and Chemistry at the University of Helsinki, the Department of Applied Physics at the University of Eastern Finland (Kuopio) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

The main objective of FCoE ATM is to quantify the feedbacks between the atmosphere and biosphere in a changing climate. The main focus of the research is on investigating the following topics:
1. Understanding the climatic feedbacks and forcing mechanisms related to aerosols, clouds, precipitation and biogeochemical cycles.
2. Developing, refining and utilising the newest measurement and modelling techniques, from quantum chemistry to observations and models of global earth systems.
3. Creating a comprehensive understanding of the role of atmospheric clusters and aerosol particles in regional and global biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen and their linkages to atmospheric chemistry.
4. Integrating the results in the context of understanding regional and global Earth systems.

In addition to the research focus of FCoE, current research in hydrospheric geophysics at Helsinki University has an emphasis on cryology, with a focus on the effect of aerosols on Indian glaciers, the impact of climate change on the Arctic environment, the dynamics of the Austfonna ice cap in Svalbard, and the winter season in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

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A Master’s degree in chemistry qualifies you for expert positions in a wide range of fields, such as industry, research or education. Read more
A Master’s degree in chemistry qualifies you for expert positions in a wide range of fields, such as industry, research or education. The chemicals industry is a major employer and one of the largest export industries in Finland. Your work could also involve applications of environmental or biological sciences, the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, or the development of technological materials or new energy solutions. In the private sector, your duties might include research and development, quality management, training or commerce. Customs and forensic chemists, and chemists working in environmental control, analyse samples as part of their duties. Chemical research often requires interdisciplinary and international cooperation. As a chemist, you can be a part of developing new inventions and serve as an expert in your field and as a connoisseur of natural phenomena!

After completing the Master’s Programme in Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, you will:
-Be profoundly familiar with experimental research methods in one or more fields of chemistry, such as analytical and synthetic chemistry, radiochemistry, molecular research, and spectroscopy.
-Have an in-depth knowledge of the theoretical basis of your field and be able to apply this knowledge to broader topics.
-Know how to search for and manage chemical research data and use them to plan and perform demanding duties in chemical laboratories.
-Be able to act as a chemical expert in project planning and management, both independently and as a member of a team.
-Be able to present your results accurately in accordance with the practices of the field, both orally and in writing, and prepare extensive papers and reports.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

In the Master’s programme, you will deepen the knowledge and skills acquired during your Bachelor’s degree studies. Depending on your choices, you will familiarise yourself with one or more branches of chemistry and learn modern research methodology. The studies include lecture courses, examinations and contact teaching, laboratory courses, presentation series and seminars. Compared to the Bachelor’s degree, these studies require more independent work. The Master’s degree culminates in an extensive Master’s thesis that includes practical research. You can find further details about the studies in the course catalogue (in Finnish) and on WebOodi - http://www.helsinki.fi/ml/opinto-opas/index.html

Students are automatically granted admission to the Master’s programme through the Bachelor’s Programme in Chemistry at the University of Helsinki. You can also apply for the programme after completing an applicable Bachelor’s degree in a different programme or university.

Selection of the Major

In the Master’s programme, you may select study modules from different special fields of chemistry according to your interests and career goals. You can either complete a broad-ranging degree by selecting studies from several modules or specialise in a specific branch of chemistry. In connection with the Master’s programme operates also the international programme Advanced Spectroscopy in Chemistry, where you have the possibility to apply. You will receive assistance in preparing your personal study plan from your student advisor.

Career Prospects

Chemistry is needed in many sectors. Similarly, Master’s studies in chemistry allow you to specialise in many kinds of tasks. In your Master’s degree studies, you will familiarise yourself thoroughly with at least one branch of chemistry, after which you will be qualified to work in demanding expert positions. As a Master’s graduate, you can apply for postgraduate study in a doctoral programme. Approximately one quarter of chemistry graduates continue to complete a doctorate.

As a chemical expert you can embark on a career in industry, research or education, or in the business sector. Your work might also involve applications of environmental or biological sciences, the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, or the development of technological materials or new energy solutions. Potential employers include private companies, research and educational institutes, public agencies and supervisory authorities. A traineeship completed during your studies could help you to choose your career. Chemistry is an international field, so there are also plenty of career opportunities abroad and in international organisations.

Internationalization

An international learning environment: The Master’s Programme in Chemistry and Molecular Sciences accepts students through an international admissions procedure. Lectures are in English. Students of the international Master’s Programme in Advanced Spectroscopy in Chemistry, as well as several exchange students further increase the international scope. In addition, the Department includes several international teachers and researchers. Chemical research is an international effort, and research groups at the University of Helsinki have several international partners.

Student exchange: The University of Helsinki has student exchange agreements with several foreign universities, so you can complete part of your degree abroad. Once you have completed your Master’s degree, you can pursue doctoral studies at a foreign university. The Master’s degree in chemistry completed at the University of Helsinki has been certified with the Euromaster® quality label, which guarantees the recognition of the degree at European universities.

Language studies: The University of Helsinki offers a wide range of opportunities for improving your language skills.

Research Focus

Chemical research is multifaceted and extensively covers the methodology of different branches of chemistry. Operations have been divided into three research programmes: Molecular Sciences, Materials Chemistry, and Synthesis and Analysis. In addition, the Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (VERIFIN) operates at the Department. The Unit of Chemistry Teacher Education actively researches the teaching of chemistry and the development of teaching methods.

Chemical research methods range from laboratory work to demanding equipment technologies, computational research and modelling. Research projects are often multidisciplinary. Researchers at the Department of Chemistry have joint projects with University units in the fields of, for example, physics, biological sciences, pharmacy and medicine. Other key partners include Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and many universities, research institutes and companies in Finland and abroad.

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Computer science has a brilliant future! You could help to create new network solutions, build the future digital society, develop secure digital services, or be involved in a ground-breaking international software project. Read more
Computer science has a brilliant future! You could help to create new network solutions, build the future digital society, develop secure digital services, or be involved in a ground-breaking international software project. Perhaps you will develop algorithms for utilising genome data in medicine or optimise bus routes using positioning data. Do you wonder about all the things that can be automated? Or would you like to dig deeper and become a researcher?

In the Master’s programme in computer science you can become an expert in a wide range of fields. You will have access to the focus areas of research in computer science at the University of Helsinki: algorithms, distributed or networked systems, and software engineering. You will gain lasting professional skills for specialist, design, or managerial posts in the corporate world, or for research and doctoral education, since the Master’s programme in computer science gives you the aptitude for both independent working and multidisciplinary teamwork.

This education will give you:
-The ability to advance your knowledge in the different areas of computer science.
-The skill to seek, assess, and analyse scientific information in your own area of expertise, and apply the methods of the field in an ethical and sustainable way.
-The ability to act as expert in the field, and to develop the practices and methods of your field in cooperation with specialists from other fields.
-Oral and written communication skills in an international work environment.

The quality teaching within the computer science programme at the University of Helsinki has been highlighted repeatedly in national and international teaching assessments. The student-centred, in-depth learning gives you a solid basis for life-long learning. Studying at the leading research unit for computer science in Finland offers you constant interaction with current research and insight into the development patterns in the field.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

In future, we will increasingly be using intelligent tools, consisting of networked hardware, software, services, and data. They will work based on intelligent, learning algorithms, data streams carried by communication protocols, and global infrastructures.

Within the Algorithms sub-programme, you will study effective algorithms and their application within other disciplines and in corporate life. Future IT systems will contain more and more intelligent components, the function of which will be based on complex mathematical models created automatically with the aid of machine-learning methods. The problems to be solved are computationally challenging, and the ever increasing amounts of data will create their own challenges when it comes to the efficiency of the algorithms needed.

