More of the world's extreme poor now live in middle-income than in low-income countries, and processes such as climate change, transnational migration and globalisation demand a global consideration of the state of the planet. Development is now being seen as a global process and activity, rather than something reserved for a subset of countries such as the Third Worldor Global South. Contemporary global challenges demand the linking of environmental issues to conventional foci of development (like health, urbanisation, poverty, food security and migration). They also demand an understanding of how the world's resources (water, energy, land, minerals, demography, etc.) are allocated and managed, and how contestations over these distributions play out.