• Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH Featured Masters Courses
  • Cardiff University Featured Masters Courses
  • Aberystwyth University Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Edinburgh Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Bristol Featured Masters Courses
  • Northumbria University Featured Masters Courses
  • Swansea University Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Surrey Featured Masters Courses
London Metropolitan University Featured Masters Courses
Durham University Featured Masters Courses
Southampton Solent University Featured Masters Courses
Liverpool John Moores University Featured Masters Courses
University of Nottingham Featured Masters Courses
"process" AND "engineer"×
0 miles

Masters Degrees (Process Engineer)

We have 175 Masters Degrees (Process Engineer)

  • "process" AND "engineer" ×
  • clear all
Showing 1 to 15 of 175
Order by 
Process systems engineering deals with the design, operation, optimisation and control of all kinds of chemical, physical, and biological processes through the use of systematic computer-aided approaches. Read more

Process systems engineering deals with the design, operation, optimisation and control of all kinds of chemical, physical, and biological processes through the use of systematic computer-aided approaches. Its major challenges are the development of concepts, methodologies and models for the prediction of performance and for decision-making for an engineered system.

Who is it for?

Suitable for engineering and applied science graduates who wish to embark on successful careers as process systems engineering professionals. 

The course equips graduates and practising engineers with an in-depth knowledge of the fundamentals of process systems and an excellent competency in the use of state-of-the-art approaches to deal with the major operational and design issues of the modern process industry. The course provides up-to-date technical knowledge and skills required for achieving the best management, design, control and operation of efficient process systems. 

Why this course?

Process systems engineering constitutes an interdisciplinary research area within the chemical engineering discipline. It focuses on the use of experimental techniques and systematic computer-aided methodologies for the design, operation, optimisation and control of chemical, physical, and biological processes, e.g. from chemical and petrochemical processes to pharmaceutical and food processes. 

A distinguished feature of this course is that it is not directed exclusively at chemical engineering graduates. Throughout the years, the course has evolved from discussions with industrial advisory panels, employers, sponsors and previous students. The content of the study programme is updated regularly to reflect changes arising from technical advances, economic factors and changes in legislation, regulations and standards.

By completing this course, a diligent student will be able to: 

  • Evaluate the technical, environmental and economic issues involved in the design and operation of process plants and the current practice in process industries.
  • Apply effectively the knowledge gained to the design, operation, optimisation and control of process systems via proper methodologies and relevant software.
  • Apply independent learning, especially via the effective use of information retrieval systems and a competent and professional approach to solving problems of industrial process systems.
  • Apply and critically evaluate key technical management principles, including project management, people management, technology marketing, product development and finance.
  • Apply advanced approaches and use effectively related tools in more specialised subjects related to process industries (for example risk management, biofuels or CFD tools).
  • Integrate knowledge, understanding and skills from the taught modules in a real-life situation to address problems faced by industrial clients; creating new problem diagnoses, designs, or system insights; and communicating findings in a professional manner in written, oral and visual forms.
  • Define a research question, develop aim(s) and objectives, select and execute a methodology, analyse data, evaluate findings critically and draw justifiable conclusions, demonstrating self-direction and originality of thought.
  • To communicate his/her individual research via a thesis and in an oral presentation in a style suitable for academic and professional

Accreditation

This MSc degree is accredited by Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE)

Course details

The taught programme for the MSc in Process Systems Engineering is delivered from October to February and is comprised of six compulsory taught modules. There are four optional modules to select the remaining two modules from.

Group project

The Group Project, which runs between February and April, enables you to put the skills and knowledge developed during the course modules into practice in an applied context while gaining transferable skills in project management, teamwork and independent research. The group project is usually sponsored by industrial partners who provide particular problems linked to their plant operations. Projects generally require the group to provide a solution to the operational problem. Potential future employers value this experience. This group project is shared across the MSc in Process Systems Engineering and other courses, giving the added benefit of gaining new insights, ways of thinking, experience and skills from students with other backgrounds

During the project you will develop a range of skills including learning how to establish team member roles and responsibilities, project management, and delivering technical presentations. At the end of the project, all groups submit a written report and deliver a presentation to the industrial partner. This presentation provides the opportunity to develop interpersonal and presentation skills within a professional environment.

It is clear that the modern engineer cannot be divorced from the commercial world. In order to provide practice in this matter, a poster presentation will be required from all students. This presentation provides the opportunity to develop presentation skills and effectively handle questions about complex issues in a professional manner.

Part-time students are encouraged to participate in a group project as it provides a wealth of learning opportunities. However, an option of an individual dissertation is available if agreed with the Course Director.

Individual project

The individual research project allows you to delve deeper into a specific area of interest. As our academic research is so closely related to industry, it is very common for our industrial partners to put forward real-world problems or areas of development as potential research topics.

The individual research project component takes place between April/May and August for full-time students. For part-time students, it is common that their research projects are undertaken in collaboration with their place of work under academic supervision; given the approval of the Course Director.