The Networking and services sub-programme educates you to become an expert and strategic leader in the design and management of new global infrastructures. The infrastructures include Internet technologies in fixed networks and mobile environments, as well as the information and service networks built on top of them. Focus areas include the theory, data security, and trust within distributed systems, interactive systems, and the adaptability of services in a changing environment.

The Software systems sub-programme introduces you to the design and implementation of advanced software. The development of a shared software framework or platform for several software products is very demanding both technically and from the development project viewpoint. Developing such software requires technical skills, but also team- and project work, quality assurance, and communication. Within this sub-programme, you can specialise in software engineering, software technology, or information management, and study the current research questions in these areas in depth.

Selection of the Major

The sub-programmes in the Master’s programme for computer science are:
-Algorithms
-Networking and services
-Software systems

You can select any of these programmes according to your preferences at the beginning of your studies. The sub-programme determines which courses you should take.

Programme Structure

The Master’s programme comprises 120 credits, which can be completed in two years, in accordance with an approved personal study plan. The degree includes:
-80 credits of advanced courses, including shared courses within the programme, courses within the programme which support the thesis topic, the Master’s thesis (Pro gradu), 30 credits.
-40 credits of other courses from your own or other programmes. The other courses can include a work-orientation period.

Career Prospects

The employment outlook within the field is excellent. Masters of computer science find varied positions within the ICT field, both as employees and entrepreneurs. The nature of the education is also geared towards giving you an aptitude for managerial posts. All the sub-programmes provide the qualifications to find employment in a wide variety of jobs.

Software-system graduates often start their careers as software developers and designers, while network graduates often start with software at the infrastructure level (such as data communications, computation, or data entry). The skills learned in the algorithms sub-programme enable you to work on challenging tasks in various fields.

As a graduate you can find employment within small or large corporations as well as organisations in the private, public, or third sector. Due to the global nature of the field, you can find employment anywhere in the world. Taking modules from other education programmes will help you apply your computer science skills in other areas. Many jobs are based on these combinations.

Thanks to its strong scientific basis, the degree is also an excellent springboard to a doctoral programme.

Internationalization

There is a very international atmosphere within the programme, as nearly a third of the students come from abroad, and the advanced courses are instructed by international researchers.

In addition, the University of Helsinki and the Faculty of Science offer you many opportunities for international activities:
-Instruction in English within other education programmes.
-International tasks within the students’ organisations or union.
-Language courses at the Language Centre of the University of Helsinki.

You can also get information and counselling about independent international experience, such as:
-Student exchange in one of the exchange locations of the faculty or university.
-Traineeships abroad.

Computer science at the University of Helsinki is a popular exchange location, especially from Germany. Some 5-10 students come annually; exchange students have come from 14 countries in recent years. The students in the department have taken exchange periods in 16 countries in the past few years.

Research Focus

There are several multidisciplinary research projects under way at the Faculty of Science, which are being carried out in cooperation with the research institutes on the science campus and with other faculties, universities, and corporations. The role of computer science within these projects is to develop the basic methods of the discipline in strategic areas and to collaborate in depth with other disciplines.

The sub-programmes within the Master’s programme cover a considerable part of the strategic focus areas of computer science research at the University of Helsinki: algorithms, data analysis and machine learning, networking and services, software systems, bioinformatics, and data science.

Computer science is part of three Finnish Academy centres of excellence: for computational inference, inversion problems, and cancer genetics. These units represent the collaboration between computer science and other disciplines.

Computer science has coordinated the long-lived Algodan centre of excellence, which has been the basis for many current research groups.

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Data science combines computer science and statistics to solve exciting data-intensive problems in industry and in many fields of science. Read more
Data science combines computer science and statistics to solve exciting data-intensive problems in industry and in many fields of science. Data scientists help organisations make sense of their data. As data is collected and analysed in all areas of society, demand for professional data scientists is high and will grow higher. The emerging Internet of Things, for instance, will produce a whole new range of problems and opportunities in data analysis.

In the Data Science master’s programme, you will gain a solid understanding of the methods used in data science. You will learn not only to apply data science: you will acquire insight into how and why methods work so you will be able to construct solutions to new challenges in data science. In the Data Science master’s programme, you will also be able to work on problems specific to a scientific discipline and to combine domain knowledge with the latest data analysis methods and tools. The teachers of the programme are themselves active data science researchers, and the programme is heavily based on first-hand research experience.

Upon graduating from the Data Science MSc programme, you will have solid knowledge of the central concepts, theories, and research methods of data science as well as applied skills. In particular, you will be able to:
-Understand the general computational and probabilistic principles underlying modern machine learning and data mining algorithms.
-Apply various computational and statistical methods to analyse scientific and business data.
-Assess the suitability of each method for the purpose of data collection and use.
-Implement state-of-the-art machine learning solutions efficiently using high-performance computing platforms.
-Undertake creative work, making systematic use of investigation or experimentation, to discover new knowledge.
-Report results in a clear and understandable manner.
-Analyse scientific and industrial data to devise new applications and support decision making.

The MSc programme is offered jointly by the Department of Computer Science, the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, and the Department of Physics, with support from the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT) and the Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), all located on the Kumpula Science campus. In your applied data science studies you can also include multidisciplinary studies from other master's programmes, such as digital humanities, and natural and medical sciences.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The Data Science MSc programme combines elements from computer science and mathematical sciences to provide you with skills in topics such as machine learning, distributed systems and statistical methods. You might also find that knowledge in a particular scientific field is useful for your future career. You can obtain this through minor studies in the MSc programme, or it might already be part of your bachelor-level degree.

Studies in the Data Science MSc programme include both theoretical and practical components, including a variety of study methods (lectures, exercises, projects, seminars; done both individually and in groups). Especially in applied data science, we also use problem-based learning methods, so that you can address real-world issues. You will also practise academic skills such as scientific writing and oral presentation throughout your studies. You are encouraged to include an internship in your degree in order to obtain practical experience in the field.

Minor studies give you a wider perspective of Data Science. Your minor subject can be an application area of Data Science (such as physics or the humanities), a discipline that supports application of Data Science (such as language technology), or a methodological subject needed for the development of new Data Science methods and models (such as computer science, statistics, or mathematics).

Selection of the Major

You can specialise either in the core areas of data science -- algorithms, infrastructure and statistics -- or in its applications. This means that you can focus on the development of new models and methods in data science, supported by the data science research carried out at the University of Helsinki; or you can become a data science specialist in an application field by incorporating studies in another subject. In addition to mainstream data science topics, the programme offers two largely unique opportunities for specialisation: the data science computing environment and infrastructure, and data science in natural sciences, especially physics.

Programme Structure

You should be able to complete the MSc Programme in Data Science of 120 credits (ECTS) in two years of full-time study. The programme consists of:
-Common core studies of basic data science courses.
-Several modules on specific topics within data science algorithms, data science infrastructures and statistical data science, and on data science tools.
-Seminars and colloquia.
-Courses on academic skills and tools.
-Possibly an internship in a research group or company.
-Studies in an application domain.
-Master’s thesis (30 credits).

Career Prospects

Industry and science are flooded with data and are struggling to make sense of it. There is urgent demand for individuals trained to analyse data, including massive and heterogeneous data. For this reason, the opportunities are expected to grow dramatically. The interdisciplinary Data Science MSc programme will train you to work in data-intensive areas of industry and science, with the skills and knowledge needed to construct solutions to complex data analysis problems.

If you are focusing on the core areas of data science, you will typically find employment as a researcher or consultant, sometimes after taking a PhD in Computer Science or Statistics to deepen your knowledge of the field and research methods. If your focus is on the use of data science for specific applications, you will typically find work in industry or in other fields of science such as physics, digital humanities, biology or medicine.

