Get in at the bleeding edge of contemporary chemistry: theoretical and computational chemistry are marking the new era that lies ahead in the molecular sciences. The aim of the programme is to train scientists that are able to address a wide range of problems inmodern chemical, physical and biological sciences through the combination of theoretical and computational tools.
This programme is organised by:
The Erasmus Mundus Master of Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modelling is a joint initiative of these European Universities, including KU Leuven and co-ordinated by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
This is an initial Master's programme and can be followed on a full-time or part-time basis.
The programme is organised according to a two-year structure.
The Department of Chemistry consists of four divisions, all of which conduct highquality research embedded in well-established collaborations with other universities, research institutes and companies around the world. Its academic staff is committed to excellence in teaching and research. Although the department's primary goal is to obtain insight into the composition, structure and properties of chemical compounds and the design, synthesis and development of new (bio)molecular materials, this knowledge often leads to applications with important economic or societal benefits.
The department aims to develop and maintain leading, internationally renowned research programmes dedicated to solving fundamental and applied problems in the fields of:
Modern Chemistry is unthinkable without the achievements of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry. As a result these disciplines have become a mandatory tool for the molecular science towards the end of the 20th century, and they will undoubtedly mark the new era that lies ahead of us.
In this perspective the training and formation of the new generations of computational and theoretical chemists with a deep and broad knowledge is of paramount importance. Experts from seven European universities have decided to join forces in a European Master Course for Theoretical Chemistry and Computational Modelling (TCCM). This course is recognized as an Erasmus Mundus course by the European Union.
Graduates will have acquired the skills and competences for advanced research in chemical, physical and material sciences, will be qualified to collaborate in an international research team, and will be able to develop professional activities as experts in molecular design in pharmaceutical industry, petrochemical companies and new-materials industry.
In addition to commanding sound theoretical knowledge in chemistry and computational modelling, you will be equipped to apply any of the scientific codes mastered in the programme in a work environment, or develop new codes to address new requirements associated with research or productive activities.
You will have attained the necessary skills to pursue a scientific career as a doctoral student in chemistry, physics or material science. You will also be qualified to work as an expert in molecular design in the pharmaceutical industry, at petrochemical companies and in the new-materials industry. You will also have a suitable profile to work as a computational expert.
This one-year taught programme offers the opportunity to study Chemistry at an advanced level, covering both the traditional core areas of chemistry, as well as more specialist courses aligned to the research groupings of the department. The course provides opportunities for you to develop and demonstrate advanced knowledge, understanding, and practical/research skills.
Would you like to upgrade your bachelor’s degree to a master’s and gain access to a chemistry career in industry or research? Join the MSc Chemistry and develop your lab and theoretical skills. Specialise in inorganic and materials, organic or physical chemistry, or maintain a broad portfolio, for a more detailed description of the available pathways, click the Pathways tab. Courses are available in synthesis, advanced structural, analytical and spectroscopic techniques, materials chemistry, modelling, biological and medicinal chemistry, and electrochemistry.
The MSc Chemistry course combines the opportunity for students to take modules from a wide range of cutting-edge fields in chemistry with sessions on practical, technical skills, and scientific writing, communication and presentation and a three month summer project supervised by one of Southampton’s expert academics. The course aims to:
A Chemistry masters degree will give students valuable insight into postgraduate research skills. Independent project work will support students to develop transferable skills in areas such as time management, communication and presentation skills that are key for career success in a wide range of areas such as industry, analysis, policymaking and scientific communication. Completing an MSc qualification will help individuals tackle the challenges of an advanced research degree at PhD level and prepare them for a career in academia.
The following information summarises the typical pathways offered when choosing the MSc Chemistry degree programme:
This area focuses on synthetic organic chemistry, total synthesis, synthetic methodology, reaction mechanism, organocatalysis, organofluorine chemistry, photochemistry and carbohydrate chemistry, both towards the synthesis of bioactive compounds and organic materials, and includes the study of organic reactions under flow conditions. This pathway offers the opportunity to specialise in the following areas
This pathway consists of advanced postgraduate courses in synthetic reaction mechanisms and is best suited to students who already have a thorough BSc level grounding in aspects of nomenclature, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms.