Individual research projects undertaken may involve designs, computer simulations, feasibility assessments, reviews, practical evaluations and experimental investigations.

Assessment

Taught modules 40%, Group project 20% (dissertation for part-time students), Individual Research Project 40%

Funding

To help students in finding and securing appropriate funding we have created a funding finder where you can search for suitable sources of funding by filtering the results to suit your needs. Visit the funding finder.



Read less
Modern vehicles are often taken for granted and yet they represent an incredibly complex and diverse set of disciplines. Read more

Modern vehicles are often taken for granted and yet they represent an incredibly complex and diverse set of disciplines. The automotive electronics engineer has to bring together real-time software, safety critical constraints, sensor electronics, control algorithms, human factors, legislation and ethics into a working package that satisfies multiple stakeholders.

The Ricardo engineering consultancy helped to develop this course, ensuring MSc students come away equipped with industry-relevant skills. Their continued involvement includes offering the use of pioneering industry equipment through the Ricardo Universities IC Engines research facility. They also help to cultivate future engineering talent, both locally and internationally.

On this MSc course you'll explore a range of topics including interconnected communication networks, entertainment systems, safety critical software, diagnostics, alternative fuels and hybrid technologies.

In the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE2008), our automotive engineering research group achieved an excellent rating, with 70 per cent of its research rated as internationally excellent or world leading, and 95 per cent deemed to have been internationally recognised.

Our reputation has enabled us to invest more in our facilities.

This MSc is accredited by the Institution of Engineering and Technology on behalf of the Engineering Council as meeting the requirements for further learning for registration as a chartered engineer. Candidates must hold a CEng-accredited BEng or BSc(Hons) undergraduate degree to comply with full CEng registration requirements.

Course structure

The course starts in September. You will study four modules each term and will take exams after your Christmas and Easter vacations.

For each taught module you will have between three and four hours' contact with the lecturer each week, alongside further self-study tutorial and laboratory exercises requiring study outside of the class contact time.

After all eight taught modules have been completed you will then begin your individual project and masters dissertation stage. This final stage is full-time, but there are no classes during this phase, which ends in early September.

It is possible to study part-time study, by taking the modules at a slower rate. This can be tailored to fit around any personal or professional commitments that you may have. Please note, however, that there is no evening teaching so if you wish to study part-time then you will need to agree on study leave with your employer in order to attend the classes. The final project phase could be conducted at your place of work in some cases.

Syllabus

You will study eight modules and embark on an individual project. This project will form the basis of your dissertation.

Core modules

  • Engineering with MATLAB
  • Sustainable Automotive Power Technology
  • Automotive Communication Systems
  • Embedded Processor Systems
  • Power Train Engineering
  • Sensors and Interfacing
  • Power Electronics and Actuators
  • An individual project on which you base your dissertation

Option modules

  • Advanced Computer Systems
  • Secure Information Systems Engineering

Individual projects have included real-time power-train modelling for software in the loop testing, a smart grid system using electric vehicles as an energy storage resource and an experimental investigation of novel fuel injection and ignition systems for a spray-guided gasoline engine.

Our research labs

The Division of Engineering and Product Design’s research and teaching laboratories house a number of engine test cells in which world leading research is carried out. Although these labs centre on cylinders, pistons and valves they are surrounded by complex electronic equipment to control the mechanics and to monitor pressures, temperatures, chemistry and capture high speed events on computer for real-time and post-run analysis.

MSc students often carry out projects in these labs and make their contribution to research or commercial innovation. For details of these state of the art laboratories see Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratories.

Professor Stipidis and his team provide valuable state-of-the-art research into automotive communications architectures and also provide infrastructure for some of the laboratory exercises in the Automotive Communications Systems taught module.  

Employability

This course serves as a training and proving ground for the next generation of researchers. It is ideal for those hoping to be employed as development or research engineers.

The MSc can also serve as the basis for further study at a doctoral level.

The nature of graduate work varies; it could be with OEM’s (Original Equipment Manufacturers) like Ford, General Motors, Jaguar Land Rover; it could be with consultants such as Ricardo, Lotus or AVL; or Tier One suppliers such as Delphi, Infineon or Denso.

Employment Prospects

Our students have secured roles including:

  • Automotive engineer at Daimler AG (Mercedes-Benz passenger cars)
  • Automotive electronic components research engineer at Car Parts Industries UK
  • Automotive engineer at Lysanda (fuel and CO2 prediction, using MATLAB modelling with DSpace)
  • Automotive engineer at Delphi (ECU design)
  • Renewables engineer at OST Energy (irradiation analysis, yield and energy production modelling using MATLAB)
  • Product application engineer with IPETRONIK, India (automotive data acquisition systems)
  • Automotive application engineer at Dearman Engine Company (engine control unit design)
  • Consultant engineer at BMW Munich (assembly process planning)
  • Production engineer at BMW (glazing automation processes)
  • Chassis control engineer at Ford Dunton Technical Centre
  • Diesel engine control diagnostic validation engineer at Ford Dunton Technical Centre

Potential job roles include:

  • Design engineer
  • Calibration engineer
  • Software engineer
  • Control engineer
  • Modelling
  • Electronic systems integration
  • Production engineer
  • Research and development
  • Communications engineer
  • Project management


Read less
Why this course?. This course is mainly for engineering students from the UK and overseas who want to develop careers in the oil, gas, process and chemical industries. Read more

Why this course?