Internationalization

The Data Science MSc is an international programme, with students from around the world and an international research environment. All of the departments taking part in the programme are internationally recognised for their research and a significant fraction of the teaching and research staff come from abroad.

The departments participate in international student exchange programmes and offer you the chance to include international experience as part of your degree. Data Science itself is an international field, so once you graduate you can apply for jobs in any country.

In the programme, all courses are in English. Although the Helsinki area is quite cosmopolitan and English is widely spoken, you can also take courses to learn Finnish at the University of Helsinki Language Centre. The Language Centre also offers an extensive programme of foreign language courses for those interested in learning other languages.

Research Focus

The MSc programme in Data Science is offered jointly by three departments and two research institutes. Their research covers a wide spectrum of the many aspects of data science. At a very general level, the focal areas are:
-Machine learning and data mining
-Distributed computation and computational infrastructures
-Statistical modelling and analysis
-Studies in the programme are tightly connected to research carried out in the participating departments and institutes.

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Ecology and evolutionary biology offer a perspective on biology from the level of genes to communities of species. In the master's degree program, you can become familiar with a wide variety of topics in three areas. Read more
Ecology and evolutionary biology offer a perspective on biology from the level of genes to communities of species.

In the master's degree program, you can become familiar with a wide variety of topics in three areas: ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology. You can choose studies from any of these areas, as well as from other master's degree programmes. The programme is diverse and multidisciplinary: teaching is done with lectures, laboratory and computer training courses, interactive seminars, study tours and field courses. The field courses range from the northern subarctic region to tropical rainforests.

Our wide expertise extends from molecular ecology to population and community biology. The Centres of Excellence of Metapopulation Biology and Biological Interactions are located in our department.

Our programme offers you a wide range of options: evolutionary biology or genetics for those interested in ecological genetics and genomics, as well as the ability to take advantage of the high-quality molecular ecology and systematics laboratory; conservation biology for those interested in regional or global environmental problems; and ecological modelling skills for those interested in computational biology. Our training also offers Behavioural Ecology.

Ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology are not only fascinating topics for basic research, they also have a key role in addressing global environmental challenges.

Upon graduating from the Master's degree in ecology and evolutionary biology programme, you will:
-Have mastered the main theories and methods in ecology and evolutionary biology and be able to apply them to practical problems.
-Be able to plan and carry out a scientific research project.
-Have read the relevant scientific literature and be able to utilise your expertise in different types of work.
-Be able to work as an expert in your field.
-Be able to to write good scientific English.
-Be able to work in research projects and groups.
-Be able to continue on to doctoral studies.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The Master's degree program includes studies of ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation biology. The studies are organised in modules. You can affect the content of the studies by planning your personal curriculum. You can study the following themes:
-Ecology studies the abundance and distribution of species (animals, plants, microbes) and the interactions among them and with the environment. The perspective ranges from the molecular to the ecosystem level. In ecology, a central question is: Why are some species able to invade new habitats and displace native species? Which species are able to adapt to environmental change or migrate with the changing climate, and which species will become extinct?
-Evolutionary biology examines the processes which support biodiversity on its various levels (genes – individuals – populations – species – ecosystems). You will learn about the theory of evolution and how to use population genetics and genomics methods in researching evolutionary issues.
-Conservation Biology studies the depletion of biodiversity, its causes and consequences. You will learn to apply ecological theory to the problems of environmental conservation, to assess the effectiveness of methods of conservation, as well as to resolve the problems relating to conservation e.g. by modelling and computational methods. The training emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary education in the area of conservation.

Programme Structure

You undertake modules producing a total of 120 credits (ECTS) according to your personal study plan. The degree consists of:
-60 credits of advanced studies, including a research project (Master’s thesis, 30 credits)
-60 credits of other studies chosen from the Programme or from other Programmes

Career planning or extracurricular activities can be included in your personal study plan. If you are studying to qualify as a biology teacher, you will need 60 credits of pedagogical studies in your degree. This applies only to Finnish or Swedish speaking students.

Career Prospects

Master's degree in ecology and evolutionary biology gives an access to the capability of University teaching and research tasks, for a wide range of expert and administrative tasks of the various research centres, companies, in the field of public administration (e.g., The UNITED NATIONS, the European Union, the State and the provincial administration, cities, municipalities), international and national organizations and the media. The degree also provides the scientific validity for doctoral education in different areas of biology.

The Master’s degree in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology is a well-liked option among students studying towards biology teacher qualification (Finnish and Swedish speaking students).

Internationalization

You will have the opportunity to study at foreign universities and research institutions within the framework of an international student exchange. You can also gain valuable experience by working as a tutor of international students or participating in the international activities of the Student Union or other student organisations.

The teachers and researchers in the department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology are internationally known and respected. Their research groups host numerous international researchers as visitors and workers. They also employ many foreign graduate students, which creates an international atmosphere in the programme.

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This programme prepares you for a career as an economist in business, financial markets and the public sector. Upon completing the programme you will be awarded the Master of Social Sciences degree, having demonstrated that you have developed many skills needed in your future career. Read more
This programme prepares you for a career as an economist in business, financial markets and the public sector. Upon completing the programme you will be awarded the Master of Social Sciences degree, having demonstrated that you have developed many skills needed in your future career:
-Profound knowledge of economic theory and familiarity with scientific economic literature.
-The ability to apply economic theory to solving practical problems and interpreting economic phenomena.
-Familiarity with econometric methods and the ability to apply them to practical research problems.
-The ability to collect and interpret empirical data.
-The ability to communicate conclusions and assess the significance of the assumptions made for them.
-Fluency in communicating economic issues to different domestic and international audiences as well as the capability to work independently and in multidisciplinary cooperation.
-Readiness to assess your own professional performance and systematically develop it.
-Knowledge of sources of economic information and the ability to adopt new tools of economic analysis.

The programme comprises two tracks. The Research track is more demanding in that it gives more profound knowledge of economic theory and econometric methods than the General track. This track is particularly suitable if your goal is to pursue a doctoral degree in economics. Profound knowledge of economic theory and methods is also useful in many demanding careers as an economist.

The degree requirements in both tracks correspond to international standards, which will help you when finding employment and pursuing further studies towards a doctoral degree in Finland and globally.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The module of Economic Theory and Econometric Methods, which you will take in the autumn semester of your first year of study, is the foundation of the programme. It covers the central microeconomic and macroeconomic theory as well as basic econometric methods. After completing this module, you can choose from a wide selection of fields of economics to concentrate on. Optional studies consist of additional courses in economics, or other university-level courses. In addition, an internship or a labour market project is included in the degree requirements.

The programme mostly comprises lecture courses. The courses on economic theory and econometric methods consist of lectures and exercise sessions; for the most part they are completed by taking a written examination. Depending on the track, you take 3 to 4 field courses, selected based on your interests so that they form a meaningful whole. Additional field courses in economics can be included in the optional studies. In the field courses, you will be exposed to different teaching methods, such as problem-based learning and other group activities and seminars. Your grades in many field courses will be based on assignments, presentations and term papers in addition to a final examination.

Economics is a quantitative social science discipline, so you are expected to have good basic command of mathematics and statistics. Your skills in these areas will be systematically developed in this programme. Especially if you aim for a career as an economist or for doctoral studies, you are advised to include further methodological courses in your optional studies. In addition to mathematics and statistics, courses in computer science are recommended.

The structure of the programme is comparable to those of the Master's programmes in economics offered by the best international universities. It differs from the Master's programmes of the Finnish business schools in that the demanding courses in economic theory and econometrics comprise a greater proportion, and the goal is above all to prepare you for a career as an economist. The research track corresponds to Master's programmes in quantitative economics offered by some foreign universities. In line with our programme, the research track will prepare you for a career as an economist and for doctoral studies in economics.