Inorganic chemistry and materials
This area focuses on the synthesis of functional inorganic, solid-state and supramolecular materials and assemblies to address key challenges in energy, sustainability, healthcare and diagnostics and the deposition of nanostructured materials. This pathway will give you the opportunity to specialise in the following areas
This pathway is best suited to students who already have a thorough BSc level grounding in the fundamentals and applications of inorganic chemisry.
This pathway is best suited to students who already have a thorough BSc level grounding in the fundamentals and applications of inorganic chemistry. This area covers a wide range of fundamental and applied topics. This pathway will give you the opportunity to specialise in the following areas
This pathway is best suited to students who already have a thorough BSc level grounding in the fundamentals and applications of physical chemistry, in particular quantum chemistry, spectroscopy, thermodynamics and kinetics
You can choose to further your knowledge across a blend of advanced courses from organic, inorganic and/or physical chemistry (any combination). This pathway is suited to those wishing to develop an interdisciplinary expertise. If you choose this pathway you should already have a sound BSc-level grounding in the areas of chemistry in which you intend to choose modules (see other boxes).
As one of the world's leading Chemistry Departments, we create an exceptional research and learning environment for advancing and sharing knowledge that emphasizes excellence, equity and sustainability. Research areas include:
Outstanding facilities and resources accommodate more than 500 graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty that call the Department of Chemistry home. The Department has one of the most comfortable and up-to-date research spaces in North America, and offers MSc and PhD degrees - both degrees require graduate courses and research work reported in a thesis.
Courses offered in the Chemistry Department cover a wide range of subject matter, from synthetic organic chemistry to chemical physics and theory.
The department is one of the most well equipped research facilities along the west coast and is fortunate to be located in a breathtaking locale that includes ocean, mountains and mild climate.
Applicants who are interested in nanomaterials synthesis, characterization and application, and nanoscience instrumentation may consider the NanoMat program that provides additional funding and professional development opportunities. Applicants who are interested in the production, preparation, and application of nuclear isotopes for science and medicine may consider the IsoSiM program. Applicants who are interested in quantum materials may consider the QuEST program.
The PCCP program aims to integrate Master students within academic and industrial fields of fundamental physical chemistry. Various aspects are concerned: study of matter and its transformations, analysis and control of physical and chemical processes, light-matter interactions and spectroscopy techniques, modelling of physical and chemical processes from molecular to macroscopic scale. Applications cover scientific fields ranging from nanotechnologies, photonics, optoelectronics and organic electronics, to environmental sensors and detection systems.
The PCCP Master is supported by high-level educational and research partners, represented by the consortium of universities engaged in the program. Students follow their courses within a challenging, international environment. Annual summer schools, organized by the consortium partners, complete the students’ training by offering a focus on several topics relative to PCCP.
The first year of the Master degree is focused on the fundamental aspects of Physical Chemistry (thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, spectroscopy and numerical tools). International aspects of the program are introduced progressively during the first year, with some courses taught in English. A remote research project is also programmed to promote collaboration between students of the partner universities within the context of international scientific project management.
The second year is dedicated to specialized topics (advanced spectroscopy and imaging, photonics, computational chemistry, environmental sciences). All courses are taught in English and international mobility is mandatory (at least during the second semester for the Master thesis work), thus strengthening the international dimension of the degree. Numerous mutualized lectures are carried out featuring high-level, local research activity. Practical aspects are emphasized to favor the future integration of the student within the working world.
Master students following the specific UBx-USFQ double degree program spend between five and nine months in Quito (Ecuador) to complete the Master thesis. During this period, assistant professor positions at the USFQ are available for Master students of the program.
Year 1: Courses are in French, except when international students are attending.
Year 2: Courses are in English.
After graduation, students are fully prepared to pursue doctoral studies and a career in research. They may also work as scientists or R&D engineers within the industrial field.
Associated business sectors:
Academic research domains:
Other possible activities:
An international leader in research, the School of Chemistry offers an exciting programme aimed at students who wish to develop their chemistry research skills. During the course you’ll receive close support and guidance from one or more academic supervisors within the school. The research projects can be developed by you and your supervisors. You’ll join an active research group where you’ll receive training in advanced techniques, and use of state-of-the-art equipment.