This course is mainly for engineering students from the UK and overseas who want to develop careers in the oil, gas, process and chemical industries. The course has a strong project-based approach and is relevant to the recruitment needs of a wide range of employers.

It meets accreditation requirements for the Institute of Chemical Engineers allowing graduates to apply for chartered engineer status.

Our course is one of the few MSc programmes to offer the module Safety Management Practices. It offers exposure to best industry practice and much required industrial training.

You’ll study

This is a modular course. To gain the Postgraduate Certificate you need to pass six modules.

The Diploma requires eight taught modules and a group project.

The MSc requires eight taught modules, a group design project and an individual research project. You'll work with our talented team of researchers on chemical engineering issues of the future.

The key areas of the programme are:

Chemical & Process Engineering

  • process design principles
  • safety management practices
  • energy systems
  • colloid engineering
  • multi-phase processing
  • petroleum engineering
  • environmental control technologies
  • process safety design
  • emerging technologies
  • programming & optimisation

Multidisciplinary Skills

  • project management
  • risk management
  • information management
  • understanding financial information

If you want to study the same scope of subjects but be part a sustainable engineering programme, you should apply for the MSc Sustainable Engineering: Chemical Processing pathway.

You’ll work on an individual research project with our highly talented team of leading researchers on chemical engineering issues of the future.

Facilities

We're one of the largest chemical engineering departments in the country.

We have new state-of-the-art research laboratories. These include experimental facilities for light scattering, spectroscopy, adsorption measurements and high pressure viscometry.

You'll have access to the department's own dedicated computer suite which is installed with industry standard software.

Accreditation

The course meets accreditation requirements for the Institute of Chemical Engineers allowing graduates to apply for chartered engineer status.

Learning & teaching

All classes are delivered over a twelve week period.

The Emerging Technologies module makes extensive use of external speakers who are leading practitioners in their field.

The Safety Management Practices module offers exposure to best industry practice and is one of a few MSc programmes to offer much required industrial training.

Assessment

Assessment is through a balanced work load of class based assessment, individual and group based projects and exams.

Careers

There is growing demand for high-calibre graduates who can develop and apply advanced process technologies in chemical and process industries.

Some students may be eligible to apply for PhD places in the department and across the Engineering faculty.



Read less
The programme is co-organised by Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), offering students the possibility to obtain a double master's degree at the end of the programme. Read more

About the programme

The programme is co-organised by Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), offering students the possibility to obtain a double master's degree at the end of the programme. The first year of courses is taught at the ULB Engineering Campus in Brussels, while the second year is taught at VUB.

The Master of Chemical and Materials Engineering educates students to become innovative engineers who will contribute to their profession and to society. Engineers in chemistry and materials play a unique role in sustainable development, where they must manage resources, energy and the environment in order to develop and produce novel materials and chemical commodities. Our graduates are prepared to face the demands of the modern technological employment field and for an international career with English as their professional language.

Course content

The Master in Chemical and Material Engineering (120 ECTS) offers a solid core of courses in both of these engineering fields. The integrated and the multidisciplinary approach provides students up-to-date knowledge enabling them to propose innovative engineering solutions in numerous modern technological sectors. Students have the possibility to specialize in Process technology or Material Science.

The Master of Chemical and Materials Engineering program consists of two profiles: Process Technology and Materials.

Profile: Process Technology:
The Process Technology orientation trains students to become engineers who are employable and innovative both in production units (operation and optimization of production facilities) and in engineering groups (develop new production units that meet desired performance specifications). An emphasis is placed on the biotechnology and food industries. Students are also trained to identify, solve and avoid environmental problems including waste management, water, air and soil pollution.

Profile: Materials:
The Materials orientation prepares students for the materials and materials technology sectors (metals, polymers, ceramics and composites). Students are trained to become creative engineers capable of designing sustainable multi-functional materials which meet specific applications. Students also have the capacity to contribute to the whole life-cycle of materials from their processing into semi or full end products using environmentally friendly and safe production processes to their recycling.

Become a skilled scientific engineer

This Master offers:
- a unique interdisciplinary programme which prepares you for employment in a professional field related to chemical engineering, materials or environmental technology.
- a high level scientific education that prepares you to a wide range of job profiles.
- the possibility to work in close contact with professors who are internationally recognized in their own disciplines and favor interactive learning.