Selection of the Major

The programme has two tracks:
-General track
-Research track

You select the track when applying for the programme: your choice will determine the degree requirements. The difference between the tracks is that the Research track aims at providing more profound knowledge of economic theory and econometric methods, whereas the General track emphasises fields and applications of economics, and it is possible to include more optional studies in the degree. The Research track prepares you for doctoral studies in economics, and its degree requirements contain most of the doctoral-level core courses in economic theory and econometrics. Taking these courses as part of the Master's degree helps you to graduate faster from the doctoral programme later. Graduates from the Research track are given precedence for the doctoral programme in economics at the University of Helsinki. The Research track is also recommended if you are interested in taking the more demanding core courses to acquire more profound knowledge of economics even if your goal is not to pursue doctoral studies.

Programme Structure

The programme comprises 120 credits (ECTS, European Credit Transfer System), and it is designed to be completed in two years. The degree requirements consist of the following modules (in the General / Research track):
Advanced studies (at least 90 ECTS / 100 ECTS)
-Economic theory and econometric methods (30 ECTS / 45 ECTS)
-Research skills (10 ECTS)
-Master's thesis (30 ECTS)
-Field courses in economics (at least 20 ECTS / 15 ECTS)

Internship or Labour market project (5 to 15 ECTS)

Optional studies (15 to 25 ECTS / 5 to 15 ECTS)

After completing the unit in economic theory and econometric methods, you select the fields in economics that you want to concentrate on. It is advisable for you to include further advanced field courses in economics or methodological courses in your optional studies. The study unit in research skills prepares you for writing the Master's thesis, and familiarises you with scholarly work in economics, research ethics and reporting research results. In addition, you prepare a research proposal for your thesis. Integrated into the studies, the degree requirements include drawing up a personal study plan, and career planning. An internship period, a labour market project or other studies aimed at developing employment skills are also included (5 to 15 ECTS so that the extent of these studies and the optional studies amount to 30 ECTS in the General track and to 20 ECTS in the Research track).

Career Prospects

The Master's Programme in Economics at the University of Helsinki prepares you for a career as an economist in business and the public sector. Economists are employed in administrative, planning and development duties requiring economic expertise in various national and international organisations. Examples include an analyst career involving risk management, asset pricing and investment strategy, jobs related to analysing the market, production and pricing in companies, assessment and planning of economic policy, and communication. Analytical skills and knowledge of quantitative methods will be of central importance in your work as an economist. In particular, economists find employment in government, financial institutions, central banks, national and international organisations, and business.

The Research track prepares you for particularly demanding careers. It is also an excellent path to doctoral studies in economics. It is advisable to select the field courses and the topic for your Master's thesis in view of your interests and career goals. An internship is a good chance to acquire work experience in your area of interest.

Internationalization

The atmosphere at the Helsinki Centre of Economic Research (HECER) is quite international, consisting of the Discipline of Economics and the departments of economics at Aalto University and the Hanken School of Economics. The staff regularly publish in international journals and collaborate with foreign researchers. There are also several regular research seminars on a number of fields, where mostly foreign visitors present their work. In addition, foreign researchers often pay longer visits to the HECER, and a large proportion of the graduate students come from abroad.

All courses in the programme are taught in English, and a large proportion of Master's theses are written in English. The staff have ample experience at universities abroad, and there are several foreigners among them. Foreign graduate students act as teaching assistants, and exchange students from the universities involved in the HECER regularly take the courses of the programme. You can include study units in foreign languages arranged by the Language Centre in the optional studies.

The degree requirements meet internationally unified standards in economics. The University of Helsinki has a number of agreements with foreign universities that enable you to visit them to gain international experience and take courses offered there. Courses taken at the master's level at universities abroad can replace field courses in economics in the degree requirements, and you can include other university-level courses in your optional studies. The most suitable time for a visit to a foreign university is in the spring semester of your first year of study after completing the core courses in economic theory and econometrics. You can also include an internship abroad as part of your studies.

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Global socio-ecological problems call for multidisciplinary solutions that transcend the usual boundaries of science and decision-making. Read more
Global socio-ecological problems call for multidisciplinary solutions that transcend the usual boundaries of science and decision-making. The Environmental Change and Global Sustainability (ECGS) Master’s programme trains you in wide-ranging interdisciplinary thinking skills and provides you with the ability to:
-Study environmental and sustainability issues in your respective fields of expertise.
-Solve problems of socio-ecological sustainability in cooperation with various social actors.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

ECGS is a truly multidisciplinary Master’s programme. It covers an introductory Core Module common to all students, followed by two distinct study lines.

The introductory Core Module focuses on the methodologies of environmental and sustainability science as well as the interactions between science and society. The Core Module also offers a pool of optional methodological studies, providing you with the necessary research tools to tackle socio-ecological challenges.

If your orientation is in natural sciences, the Environmental Change study line can provide you with an understanding of the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and can give guidance toward their sustainable use.

If your interests are more in the social sciences and humanities, on the other hand, the Global Sustainability study line provides an understanding of the socio-cultural underpinnings of global sustainability challenges so that you can help to develop solutions that take social and environmental justice into consideration.

Selection of the Major

You can apply for one of the two study lines in the ECGS Master’s programme: the Environmental Change study line or the Global Sustainability study line. You can refine your expertise in your chosen study line by choosing from study modules related to your specialised field of science or from interdisciplinary phenomenon-based modules.

Environmental Change modules are offered in, for example, the following research fields: aquatic sciences, soil and earth sciences, environmental ecology, environmental biotechnology and agroecology. Global Sustainability modules include themes such as environmental and natural resource economy, environmental policy, development studies, public and social policy, consumer research, forest policy and economics, and development geography. ECGS also offers a variety of modules integrating both natural and social scientific perspectives including phenomenon-based modules on the Baltic Sea and the Arctic as well as a variety of interdisciplinary fields such as climate change, food and consumption systems, urban studies and socio-ecological systems studies.

As an international applicant, you will be assessed and accepted for the Master’s program based on the scientific relevance of your bachelor’s degree and your success in previous studies.

Programme Structure

You will graduate with a Master’s degree in Science (M.Sc.) or Social Sciences (M.Soc.Sc.). Your Master’s degree (120 credits, ECTS) will consist of the following studies:
-Advanced studies, 60 credits, including your Master’s thesis (30 credits)
-Other studies, 60 credits, including 30 credits of Core Module studies and 30 credits of elective science specific studies from either ECGS modules or other relevant Master’s programs.

Career Prospects

The interdisciplinary ECGS Master’s program provides you with a unique education which is widely applicable for a future career path. Upon graduating from ECGS you will have sufficient expertise in environmental sciences, sustainability sciences and environmental policy to act as a specialist in the public, private and third sectors, and you will have gained essential skills to undertake a career in sustainable business and communication. The Master’s program prepares you to advance to doctoral level studies and thereafter positions in environment-related research. ECGS has a multidisciplinary learning community with faculty from a wide range of sciences, accommodating students in a multicultural network with excellent career prospects.

Internationalization

The ECGS Master’s program, taught in English, trains you to tackle environmental challenges which transcend national borders. The faculty encourage international interaction and the programme promotes a vibrant multicultural atmosphere. You can also include a student exchange in your Master’s level studies.

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Understanding Europe today requires much more than understanding the process of European integration. The tensions, challenges and possibilities that are manifesting themselves today have their roots in a longer political, social and cultural history. Read more
Understanding Europe today requires much more than understanding the process of European integration. The tensions, challenges and possibilities that are manifesting themselves today have their roots in a longer political, social and cultural history.