Recent past projects include:
You will undertake an original research project worth 120- 180 credits. You’ll then study up to 60 credits of optional taught modules which will reflect our research areas. These currently include: Biological and Medicinal Chemistry, Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Materials, Molecular Bonding and Spectroscopy, and Synthesis and Catalysis.
We also work closely with colleagues in biomedical sciences, physics and engineering. This allows you flexibility to tailor your research to your individual interests.
The assessment of all modules are as set out in the specifications for each module. In regard to the thesis module, the maximum word length of the thesis is as follows:
The maximum word limits are all inclusive of appendices, footnotes, tables and bibliography.
Students are required to submit their thesis prior to the end of the period of registered study.
Discover more about our research. As a student at Nottingham, we’ll empower you to think big and provide the support so you can make your own contributions to the world of science.
Our Chemistry Master's programme provides you with an exceptional toolbox for your future. The programme is closely associated with the research Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM). Its mission is to fundamentally understand, design and control the functioning of molecules and materials. The institute is a centre of excellence that trains the next generation of leaders in science and entrepreneurship. Research in the IMM ranges from condensed matter science to chemical biology, and builds on novel theoretical, synthetic and spectroscopic methods. Our goal is to explore new roads proceeding from synthesis and growth to design and architecture of molecular constructs and materials with specific, desired properties. The cooperation of chemists and physicists, and increasingly biologists, in one research institute is unique worldwide. It is the secret of IMM's success and its many scientific breakthroughs.
The Master's programme in Chemistry offers you three specialisations:
- Chemistry for Life
- Molecular Chemistry
- Physical Chemistry
The funding we have received for our research reflects the achievements we have made. Prof. dr. Wilhelm Huck received an ERC Grant for his research on chemical reactions in extremely small drops of water. The ultimate goal is to build a synthetic cell for this. We need to understand how complex networks function in confined spaces and how the physical environment of the cell impacts on enzymatic reactions. Prof. dr. Roeland Nolte received an ERC to do research on the development of supramolecular catalysts and materials using nature as a guide. Prof. dr. Jan van Hest received funding from the Gravitation programme for his work on self-repairing materials, materials that continually adapt to their environment. This includes the idea of how the body repairs its cells and ensures that the right substances reach the right places at the right time. They want to gain fundamental understanding of the complexity of that dynamic.
The first thing you will notice as you enter our Faculty of Science is the open atmosphere. This is reflected by the light and transparent building and the open minded spirit of the people that you will meet, working, exploring and studying there. It is no wonder students from all over the world have been attracted to Nijmegen. You study in small groups, in direct and open contact with members of the staff. In addition, Nijmegen has excellent student facilities, such as high-tech laboratories, libraries and study ‘landscapes'.
Studying by the ‘Nijmegen approach' is a way of living. We will equip you with tools which are valuable for the rest of your life. You will be challenged to become aware of your intrinsic motivation. In other words, what is your passion in life? With this question in mind we will guide you to translate your passion into a personal Master's programme.
Most of our graduates take up a PhD position, either in Nijmegen or elsewhere in the world. Our research institutes have many vacancies for PhD projects every year. Our graduates also find work as researchers and managers in industry, in business and in research institutes.
"The Republic has no need of chemists and savants", were the words with which Antoine Lavoisier, one of the founders of modern chemistry, ended up on the guillotine during the French revolution. Fortunately these days the importance of chemistry for the benefit of a sustainable society is well-recognised. As such, chemistry has been designated a key area by the Dutch "innovatieplatform". So there will be many chemistry-related innovation initiatives in both industry and academia. This will be substantiated by a steering committee formed by the Association of Dutch Chemical Industries (VNCI) and the Chemical Science division of the Netherlands' Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/CW). These developments demand a continuous influx of well-trained chemists.
An integrated Chemistry programme was set up at the University of Nijmegen in 1962. The current Master's degree programme in Chemistry derives from the integrated programme that was established in 1999.