Curriculum

http://www.vub.ac.be/en/study/chemical-and-materials-engineering/programme

The programme is built up modularly:
1) the Common Core Chemical and Materials Engineering (56 ECTS)
2) the Specific Profile Courses (30 ECTS)
3) the master thesis (24 ECTS)
4) electives (10 ECTS) from 1 out of 3 options.
Each of the modules should be succesfully completed to obtain the master degree. The student must respect the specified registration requirements. The educational board strongly suggests the student to follow the standard learning track. Only this model track can guarantee a timeschedule without overlaps of the compulsory course units.

Common Core Chemical and Materials Engineering:
The Common Core Chemical and Materials Engineering (56 ECTS) is spread over 2 years: 46 ECTS in the first and 10 ECTS in the second year. The Common Core emphasizes the interaction between process- and materials technology by a chemical (molecular) approach. The Common Core consists out of courses related to chemistry, process technology and materials and is the basis for the Process Technology and the Materials profiles.

Specific Courses Profile Materials:
The profile 'Materials' (30 ECTS) consists out of 2 parts, spread over the 1st and the 2nd year of the model learning track: Materials I - 14 ECTS in MA1 and Materials II - 16 ECTS in MA2. The profile adds material-technological courses to the common core.

Specific Courses Profile Process Technology:
The profile 'Process Technology' (30 ECTS) consists out of 2 parts, spread over the 1st and the 2nd year of the model learning track: Process Technology I - 14 ECTS in MA1 and Process Technology II - 16 ECTS in MA2. The profile adds process technological courses to the common core.

Elective Courses:
The elective courses are divided into 3 options:
- Option 1: Internship (10 ECTS)
- Option 2: Elective courses (incl. internship of 6 ECTS)
- Option 3: Entrepreneurship
The student has to select one option and at least 10 ECTS within that option. All options belong to the 2nd year of the model learning track.

Read less
MSc Chemical Engineering and Process Management explores topics required for a successful career as a chemical engineer. Read more
MSc Chemical Engineering and Process Management explores topics required for a successful career as a chemical engineer. You'll study process management and how this relates to chemical engineering, which is increasingly required in chemicals and petrochemical plants along with solid knowledge in reactor design, process simulation, and the numerous unit operations that take place.

The course has been developed in response to these industry needs and it reflects our strength in research and teaching in this area.

If you already have a first degree in chemical engineering you can gain more in-depth knowledge in this discipline as well as explore broader issues through specialist modules relating to project management, the chemical industry, and sustainability. Academic staff in the Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering are very research active in areas such as greener energy, multiphase flow, materials and catalytic reactions.

If you do not have a chemical engineering degree but graduated from a closely related engineering discipline, this course offers you a platform to study chemical engineering and opens a career path for you in the chemical industry.

Modules

Engineering management for chemical engineers
Advanced reaction engineering
Energy management and sustainability
Materials engineering
Multiphase fluid flow
Dissertation

Plus one option from:

Applied engineering practice
Chemical process management

All modules except the dissertation are assessed by a combination of examinations and written coursework assignments.

Accreditation

This course is seeking accreditation from the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE).

Read less
Why this course?. This course is a part-time distance learning Masters degree. It's for students who are working in chemical and process engineering roles, who want to include business and management in their study. Read more

Why this course?

This course is a part-time distance learning Masters degree.

It's for students who are working in chemical and process engineering roles, who want to include business and management in their study. Parts of the course, including the final project, relate to the students' workplace. 

It's also suitable for graduates of related science and engineering disciplines who are working in chemical and process industries. For these students, there will be an optional revision semester at the start of the course. 

A two-year postgraduate diploma option and one-year postgraduate certificate are also available.

What you'll study

You'll attend a mix of core and elective taught classes. In your final year, you'll completed a major project in your place of work. 

Around 70% of the course content has a technical and engineering focus, with a mix of core and elective classes. There are also business and management classes in areas such as finance, strategy, and project management. 

Facilities

You'll be based in the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering. We have state-of-the-art research laboratories that feature a comprehensive suite of experimental facilities including:

  • light scattering
  • spectroscopy
  • adsorption measurements
  • High-pressure viscometry

As a distance learning student, you'll have access to the University library online. You can borrow online books and download academic papers and journals. The library also offers a postal service for distance learning students.

Course awards

Our staff have been nominated in the annual University of Strathclyde Teaching Excellence Awards, voted for by Strathclyde’s students. Our staff have also received external awards from organisations like the IChemE and the Royal Academy of Engineering.

Learning & teaching

The course is delivered from our Virtual Learning Environment MyPlace.

Your lecturers will provide support through:

  • online tutorials
  • webinars
  • forums
  • email
  • telephone

Classes are taught by our academic staff, external consultants, and industry specialists.

You're also welcome to attend full-time lectures and tutorials and use the facilities on campus.

Assessment

You'll be assessed using online tests and assignments. Your major project will be assessed by a written project report. You may also be required to attend a written exam.

Students from the UK

Students from the UK students will attend exams on campus, here in Glasgow. We will make the odd exception, on occasion, in compelling circumstances. This includes staff working in offshore installations. In these circumstances, a suitable examination arrangement can be agreed with the University.

Students from outside the UK

If you're from outside of the UK, you can take the exam at an approved international centre. 