This programme takes you to these roots. A multidisciplinary study path introduces you to various aspects of European society, culture and politics. Along the way, it draws from the strengths of Nordic research on Europe, with its strong focus on regional cooperation, diversity, identities, institutions, culture and the politics of history and memory. You will get to know the Nordic countries from a European perspective and Europe from a Nordic perspective.

Studying the ways in which Europeans cooperate, how European states and societies are interconnected, and how they are governed, forms an important part of the programme. Besides looking at the processes of integration and the evolution and functioning of the European Union, the programme highlights the significance of regional cooperation in the Nordic context, the EU’s relations with its neighbours and its place in the global system.

At the end of your studies, you will have gained a broad understanding of European issues and acquired advanced research skills. You will be ready to work in a wide range of expert positions that require independent and creative thinking, in both the public and private sectors.

The programme consists of joint courses and specialisation studies. One of the available options is to specialise in Nordic Studies. ENS is the only Nordic Studies programme taught in English in the Nordic countries.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The programme consists of a multidisciplinary selection of courses that introduce you to various aspects of Europe, the Nordic countries, and the Baltic Sea Region.

The topics addressed in the joint courses include, for example, contemporary European politics, cooperation and conflict in European history, Nordic societies and cultures, and institutions, ideologies and identities in Europe. You will also learn about nations and nationalism, political and social protest, (Nordic) welfare models, the European Union and Nordic cooperation, European legal traditions, and the politics of memory.

The programme involves substantial interaction between you and your teachers. You will complete several writing assignments and research papers along the way, culminating in a Master’s thesis in your second year. Some courses use active learning or flipped classroom pedagogy.

The content of your studies also depends on your own choices. In addition to core courses that provide you with a deep multidisciplinary understanding of Europe, the degree includes specialisation studies of your own choosing.

If you specialise in Nordic studies, you will have access to some courses taught at the programme for Nordic Literature and the Kultur och Kommunikation Master’s programme.

You also have plenty of other options. The University of Helsinki is a large research university. As a student in ENS you will have access to a rich variety of specialised courses in many faculties and schools. Check the section on research focus to see what we are particularly good at in Helsinki.

Selection of the Major

The programme has two tracks (see the structure of studies below for more information):
Humanities track – This study track emphases regional and cultural studies, and history. Upon completion of the programme, you will receive the Master of Arts degree.
Political science track – This study track is oriented towards political science, political history and the European legal tradition. At the end of the programme, you have earned the Master of Social Sciences degree.

Programme Structure

The extent of the Master´s programme is 120 credits (ECTS) to be completed in two academic years. The studies are divided into four main parts:
-Joint courses (core courses that are common to all students in this programme).
-Track-specific studies (core courses that are separate for the humanities and political sciences tracks).
-Specialisation studies (that you choose yourself).
-Master’s thesis and supporting seminars.

Career Prospects

The programme will train you as an independent and critical thinker who is well informed about European issues, trained to do independent and creative analytical projects, and experienced in working in a multicultural English-speaking environment.

There is currently a great need for professionals like this within the public and private sectors. The programme will provide you with the necessary skills and knowledge to pursue a career in higher education, local and national administrations, the media, the European Union, Nordic Regional and international institutions, non-governmental organisations, and the business sector.

European studies graduates from the University of Helsinki have begun careers for example in the European Commission, European Parliament, Committee of Regions, Pro-European NGOs, College of Europe, communication offices, and associations promoting Nordic cooperation. You will meet some potential future employees, as well as alumni from our university, in the career course we organise for you. You will also have the opportunity to complete an internship during your studies.

If you are interested in pursuing a career in academic research, the programme provides you with high quality research training.

Research Focus

The European studies programme covers a wide spectrum of research projects in various faculties and research institutes. In recent years, the focus has been especially on studying boundaries, regions and identities in Europe, different narratives of Europe, European legal traditions, the construction of post-Cold War Europe, the politics of memory, and political violence in post-war Europe. The university also offers a wide selection of teaching in English in Central and Eastern European studies.

Many of these themes are also strongly present in the field of Nordic studies. This field has traditionally had a distinctly European flavour. Research projects in recent years have, for example, focused on imagology of the European North and South, Nordic welfare state/ism, the politics of neutrality, and Nordic cooperation in a global comparative perspective.

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Do you want to have an impact on what people will eat in the future? Would you like to know what makes food taste good, due to the raw materials and processing… Read more
Do you want to have an impact on what people will eat in the future? Would you like to know what makes food taste good, due to the raw materials and processing technologies? Do you want to know how we could improve the healthiness, safety, ecology and ethics of food and food processing? Are you interested in exploring innovations in food, such as "pulled oats" or using insects as food? If you answered yes, enrol in Food Sciences master’s programme.

The food industry is the 4th most important employer both in Finland and internationally. This industry is constantly looking for experts to solve new problems. With a Master’s degree in Food Sciences you could embark on a career in the food industry; in a food, agricultural or environmental control laboratory; as a teacher, researcher, or self-employed entrepreneur; or as an expert in government ministries or other expert organisations.

As a master in Food Sciences you will be able to help the food industry develop and renew itself, since you will possess know-how on:
-Raw materials and processes, including their theoretical basics.
-Different food constituents and their impact on food quality.
-Factors that ensure good quality and food safety.

You can enrol in the Food Sciences masters' programme if you hold a bachelors' degree in Food Sciences or in Molecular Biosciences. You can also apply to the programme if you have a bachelors' degree in a related area of the natural sciences from a Finnish or foreign university, or if you have a degree from a Finnish university of applied sciences within food sciences or other related areas of the natural sciences.

Your studies in the Food Sciences masters' programme will offer you a broad education covering courses in the composition and processing of food, in the structures and chemical reactions of food proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, and in food legislation and the safety of food additives.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Content

Food Sciences on the Viikki campus is a nationally unique programme that covers the whole food production chain from primary production via food processing to consumers. Food Sciences is an internationally appreciated field of education: food research at the University of Helsinki has been highly ranked.

Your masters' studies in food sciences will enable you to make an impact on the the creation of innovative solutions for the whole chain of food production. You will:
-Study the theory and applications of the broad area of food sciences in lecture courses and in group work.
-Increase your knowledge of food composition, processing, structure, and legislation.
-Deepen your knowledge of how the reactions of different food components, production processes and packaging affect the structure, sensory quality, healthiness and safety of animal and plant based foods.
-Learn laboratory working skills.
-Acquire employment skills for example by training in the food industry.

Selection of the Major

You can affect the sort of expertise you would like to gain. You can tailor your Master’s degree by choosing special studies in food chemistry, food technology, and in the science and technology relating to meat, dairy and cereals.

You can also complement your expertise in food sciences with, for example, studies in food development, food safety, food research and analysis, economics, marketing, sustainable food production, microbiology, biotechnology or nutrition.

Programme Structure

You will need 120 credits (ECTS) for the Master’s degree. Together with your faculty adviser, you will make a personal study plan consisting of:
-60 credits of advanced studies in food sciences including a Master’s thesis.
-Studies of your choice in special areas of food sciences.
-Complementary studies of your choice.
-Studies of your free choice.

You can also include career planning, an internship and studies abroad in your Master’s degree.

Career Prospects

With a Master’s degree in Food Sciences, you can find work as a product quality manager in the food industry; as an inspector in a food, agricultural or environmental control laboratory; as a teacher or researcher at a university; as self-employed entrepreneur; or as an expert in a government ministry or other expert organisation.

Internationalization

As a student in Food Sciences you have excellent opportunities for an international student exchange or internship. You can also perform part of your degree studies at a university abroad. Due to the instruction in English, the many international students on the Viikki campus, and the many international personnel in the research groups, you will be part of an international community in your daily student life.