Radboud University Nijmegen aims to provide a Master's degree programme in Chemistry at an internationally recognised level. The programme is based on the research themes that exist within the Research Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM) and to a somewhat lesser extent, the Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS). In recent years, the IMM has focused on chemistry research in the areas of organic chemistry (synthetic, bio-organic, supramolecular and materials), nuclear magnetic resonance (solid state NMR and biophysical chemistry), and solid state chemistry. Furthermore, increasing research interaction with biology and physics groups has emerged to offer ample opportunities for new research and education. Based on this research, modern, high quality education can be provided within the Master's degree programme.
See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/chemistry
This masters in chemistry by research is a one year course beginning in October each year and is intended for participants with high quality first degrees in chemistry or a closely related subject.
Would you like to carry out an extensive piece of research whilst developing your theoretical skills? Our most research-intensive MSc programme includes a year-long research project embedded into one of our leading research groups and with access to our state of the art facilities.
Theory modules can be selected from topics in synthesis, advanced structural, analytical and spectroscopic techniques, materials chemistry, modelling, biological and medicinal chemistry, and electrochemistry.
You can specialise in a research area of your choice, within one of our main six research groups:
This programme provides training in chemical research and involves both lecture based units and a one year research project that constitutes 66 per cent of the assessment. In addition to units to enhance knowledge in chemistry, participants are offered training with regard to safety in the laboratory and to improve their professional skills, such as data analysis and presentation and oral presentations for example.
The principal component of this degree is an intensive novel research project providing 'hands-on' training in methods and techniques at the cutting edge of scientific research. The programme is particularly suitable for those wishing to embark on an academic career, with a strong track record of students moving into graduate research at UCL and elsewhere.
Students develop a systematic approach to devising experiments and/or computations and gain familiarity with a broad range of synthetic, analytical and spectroscopic techniques, acquiring skills for the critical analysis of their experimental and computational observations. They also broaden their knowledge of chemistry through a selection of taught courses and are able to tailor the programme to meet their personal interests.
You will undertake Chemistry modules to the value of 180 credits.
The programme consists of core literature (30 credits) and research projects (90 credits), and a research and professional skills development module (15 credits) and optional taught modules (45 credits in total). Optional modules are chosen in consultation with your research advisor.
All students undertake a literature project (30 credits) and a research dissertation (90 credits), which are linked. In addition students take a module (15 credits) to develop their research and professional skills.
Students choose three optional modules from the following:
All students undertake an independent research project which features an oral examination and culminates in submission of an extended dissertation (90 credits).
The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, seminars, tutorials, laboratory classes and research supervision. Assessment is through the dissertation, unseen written examinations, research papers, a written literature survey, and an oral examination. All students will be expected to attend research seminars relevant to their broad research interest.
Further information on modules and degree structure is available on the department website: Chemical Research MSc
This MSc is designed to provide first-hand experience of research at the cutting-edge of chemistry and is particularly suitable for those wishing to embark on an academic career (i.e. doctoral research) in this area, although the research and critical thinking skills developed will be equally valuable in a commercial environment.
Recent career destinations for this degree
Careers data is taken from the ‘Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education’ survey undertaken by HESA looking at the destinations of UK and EU students in the 2013–2015 graduating cohorts six months after graduation.
With departmental research interests and activities spanning the whole spectrum of chemistry, including development of new organic molecules, fundamental theoretical investigations and prediction and synthesis of new materials, students are able to undertake a project that aligns with their existing interests.
Students develop crucial first-hand experience in scientific methods, techniques for reporting science and using leading-edge research tools, as well as further essential skills for a research career.
The Research Excellence Framework, or REF, is the system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions. The 2014 REF was carried out by the UK's higher education funding bodies, and the results used to allocate research funding from 2015/16.
The following REF score was awarded to the department: Chemistry
94% rated 4* (‘world-leading’) or 3* (‘internationally excellent’)
Learn more about the scope of UCL's research, and browse case studies, on our Research Impact website.
Students are advised to apply as early as possible due to competition for places. Those applying for scholarship funding (particularly overseas applicants) should take note of application deadlines.
The programme is suitable for students wishing to progress to a research degree in chemistry or those seeking to acquire research skills which are valued in a commercial environment.
27 July 2018
Applicants can select the research projects in Computational, Inorganic, Organic or Physical Chemistry. In the application cover letter students are asked to indicate which area(s) of chemistry they are interested in studying, clearly indicating why they chose this particular area, and indicating (at least) three academic members of staff they are interested in working with.