Careers

Whether you're planning to progress your career into engineering management, redevelop yourself as an engineer or move into a new industry – a Masters degree will expand your career opportunities. 

This MSc will also let you validate your skills and competency to employers. Through its accreditation by the IChemE, it can provide a route to Chartered Engineer (CEng) status.

Where are they now?

Job titles include 

  • Operations Director
  • Process Chemist
  • Process Engineer
  • Production Chemist
  • Senior Research Engineer
  • Senior Quality Officer
  • Concept Engineer
  • Engineering Manager 

Employers and sponsors include

  • BOC
  • BP
  • Centrica
  • GlaxoSmithKline
  • Glenmorangie
  • Johnson Mathey
  • Pfizer
  • Schlumberger 
  • Total


Read less
Have you ever wondered how the latest life science discoveries - such as a novel stem cell therapy - can move from the lab into commercial scale production?… Read more

Have you ever wondered how the latest life science discoveries - such as a novel stem cell therapy - can move from the lab into commercial scale production? Would you like to know whether it is possible to produce bio-polymers (plastics) and biofuels from municipal or agricultural waste? If you are thinking of a career in the pharma or biotech industries, the Biochemical Engineering MSc could be the right programme for you.

About this degree

Our MSc programme focuses on the core biochemical engineering principles that enable the translation of advances in the life sciences into real processes or products. Students will develop advanced engineering skills (such as bioprocess design, bioreactor engineering, downstream processing), state-of-the-art life science techniques (such as molecular biology, vaccine development, microfluidics) and essential business and regulatory knowledge (such as management, quality control, commercialisation).

Three distinct pathways are offered tailored to graduate scientists, engineers, or biochemical engineers.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits.

The programme offers three distinct pathways tailored to: graduate scientists ("Engineering Stream"); graduate engineers from other disciplines ("Science Stream"); or graduate biochemical engineers ("Biochemical Engineering Stream"). The programme for all three streams consists of a combination of core and optional taught modules (120 credits) and a research or design project (60 credits).

Core modules

Students are allocated to one of the three available streams based on their academic background (life science/science, other engineering disciplines, biochemical engineering). The programme for each stream is tailored to the background of students in that stream. Core modules may include the following (depending on stream allocation). 

  • Advanced Bioreactor Engineering
  • Dissertation on Bioprocess Research
  • Fundamental Biosciences
  • Integrated Downstream Processing
  • Sustainable Industrial Bioprocesses and Biorefineries

Please go to the "Degree Structure" tab on the departmental website for a full list of core modules.

Optional modules

Optional modules may include the following (details will vary depending on stream allocation).

  • Bioprocess Management – Discovery to Manufacture
  • Bioprocess Microfluidics
  • Bioprocess Systems Engineering
  • Bioprocess Validation and Quality Control
  • Commercialisation and Bioprocess Research
  • Vaccine Bioprocess Development

Please go to the "Degree Structure" tab on the departmental website for a full list of optional modules

Research project/design project

Students allocated to the "Engineering" stream will have to complete a bioprocess design project as part of their MSc dissertation.

Students allocated to the "Science" and "Biochemical Engineering" streams will have to complete a research project as part of their MSc dissertation.

Teaching and learning

The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, tutorials, and individual and group activities. Guest lectures delivered by industrialists provide a professional and social context. Assessment is through unseen written examinations, coursework, individual and group project reports, individual and group oral presentations, and the research or design project.

Further information on modules and degree structure is available on the department website: Biochemical Engineering MSc

Careers

The rapid advancements in biology and the life sciences create a need for highly trained, multidisciplinary graduates possessing technical skills and fundamental understanding of both the biological and engineering aspects relevant to modern industrial bioprocesses. Consequently, UCL biochemical engineers are in high demand, due to their breadth of expertise, numerical ability and problem-solving skills. The first destinations of those who graduate from the Master's programme in biochemical engineering reflect the highly relevant nature of the training delivered.

Approximately three-quarters of our graduates elect either to take up employment in the relevant biotechnology industries or study for a PhD or an EngD, while the remainder follow careers in the management, financial or engineering design sectors.

Recent career destinations for this degree

  • Biopharmaceutical Processing Engineer, Johnson & Johnson
  • Process Engineer, ExxonMobil
  • PhD Biochemical Engineering, UCL
  • Bio-Pharmaceutical Engineer, GSK (GlaxoSmithKline)
  • Research Analyst, CIRS (Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science)

Employability

The department places great emphasis on its ability to assist its graduates in taking up exciting careers in the sector. UCL alumni, together with the department’s links with industrial groups, provide an excellent source of leads for graduates. Over 1,000 students have graduated from UCL with graduate qualifications in biochemical engineering at Master’s or doctoral levels. Many have gone on to distinguished and senior positions in the international bioindustry. Others have followed independent academic careers in universities around the world.

Careers data is taken from the ‘Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education’ survey undertaken by HESA looking at the destinations of UK and EU students in the 2013–2015 graduating cohorts six months after graduation.