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Do you want to affect the future of forests, a key natural resource and the wellspring of biodiversity? Have you ever wondered why forests are called the lungs of the Earth and how climate change relates to forests? Or how trees are grown and processed into products in a sustainable and efficient manner? And how are the economy and forests interrelated?. Read more
Do you want to affect the future of forests, a key natural resource and the wellspring of biodiversity? Have you ever wondered why forests are called the lungs of the Earth and how climate change relates to forests? Or how trees are grown and processed into products in a sustainable and efficient manner? And how are the economy and forests interrelated?

You can find answers to these questions when you study forest sciences. You will come to view forests not only as a setting for jogging trails or as a source of wood, but rather as a source of versatile renewable resources and as complex ecological systems that are closely connected to their environment. The relationship between humans and nature and between society and natural resources is a strong feature of these studies.

The Master’s Programme in Forest Sciences offers a broad and versatile perspective on forests and their use. The studies focus on and apply knowledge in biology, business economics, environmental sciences, logistics, geoinformatics and information technology. As a graduate in forest sciences you will be a professional in forest ecology, the management and use of forest resources, forest bioeconomy business and policy, with ample career opportunities in Finland and abroad.

Come and study forest sciences at the University of Helsinki, in one of the world’s foremost degree programmes in the field. For more information in Finnish about studies in forest sciences, the field of forestry and its opportunities, see http://www.metsatieteet.fi.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

General studies in the Master’s programme provide you with skills needed for the academic world and the labour market. In advanced studies, you focus on field-specific issues and develop your professional knowledge when writing your Master’s thesis and completing courses in your field of specialisation. In addition, the studies include elective courses that allow you to diversify and deepen your knowledge.

The Master's Programme in Forest Sciences comprises three study tracks: forest ecology, the management and use of forest resources and forest bioeconomy business and policy. These study tracks include a total of 12 fields of specialisation.

The specialisations in forest ecology focus on various types of forest and peatland ecosystems and their exploitation. Topical issues include climate change, the prevention of damage to forests caused by insects and fungi, the control of game populations, and problems related to the exploitation of tropical forests.

The specialisations in the management and use of forest resources examine the planning of forest use and the relevant collection of information, forest inventory models, wood harvesting and logistics as well as the processing of wood into bioeconomy products. Topical issues include the application of new remote sensing methods in the planning of forest resource management, the combination of different values and targets in forestry and bioeconomy, various models of silviculture, increased efficiency in logging and transportation, and generating added value in all areas of biorefining.

Studies in the business economics of forest bioeconomy are based on the sustainable use of a renewable natural resource and on the development of responsible business activities in a global environment. The focus of studies is on the globalisation of forest-based industry and business and its structural redevelopment into the bioeconomy. You will become familiar with forest-based issues of the bioeconomy in production, marketing and policy as part of the global operating environment.

Selection of the Major

Graduates from the Bachelor’s Programme in Forest Sciences at the University of Helsinki can continue their studies in the Master's Programme in Forest Sciences. There is an application process for graduates from other Bachelor’s programmes, from universities of applied sciences, and for international applicants.

In the application process, you are selected for the Master’s Programme in Forest Sciences. Upon admission you must select one of the three study tracks, and you must select your specialisation by the second year of your Master’s studies.

Study tracks, specialisations and examples of topics covered by them:
Forest Ecology
-The management and restoration of forest ecosystems: the sustainable and multitargeted use of forest, the use of peat.
-Forest soil science: the biogeochemistry and hydrology of forest soil, soil and root ecology.
-Forest pathology and mycology: the microbiology and epidemiology of forests.
-Forest zoology: the biology and ecology of forest insects, the ecology of forest pests.
-Wildlife management: game populations and society, the planning of game husbandry, mammal ecology.
-The ecology, management and use of tropical forests: methods of tropical forestry, agroforestry.

Management and Use of Forest Resources
-Forest resource management: the collection and use of forest-related information in decision-making, laser scanning, remote sensing, forest inventory.
-Forest technology and logistics: the management of forest products, terramechanics, forest bioenergy.
-Wood technology: wood science and wood as raw material, laboratories in the forest industry, the structure and properties of wood raw material.

Forest Bioeconomy Business and Policy
-Marketing and management in the forest industry: strategic management and marketing, responsibility in forestry, customer orientation, innovations.
-Forest economics: business economics of units within forest bioeconomy, economics of silviculture, forest investment and the economic impact of environmental targets.
-International forest policy: global processes and trends impacting the forest sector from the perspective of individuals, communities and nations.

Programme Structure

The Bachelor’s Programme in Forest Sciences includes two study tracks: forest ecology and the use of forest resources, and forest economics and marketing. The Master's Programme in Forest Sciences comprises three study tracks: forest ecology, the management and use of forest resources, and business economics and policies of forest bioeconomy. These study tracks include a total of 12 specialisations (see specialisations above). Upon completing the Master's Programme in Forest Sciences you will be eligible to apply for the Doctoral Programme in Sustainable Use of Renewable Natural Resources.

Career Prospects

A degree in forestry offers extensive and fairly unique professional competence on a global scale on forest and peatland ecosystems, forest management and use, forest conservation, the business economics and policies of forest bioeconomy as well as the collection, management and use of forest-related information. For more information in Finnish on the available career opportunities, see http://www.metsatieteet.fi

Internationalization

Studies in forestry offer ample opportunities for international activities. For example, you can complete your practical training or collect material for your Master’s thesis abroad. Most courses in the Master’s programme are in English, and several international students participate. You can also serve as a tutor for international exchange students and establish contacts and networks in this way. Another example of international activities is the Helsinki Summer School, which offers intensive courses on topical issues and brings together students from as many as 60 countries.

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How do genes regulate the development and functioning of cells, tissues and organisms? How do molecules, cells and tissues function and communicate with each other, and how are their functions studied? These are the key issues for understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms, whose disruption can contribute to the onset and progression of various diseases. Read more
How do genes regulate the development and functioning of cells, tissues and organisms? How do molecules, cells and tissues function and communicate with each other, and how are their functions studied? These are the key issues for understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms, whose disruption can contribute to the onset and progression of various diseases. Researchers in the fields of genetics, genomics, cellular and developmental biology, biochemistry, structural biology, and biosciences of health are searching for the answers to these questions.

Upon completing the Master’s Programme in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences:
-You will have in-depth knowledge of genetics and molecular biosciences and of the experimental methods used in them.
-You will understand the characteristics and functions of genes and biomolecules at the cellular, tissue and organism levels.
-You will be able to analyse scientific knowledge critically and communicate it to different audiences.
-You will have the ability to produce new scientific information about the properties of genes, biomolecules and cells by means of experimental studies.
-You will be able to take advantage of existing research data and biological databases.
-You will have mastered good scientific practice and know how to act accordingly.
-You will have the capacity for independent project management and problem solving, as well as for maintaining and developing your own expertise.
-You will have the ability to work in multi-disciplinary and multicultural communities.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The Master's programme is based on basic scientific research. In the programme you will acquire knowledge and skills in modern genetics and molecular biosciences, which you will deepen in your chosen field of specialisation. The programme is tightly integrated with the experimental research carried out at the University of Helsinki in genetics, genomics, biochemistry, structural biology, and cellular and developmental biology. By combining course units, you will be able to acquire a broad-based understanding of biological phenomena and of the molecules that have an effect on health, including their interactions and functions at the levels of cells, tissues and organisms.

Courses include a variety of working methods: seminars, lectures, laboratory work, oral and written presentations, project work in small groups, independent studies and study circles formed by the students. The instruction will utilise digital learning environments.