For more information see our Applications page.
The Master in Chemistry is a two-year (120 ECTS) advanced study in chemistry organised by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, a Flemish university located in Brussels, Belgium. This MSc programme combines the expertise in the different research domains of both the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Ghent University (UGent).
Apart from a mandatory set of core competences, the programme offers a wide variety of classes within four current trends in Chemistry (clusters composed of a course package of 30 ECTS credits):
• Molecular and Macromolecular Design offers a thorough education in the design and synthesis of organic molecules and polymers, in which medicinal chemistry, computational chemistry and structural analysis feature prominently.
• Materials Chemistry focuses on the properties of materials, such as polymers, for example surface analysis, X-rays and laser spectroscopy and computational chemistry.
• Analysis and Characterisation covers a whole range of analytical techniques, including new electrochemical methods, advanced chromatography and elemental and isotope analyses.
• Environmental Chemistry studies natural and disturbed processes in water, soil and atmosphere. A variety of analytical techniques are used here, and new sampling and measuring techniques are designed, refined and optimised.
Additionally three main orientations exist, allowing you to select a profile composed of an additional course package of 30 ECTS in Research, Industry or Education (the profile ‘Education’ is taught in Dutch).
Practicals in small groups:
Chemistry is a real experimental science. Consequently, a lot of attention is given to practical experience and laboratory training. Practical sessions are designed to precisely perform experiments in small groups, and to handle chemicals in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. Writing lab reports and oral presentation skills are emphasised, as they constitute an integral part of the preparation for your future career. During these practical sessions, you are exposed to the different research areas and you become familiar with both theoretical and practical aspects of the different branches of chemistry. You will be introduced to the world of nucleic acids, proteins, biochemical processes and their applications, the design and synthesis of new molecules, molecular properties and reactivity studies, as well as the detection of organic pollutants, or the precise measurements of very low metal concentrations in the environment (water, soil, air).
Chemistry gives insight into a broad range of phenomena with everyday applications, and teaches you the theoretical basis of molecular properties. You also learn how you can elucidate the structure of complex organic molecules, and how you can build these molecules in the lab. The air you breathe or the water you drink must comply with international quality standards. You will be taught how to monitor that quality. The focus is clearly towards a discipline-based education, with a lot of time for experimental work.
During your master years, you have the opportunity to do an internship and gain experience in a professional environment, such as an international company or research lab. Or you can decide to study abroad for a semester.
Do you want to discover new molecules or develop advanced materials with specific properties, at a university, a public or industrial research lab?
Do you want to work on energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials and processes?
Do you want to specialise in molecular and macromolecular design, with applications in various field such as medicine, materials, etc.?
Do you want to study the impact of chemical products on the environment?
Do you want to share your knowledge and are you considering a career in education?
Do you already have a professional Bachelor’s degree and are you looking to pursue your education and increase your opportunities on the job market?
Pursuing a research degree at the School of Chemistry could be one of the best experiences of your life.
In addition to gaining research skills, making friends, meeting eminent researchers and being part of the research community, a research degree will help you to develop invaluable transferable skills which you can apply to academic life or a variety of professions outside of academia.
The Chemistry/Biology Interface
This is a broad area, with particular strengths in the areas of protein structure and function, mechanistic enzymology, proteomics, peptide and protein synthesis, protein folding, recombinant and synthetic DNA methodology, biologically targeted synthesis and the application of high throughput and combinatorial approaches. We also focus on biophysical chemistry, the development and application of physicochemical techniques to biological systems. This includes mass spectrometry, advanced spectroscopy and microscopy, as applied to proteins, enzymes, DNA, membranes and biosensors.
Experimental & Theoretical Chemical Physics
This is the fundamental study of molecular properties and processes. Areas of expertise include probing molecular structure in the gas phase, clusters and nanoparticles, the development and application of physicochemical techniques such as mass spectoscropy to molecular systems and the EaStCHEM surface science group, who study complex molecules on surfaces, probing the structure property-relationships employed in heterogeneous catalysis. A major feature is in Silico Scotland, a world-class research computing facility.