Why study this degree at UCL?

UCL was a founding laboratory of the discipline of biochemical engineering, established the first UK department and is the largest international centre for bioprocess teaching and research. Our internationally recognised MSc programme maintains close links with the research activities of the Advanced Centre for Biochemical Engineering which ensures that lecture and case study examples are built around the latest biological discoveries and bioprocessing technologies.

UCL Biochemical Engineering co-ordinates bioprocess research and training collaborations with more than a dozen UCL departments, a similar number of national and international university partners and over 40 international companies. MSc students directly benefit from our close ties with industry through their participation in the Department’s MBI® Training Programme.

The MBI® Training Programme is the largest leading international provider of innovative UCL-accredited short courses in bioprocessing designed primarily for industrialists. Courses are designed and delivered in collaboration with 70 industrial experts to support continued professional and technical development within the industry. Our MSc students have the unique opportunity to sit alongside industrial delegates, to gain deeper insights into the industrial application of taught material and to build a network of contacts to support their future careers. 

Accreditation

Our MSc is accredited by the Institute of Chemical Engineers (IChemE).

The “Science” and “Biochemical Engineering” streams are accredited by the IChemE as meeting the further learning requirements, in full, for registration as a Chartered Engineer (CEng, MIChemE).



Read less
What's the Master of Chemical Engineering all about? . The Master of Science in Chemical Engineering programme is primarily aimed at applying chemical engineering principles to develop technical products and to design, control and improve industrial processes. Read more

What's the Master of Chemical Engineering all about? 

The Master of Science in Chemical Engineering programme is primarily aimed at applying chemical engineering principles to develop technical products and to design, control and improve industrial processes. Students also learn to take environmental and safety issues into account during all phases of the process.

Two guiding principles of sustainable development – the rational exploitation of resources and energy, and the application of the best available technology – are emphasised, as is the mantra “reduce, reuse, recycle”.

As a chemical engineering student, you will learn to think in a process-oriented manner and grasp the complexity of physico-chemical systems. Even more than other specialists, you will be asked to solve problems of a very diverse nature. Insights into processes at the nano and micro scale are fundamental for the development of new products and/or (mega-scale) technologies.

While students should have a foundational knowledge of chemistry, the underlying chemistry of the elements and components, their properties and mutual reactions are not the main focal points of the programme.

With a focus on process, product and environmental planet engineering, the programme does not only guarantee a solid chemical engineering background, it also focuses on process and product intensification, energy efficient processing routes, biochemical processes and product-based thinking rather than on the classical process approach.

Structure 

The programme itself consists of an important core curriculum that covers the foundations of chemical engineering. The core curriculum builds on the basic knowledge obtained during the Bachelor’s. In this part of the programme, you will concentrate on both the classical and the emerging trends in chemical engineering. 

Students also take up 9 credits from ‘Current trends in chemical engineering’-courses. These courses are signature courses for the Master’s programme and build on the research expertise present within the department. These courses encompass microbial process technology, process intensification, exergy analysis of chemical processes and product design. 

The curriculum consists of a broad generic core, which is then strengthened and honed during the second year, when students select one of the three specialisations: product, process and environmental engineering.

This choice provides you with the opportunity to specialise to a certain extent. Since the emerging areas covered in the programme are considered to be the major challenges within the chemical and related industries, graduating in Leuven as a chemical engineer will give you a serious advantage over your European colleagues since you will be able to integrate new technologies within existing production processes.

During their Master’s studies, students are encouraged to take non-technical courses (general interest courses), organized for instance by other faculties (economics, social sciences, psychology…) in order to broaden their scope beyond mere technical courses.

An important aspect of the Master’s programme is the Master’s thesis. Assigning Master’s thesis topics to students is based on a procedure in which students select 5 preferred topics from a long list.

The Master’s programme highly values interactions with the chemical industry which is one of the most important pillars of the Flemish economy. As such, some courses are taught by guest professors from the industry.

International and industrial experience

One or two semesters of the programme can be completed abroad in the context of the ERASMUS+ programme. Additionally, you can apply for an industrial internship abroad through the departmental internship coordinator. These internships take place between the third Bachelor’s year and the first Master’s year, or between the two Master’s years.

The department also offers a new exchange programme with the University of Delaware (United States) and with the Ecole Polytechique in Montréal (Canada).

The faculty’s exchange programmes are complemented by the BEST network (Board of European Students of Technology). This student organisation offers the opportunity to follow short courses, usually organised in the summer months. The faculty also participates in various leading international networks.

You can find more information on this topic on the website of the Faculty website.

Career perspectives

The chemical sector represents one of the most important economic sectors in Belgium. It provides about 90,000 direct and more than 150,000 indirect jobs. With a 53 billion euro turnover and a 35% share of the total Belgian export, the chemical sector is an indispensable part of the contemporary Belgian economy.