These diverse teaching methods require active involvement from you. They will develop your ability to search, structure and present new information, as well as to draw conclusions. You will learn about the principles and methods of research during laboratory exercises, and about practical work in research groups and when writing your Master's thesis. In addition to academic excellence, you will acquire general working life skills such as fact-finding, problem solving, communication, project management and teamwork. You will acquire competence both for post-graduate studies in a Doctoral Programme and for expert positions immediately after gaining your Master's degree.

Programme Structure

You will need 120 credits (ECTS) for the Master’s degree, according to your personal study plan. The degree consists of:
-60 credits of advanced studies, including your Master’s thesis (30 credits).
-60 credits of other studies chosen from your own programme or from other programmes (such as Translational Medicine, Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology or Neuroscience).

You will be able to complete the Master’s programme in two years. The degree always includes a personal study plan as well as studies in labour market orientation, career planning, and possibly also international activities. If you are aiming for qualification as a biology teacher, you will need 60 credits of teacher’s pedagogical studies in your degree (this applies only to Finnish or Swedish speaking students).

Career Prospects

After graduating from the Master’s programme in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences, you will be well-prepared to move on to a career or to continue your studies at the postgraduate level for a PhD degree (see Postgraduate study opportunities). Doctoral studies are a prerequisite if you wish to become a researcher in the academic sector, for example.

The Master of Science (MSc) is a generalist degree, giving you the ability to work in basic and applied research and to act as an expert in public administration, the private sector and biotechnology companies. Your choice of specialisation and optional courses allows you to profile your skills in the direction you aim to follow for your future career. You can also take courses from other Master’s programmes at the University of Helsinki or other universities in Finland or abroad.

The professional titles of graduates in molecular biosciences include senior researcher, entrepreneur, forensic chemist, research and development chemist, product manager, senior officer, editor and teacher, so your future profession and employment can be as unique as you are. The teaching in the Master’s programme is based on cutting-edge research, so your education will be closely related and applicable to emerging fields such as bio-economy, nanotechnology, personal health and biological drugs. Some hot development areas in biotechnology include renewable energy and environmental technology. These sectors will require new kinds of specialists, who possess a wide and comprehensive understanding of molecular life sciences. After graduation, you could act, for example, in health life sciences as a quality manager or a laboratory specialist, scientific writer, clinical research monitor, or as an expert in administration.

Internationalization

The Master's programme in Genetics and Molecular Biosciences has a multidisciplinary and international teaching staff and research environment, giving you an excellent opportunity to create interdisciplinary and international contacts which will be of great importance for your future career. The Master's programme enables you to participate in international research projects from the beginning of your studies. You will communicate in English, allowing for a smooth transition between international research and specialist environments.

You can carry out the research and internship periods included in the Master's programme abroad. You will also have the possibility to take courses for the Master’s degree as an exchange student in foreign collaborating universities.

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Students who graduate from the Master’s programme in geography have strong theoretical and practical skills. The education in geography offers a broad understanding in current social and environmental issues. Read more
Students who graduate from the Master’s programme in geography have strong theoretical and practical skills. The education in geography offers a broad understanding in current social and environmental issues. Our students can work as experts in their field, both independently and as members of multi-professional teams.

The teaching within the programme is connected with the work of the geography research groups. It is often possible to write the final thesis as part of work in a research group or a research institute in a related field.

The Master’s programme in geography is divided into three sub-programmes (described in section 4). Our students have been very successful in the job market after completing our programme.

The strengths of students who have completed our Master’s programme when it comes to research and expertise are:
-Their ability to apply theoretical knowledge.
-A broad understanding of multi-layered regional issues.
-Strong interaction skills within multi-disciplinary groups of specialists.
-Their ability to communicate in writing, orally, and graphically about geographical phenomena and research findings.
-Their ability to utilise and interpret various kinds of research data.
-Their versatile knowledge of methodology in geography.
-Their ability to apply the newest methods in geoinformatics and cartography.
-Their embracing of responsible and ethical scientifc practices.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The first year of the advanced module of the Master’s programme contains the method courses of your chosen sub-programme, elective courses, and advanced literature. During this year you will start planning your Master’s thesis.

In the autumn of the second year, you will join a Master’s seminar and take exams on literature related to the MSc thesis. In the spring, you should be ready to present your finished MSc thesis (Pro gradu). In addition, you can take optional courses in both years that support your sub-programme. If you are studying to be a teacher, you will take courses in pedagogy during your second year.

Studying takes many forms. A large part of the instruction is contact teaching. Method and specialisation courses are usually implemented in groups of 10-20 students, where it is easy to discuss professional issues and gain deeper insights. Independent study is supported through workshops supervised by older students, and reading circles. The Master’s programme also includes extensive exams on literature in the field.

Selection of the Major

The Master’s programme in geography is divided into sub-programmes. The sub-programmes offer students the opportunity to specialise in different areas of geography. The Master’s programme contains both general and sub-programme-specific courses. The teaching within the Master’s programme in geography is seamlessly connected with the Master’s programme in urban studies and planning, which is jointly implemented with Aalto University.

The sub-programmes in the Master’s programme for geography are:
-Physical Geography
-Human Geography and Spatial Planning
-Geoinformatics

Physical Geography
Physical geography is an area of geography that studies natural systems and the regional interaction between nature and humans. The main parts of physical geography are geomorphology, climatology, hydrogeography, biogeography, and research into global change.

The Master’s courses in physical geography work towards deeper regional syntheses, explain the physical surroundings and their changes as a part of the function of regional systems, and analyse and model the relationships between different sectors. Focus areas in the Master’s programme in physical geography are the effect of global change on natural systems, watershed research, and the regional modelling of geomorphological processes and local climates. A considerable part of the Master’s programme in physical geography consists of work in small groups or in the field, where you will learn to implement theories in practice.

Having completed the Master’s programme in physical geography, you will be able to analyse and model regional systems of nature, as well as the interaction between nature and humans. In addition, the programme teaches you to analyse sustainable use of natural resources, and evaluate environmental impact. You will learn to implement theoretical knowledge and regional methods in planning a scientific thesis, implementing it in practice, and presenting your results orally and in writing. Further, the courses will train you to take specimens independently, analyse them, and interpret them. The teaching at the Master’s stage is closely connected with research on physical geography: theses are done in collaboration with a research group or research institute.

Human Geography and Spatial Planning
Human geography and spatial planning is a sub-programme, where regional structures and related planning is studied. Urban structures, regional social structures, statewide regional structures, the regional development in the European Union, and globalisation are studied. At the core of the sub-programme is the spatial transformation of society. The Master’s programme studies such phenomena as the divergence of regional and urban structures, urban culture, as well as the political-geographical dynamics of regions. In addition, sustainability, multiculturalism, segregation, housing, and migration are at the core of the sub-programme. Relevant themes for the sub-programme are also regional and urban planning, the political ecology of use of natural resources and land, and gobal development issues. These geographical phenomena and themes are studied through both theoretical and empirical questions, which can be analysed with different qualitative and quantitative methods.

The programme goes into how theories on cities and regional systems can be transformed into empirical research questions. After completing their Master’s theses, students can independently gather empirical data on the main dimensions of regional and urban structures and regional development, they can analyse these data with both qualitative and quantitative methods, and they can evaluate the planning practices connected with regional and social structures. After graduating from the Master’s programme, students will be able to communicate about phenomena and research findings in regional and urban structures, both orally and in writing.