This research area encompasses the synthesis and characterisation of organic and inorganic compounds, including those with application in homogeneous catalysis, nanotechnology, coordination chemistry, ligand design and supramolecular chemistry, asymmetric catalysis, heterocyclic chemistry and the development of synthetic methods and strategies leading to the synthesis of biologically important molecules (including drug discovery). The development of innovative synthetic and characterisation methodologies (particularly in structural chemistry) is a key feature, and we specialise in structural chemistry at extremely high pressures.
The EaStCHEM Materials group is one of the largest in the UK. Areas of strength include the design, synthesis and characterisation of functional (for example magnetic, superconducting and electronic) materials; strongly correlated electronic materials, battery and fuel cell materials and devices, porous solids, fundamental and applied electrochemistry polymer microarray technologies and technique development for materials and nanomaterials analysis.
Students attend regular research talks, visiting speaker symposia, an annual residential meeting in the Scottish Highlands, and lecture courses on specialised techniques and safety. Students are encouraged to participate in transferable skills and computing courses, public awareness of science activities, undergraduate teaching and to represent the School at national and international conferences.
Our facilities are among the best in the world, offering an outstanding range of capabilities. You’ll be working in recently refurbished laboratories that meet the highest possible standards, packed with state-of-the-art equipment for both analysis and synthesis.
For NMR in the solution and solid state, we have 10 spectrometers at field strengths from 200-800 MHz; mass spectrometry utilises EI, ESI, APCI, MALDI and FAB instrumentation, including LC and GC interfaces. New combinatorial chemistry laboratories, equipped with a modern fermentation unit, are available. We have excellent facilities for the synthesis and characterisation of bio-molecules, including advanced mass spectrometry and NMR stopped-flow spectrometers, EPR, HPLC, FPLC, AA.
World-class facilities are available for small molecule and macromolecular X-ray diffraction, utilising both single crystal and powder methods. Application of diffraction methods at high pressures is a particular strength, and we enjoy strong links to central facilities for neutron, muon and synchrotron science in the UK and further afield. We are one of the world's leading centres for gas-phase electron diffraction.
Also available are instruments for magnetic and electronic characterisation of materials (SQUID), electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), force-probe microscopy, high-resolution FTRaman and FT-IR, XPS and thermal analysis. We have also recently installed a new 1,000- tonne pressure chamber, to be used for the synthesis of materials at high pressures and temperatures. Fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy instruments are available within the COSMIC Centre. Dedicated computational infrastructure is available, and we benefit from close links with the Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre.
The overall aim of the Master of Chemistry programme is to train students to conduct research in an academic or industrial setting.
Students apply the knowledge and skills they have acquired by identifying a research question, situating it in its proper chemical and social context and designing a study that addresses this research question.
This is an initial Master's programme and can be followed on a full-time or part-time basis.
The full programme comprises 120 ECTS (European Credit Transfer System), including 18 ECTS for compulsory courses and 54 ECTS for electives. In addition, students develop advanced practical skills in an internship at KU Leuven to the value of 18 ECTS, while the remaining 30 ECTS are allocated to the Master’s thesis.
There are five majors to choose from:
The Department of Chemistry consists of five divisions, all of which conduct high quality research embedded in well-established collaborations with other universities, research institutes and companies around the world. Its academic staff is committed to excellence in teaching and research. Although the department's primary goal is to obtain insight into the composition, structure and properties of chemical compounds and the design, synthesis and development of new (bio)molecular materials, this knowledge often leads to applications with important economic or societal benefits.
The department aims to develop and maintain leading, internationally renowned research programmes dedicated to solving fundamental and applied problems in the fields of:
Knowledge and understanding
Acquire, use and form an opinion about information
Communication and social skills
Motivation and attitudes
The Master of Science in Chemistry offers a wide range of specialisations and, as such, many career options are available to our graduates. More than half of our alumni work in industry, while others work in academia or other research institutes.
Within industry, graduates can opt for a technical, a commercial, or research-oriented career. Since the chemical industry is also a major industrial sector throughout Europe and the rest of the world, employment opportunities are enhanced by obtaining a PhD. A few examples of professional domains where chemists are needed include industry (chemistry, petrochemistry, medical sector, pharmaceutical industry, agrochemistry, food industry etc.), government or public administration, and research institutes.