As a chemical engineer you will predominantly work in industrial branches involved in (the production of) bulk and specialty chemicals, oil and natural gas (petrochemical companies and refineries), non-ferrometallurgics, energy, waste treatment, food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. The following professional activities lie before you:

  • design, planning and building of installations ('project engineer')
  • monitoring and optimisation of existing processes ('process engineer')
  • design/formulation and optimisation of products ('product engineer')
  • R&D of technical products, processes and devices
  • customer services, retailing ('sales engineer')
  • management

Apart from the traditional career options, your insight into complex processes will also be much appreciated in jobs in the financial and governmental sector, where chemical engineers are often employed to supervise industrial activities, to deliver permissions, and to compose regulations with respect to safety and environmental issues.

As self-employed persons, chemical engineers work in engineering offices or as consultants. Due to their often very dynamic personality, chemical engineers can also be successful as entrepreneurs.



Read less
The Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering (SSIE) offers students the opportunity to examine complex systems in industry and manufacturing settings, healthcare environments and society in general as they study areas ranging from intelligent systems and fuzzy logic to supply chain management and human factors. Read more
The Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering (SSIE) offers students the opportunity to examine complex systems in industry and manufacturing settings, healthcare environments and society in general as they study areas ranging from intelligent systems and fuzzy logic to supply chain management and human factors.

The program encourages faculty and students to work in teams, gathering different perspectives as they problem-solve, create and learn both within the department and through interdisciplinary collaboration across the various divisions of engineering, business and industry.

Recent doctoral graduate placements include: Assistant Professor at Tennessee Technological University, Research Associate at NSC Technology, Senior Engineer at Alta Devices, Process Engineer at BAE Systems, Senior Business Analyst at the Mayo Clinic, Research Engineer at General Electric Global Research, Assistant Professor at Hashemite University, Senior Consultant at Cardinal Health.

MS in Industrial and Systems Engineering- With optional health systems concentration

All applicants must submit the following:

- Online graduate degree application and application fee
- Transcripts from each college/university which you have attended
- Two letters of recommendation
- Personal statement (2-3 pages) describing your reasons for pursuing graduate study, your career aspirations, your special interests within your field, and any unusual features of your background that might need explanation or be of interest to your program's admissions committee.
- Resume or Curriculum Vitae (max. 2 pages)
- Official GRE scores

And, for international applicants:
- International Student Financial Statement form
- Official bank statement/proof of support
- Official TOEFL, IELTS, or PTE Academic scores

Read less
Materials Science and Engineering offers interdisciplinary programs leading to the degrees of master of science and doctor of philosophy. Read more
Materials Science and Engineering offers interdisciplinary programs leading to the degrees of master of science and doctor of philosophy. Established in 2002, the program offers both the MS and PhD degree in materials science and engineering. While the program is relatively young, the participating departments and faculty on campus have an extensive legacy of research and of offering relevant materials science and engineering academic training.

From the smallest of the small to the opposite end of the spectrum, our students develop a foundation in the principles of materials science, selecting an atomic/nano approach or a bulk/macro approach. This foundation is then coupled with specialized knowledge in one area of materials, such as: energy production, storage and transmission; nanomaterials for a range of applications; electronic materials with a specialization in flexible electronics; biomaterials; modeling and mechanical behavior.

Recent doctoral graduate placements include: Post Doctoral Fellowship at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Reliability Engineer for Microsoft Corporation, Research Scientist for Toyota, Senior Research Engineer at LG Electronics, Post Doctoral Fellowship at Northwest National Lab, Senior Process Engineer at Global Foundries

Graduate Degrees Offered

- MS with an engineering emphasis or a science emphasis

All applicants must also submit the following:

- Online graduate degree application and application fee
- Transcripts from each college/university which you attended
- Three letters of recommendation
- Personal statement (2-3 pages) describing your reasons for pursuing graduate study, your career aspirations, your special interests within your field, and any unusual features of your background that might need explanation or be of interest to your program's admissions committee.
- Resume or Curriculum Vitae (max. 2 pages)
- Official GRE scores

And, for international applicants:
- International Student Financial Statement form
- Official bank statement/proof of support
- Official TOEFL, IELTS, or PTE Academic scores

Read less
The Master of Engineering Practice will be available from 2018 (subject to approval). Read more

The Master of Engineering Practice will be available from 2018 (subject to approval).

Designed for recent graduates and practicing engineers who want to upgrade and update their knowledge in the rapidly changing fields of electronics, materials and processing and mechanical engineering, the Master of Engineering Practice (MEngPrac) is a taught programme that may be completed in either 12 or 18 months.

The programme was developed not only in response to the demand from New Zealand employers for work-ready engineers able to tackle the challenges of the changing global, national and local environments, but to also meet the demand of international students who are looking at improving their employability with a taught masters degree.  The MEngPrac will enable you to work in diverse industries and fields in New Zealand and worldwide.

The programme includes a management component that will equip you with the professional skills demanded by employers. It also includes a capstone research and development project that will allow you to apply your advanced technical skills to an industrially relevant problem. This is a unique opportunity for young professionals to extend their skills and expertise in their chosen field.