Geoinformatics
Geoinformatics is an effective approach to the study and understanding of complex regional issues. Geoinformatics studies and develops computational methods for gaining, processing, analysing, and presenting positioning data. As a part of geography, geoinformatics is a research method on the one hand, to be used in the study of complex regional issues from urban environments to natural ones, from studying local environments to issues of sustainability in developing countries. On the other hand, the methods are the object of research. In urban environments, the methods of geoinformatics can be used to study accessibility and mobility, for example, or to plan a good park network. In the context of developing countries, the research into climate change, land use, or interaction between humans and environment with the help of quantitative, qualitative, and involving methods rises into the front. Students in geography reach a basic understanding of geoinformatics methods in the study of geographical issues, the sources and use of different sets of data (remote sensing, global and national databases, geographical Big Data), analysis methods, and effective visualisation of results.

At the Master’s level, as a student specialising in geoinformatics you will advance your skills both theoretically and technically, developing your methodological expertise from data acquisition to data refinement and visualisation with the help of geoinformatics methods. The instruction is directly connected with the work of research groups and theses are often written as a part of research work. After graduating, you will be able to utilise versatile approaches in geoinformatics in research into geographical questions. You will be able to follow the rapid development of the subject independently, and participate on your own.

Programme Structure

The Master’s programme in geography comprises 120 credits (ECTS) and you should graduate as a Master of Science in two academic years. The following courses are included in the degree:
-60 credits of shared advanced courses or according to sub-programme (including MSc thesis 30 credits).
-60 credits of other courses from your own or other programmes.
-60 credits of courses in pedagogy for teaching students.
-The other studies may include working-life or periods of international work or study.
-Working-life orientation and career planning.
-Personal study plan.

Career Prospects

The Master’s programme in geography provides you with excellent abilities to work in research or as specialists. Our graduates have found good employment in the public and private sectors, in Finland and abroad. Their postings include:
-Evaluation of environmental effects and environment consultation.
-Positioning and remote-sensing work.
-Regional and urban planning.
-Governmental community and regional administration.
-Governmental posts in ministries.
-Organisational posts.
-Development cooperation projects.
-Communication and publishing work.
-Teaching.

Internationalization

The Master’s programme in geography offers many opportunities for international work:
-Student exchange in one of the exchange locations of the faculty or university.
-Traineeship abroad.
-Participation in international projects and expeditions (e.g. to the Taita research station in Kenya).
-Participation in international research groups (writing your thesis).
-Participation in language courses at the University of Helsinki (a wide range of languages, including rare ones).

Research Focus

In physical geography:
-Research into global change, especially the environmental effects of climate change.
-Watershed research, the physical-chemical quality and ecological status of water systems.
-Natural systems, their function and change.
-Regional analytics and modelling in research into natural systems.
-Positioning and remote-sensing methods and their application when studying the status and changes in natural environments.
-‘Big data,’ analysis of regional and temporal data.
-The Arctic areas: status, change and vulnerability.

In human geography and spatial planning:
-Transformation and segregation in the social and physical urban environment.
-The changing rationalities and concepts of regional and urban planning.
-Regional policy and geopolitics.
-Urbanisation and changing relationships between state and cities.
-Internationalisation of cities and states.
-The spatial planning system of the European Union.
-Regional policy of data-intensive economics.
-The political ecology and management of natural resources and land use.
-Globalisation.

In geoinformatics:
-Spatial data analysis, new information sources.
-Development of remote-sensing methods for environmental study, especially hyper-spectral remote-sensing data and drone applications.
-Application of geoinformatics methods to environmental and urban research.

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Sustaining a growing population on our dynamic planet requires deep understanding of geological and geophysical processes within the Earth, and of how they interact with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biota. Read more
Sustaining a growing population on our dynamic planet requires deep understanding of geological and geophysical processes within the Earth, and of how they interact with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biota. The Master's Programme in Geology and Geophysics trains you to address pressing questions concerning our home planet's evolution, its role as the source of raw materials needed by modern civilisation, and environmental issues. Key questions include:
-How can we decode Earth’s rock record to reveal the evolution of Earth’s crust and mantle over billions of years?
-How do we make natural resource exploration and extraction more sustainable and environmentally friendly?
-What can the Earth’s history tell us to help us forecast the impacts of climate change?
-Where can we safely construct power plants or store nuclear waste?

The programme includes four specialist options: Petrology and Economic Geology; Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology; Palaeontology and Global Change; and Solid Earth Geophysics.

Upon completion of the programme, you will have gained expertise in a number of scientific and professional skills, including, depending on your specialist option:
-Assessment of geological materials (minerals, rock types, bedrock, groundwater).
-Understanding the genesis and sustainable use of mineral commodities.
-Sustainable use of the environment from the Earth Science perspective.
-Palaeontology and modelling global change using the geological record.
-The physical evolution of the Earth (plate tectonics, interplay of the mantle and crust).
-Independent and team-driven project research.
-High-level scientific writing (M.Sc. thesis and related work).
-Presentation of scientific results to scientists, students, and the general public.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

At the beginning of the advanced studies, you will familiarise yourself with the central research methods in the field. The studies consist of intensive learning in small groups on practical work courses, guided laboratory work on specialised courses, and tailored short-term courses led by international and Finnish experts. In addition, you will be able to take part are a variety of field courses and excursions (in Finland and beyond) to familiarise yourself with research topics in their natural surroundings.

Selection of the Major

As a student in the Master’s Programme in Geology and Geophysics, you are free to choose among the four specialist options offered:
In Petrology and Economic Geology you will study solid rock, mineral material and associated fluid systems, with targets ranging from the microscopic (and submicroscopic) scale to continents. The focus is on study of magmatic systems (volcanic and plutonic); the composition, lithology and structure of bedrock; evolution of continental crust and mantle; and the origin and assessment of economically important commodities in rock systems.

Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology combines understanding of earth surface systems such as 3D sedimentary environments, groundwater and low temperature geochemistry. The specialist option is based on practical training using top-notch analytical facilities and survey methods in cooperation with industry and authorities. In addition to basic research, the line aims to build your expertise for future careers.

Palaeontology and Global Change deals with the changing conditions and evolution of life on Earth. Research topics include fossil mammals and their environments during the last 25 million years, the environmental and evolutionary context of early humans in Africa, and the history of climate change and ecosystems during the last 100,000 years. The effect of humankind on the biosphere is a multidisciplinary topic.

Solid Earth Geophysics combines geology with geophysics to study the structure of the Earth’s interior and the physical processes related to its evolution. These ideas are not only crucial for understanding phenomena such as earthquake and volcanic activity related to Plate Tectonics, but also important for exploration of natural resources, environmental studies and engineering, for example.

Programme Structure

A Master’s degree in Geology and Geophysics requires 120 credits (ECTS) and is designed to be completed in two years of full-time study. The study requirements are:
-Advanced studies in your specialist option (60-70 credits).
-Joint studies in topics related to your specialist option (25-30 credits).
-Master’s thesis (30 credits).

Career Prospects

Expert geoscientists are in demand and employed in a range of fields nationally and internationally. Recent graduates have gone on to pursue:
-Employment in the mining and mineral resource exploration industry.
-Work as environmental and groundwater scientists in private companies and in the public sector.
-Doctoral studies in geoscience or geophysics both in Finland and abroad.
-Research work on the geology of Finland at the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
-Work as experts in the field of engineering geology and applied mineralogy.

Research Focus

There are many ongoing interdisciplinary research projects in the Faculty of Science. These projects are conducted in active cooperation with research institutes on the Kumpula Science Campus, as well as with other faculties, universities, and private industry.

The field of Geosciences is broad, and our research focus covers multiple branches of it. Some of the main interests at the moment include environmental topics related to groundwater and contaminated soils, the genesis of plutonic and volcanic igneous rocks, evolutionary palaeontology of mammals based on fossil teeth, and the structure and evolution of the continental crust. We are focusing on scientific research that makes it possible to understand geological processes and the structure of the Earth using our modern and diverse laboratory infrastructure.

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