Facilities

The University of Waikato School of Engineering’s specialised laboratories includes the Large Scale Lab complex that features a suite of workshops and laboratories dedicated to engineering teaching and research.  These include 3D printing, a mechanical workshop and computer labs with engineering design software.

Career opportunities

  • Electronics engineer
  • Mechatronics engineer
  • Mechanical engineer
  • Process engineer
  • Materials Engineer


Read less
This master’s course in Food Process Engineering will give you the theoretical and practical knowledge needed in the food industry, which, combined with relevant industrial training and experience, can help you on the path towards becoming a chartered engineer. Read more

This master’s course in Food Process Engineering will give you the theoretical and practical knowledge needed in the food industry, which, combined with relevant industrial training and experience, can help you on the path towards becoming a chartered engineer.

The food and drink industry is the biggest manufacturing sector in the UK, larger than the automotive and aerospace sectors combined. The sector is worth more than £20 billion a year, and its aims are to produce high quality, safe and affordable food at the lowest environmental cost.

There is a shortage of people with the skills needed to handle 21st century changes in food production, including nutrition, world population growth, IOT (Internet of Things), infomatics and automation, food personalisation, health, wellness and sustainability.

Your training will give you the skills, knowledge and ability to become a professional food process engineer. It will equip you with a detailed understanding of food process engineering theory, methods and practice, and is delivered by a team of specialists including lecturers from the food industry, or with food industry experience.

This programme includes specialist modules which will allow you to appreciate the processing properties of food materials, and how they can be converted from ingredient to product. It is taught and assessed in combination with the associated engineering science, to ensure that you understand how each process can be applied.

Your learning will be delivered by lecturers from the food industry, or with food industry experience. It will also be informed by the faculty’s research strengths in processing properties of food materials, from farm to fork.

The University of Nottingham has a strong research reputation in the field of food science. Our school of Biosciences is ranked no. 1 research environment in the UK for Agriculture, Veterinary and Food Science (Research Excellence Framework 2014).

This course is part of the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, which is ranked 6th in The Guardian University Guide 2018 and 8th in The Times Good University Guide 2018.



Read less
This programme produces engineers who are highly skilled in the techniques of manufacturing management and its related technologies, providing the basis for effective careers as managers who can meet the challenges of the rapidly changing global manufacturing industry. Read more
This programme produces engineers who are highly skilled in the techniques of manufacturing management and its related technologies, providing the basis for effective careers as managers who can meet the challenges of the rapidly changing global manufacturing industry.

Core study areas include manufacturing system and process modelling, lean and agile manufacture engineering management and business studies, product information systems - product lifecycle management, the innovation process and project management, sustainable development, advanced manufacturing processes and automation, additive manufacturing and a project.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/mechanical-manufacturing/advanced-manuf-eng-mgt/

Programme modules

- Manufacturing System and Process Modelling
The objective of this module is to provide an understanding of manufacturing and its management that recognises breadth and depth of required resources and information. This is done through developing an understanding of the hierarchy of computer based modelling relevant to manufacturing, ranging from the detail of material behaviour in processed parts, through macroscopic process models to the integration of processes within manufacturing systems and higher level business processes.

- Lean and Agile Manufacture
This module allows students to gain an understanding of lean and agile concepts in the manufacturing business, including its distribution chains. Students will learn to specify, design and evaluate an appropriate lean or agile business system.

- Engineering Management and Business Studies
The aim of the module is to introduce the concepts of management techniques that are applicable to running an engineering company. Students will learn to evaluate commercial risk, plan and organise engineering activities for improved company effectiveness and communicate technical and business information to ensure maximum impact.

- Product Information Systems – Product Lifecycle Management
The objectives of this module are for students to understand and critically evaluate the emerging product information systems for designers in the form of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) systems. Students will learn to use modern information and process modelling techniques to define the information integration and workflow requirements of a PLM configuration.

- The Innovation Process and Project Management
Students will establish a clear overview of the innovation process and an understanding of the essential elements within it. They will learn strategies for planning and carrying out innovative projects in any field.

- Sustainable Development: The Engineering Context
This module provides students with an understanding of the principles and practices of sustainable development and to provide them with an understanding of how engineers can help manufacturing businesses develop into more sustainable enterprises.

- Advanced Manufacturing Processes and Automation
Students will gain an in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques, processes and technologies. They will learn to understand and critically evaluate advanced manufacturing processes and technologies, assessing their advantages and disadvantages.

- Additive Manufacturing
The module will introduce and develop the concepts of Additive Manufacturing (AM) and demonstrate the different AM techniques available at Loughborough University. The module will emphasise the strengths and weaknesses of the various technologies and highlight applications and case studies from the AM industry.

- Projects
In addition to the taught modules, all students undertake an individual major project. Part-time students normally undertake a major project that is based on the needs of their employing company.

How you will learn

You will learn through a carefully balanced combination of lectures, in-class guided workshops, hands-on computer modelling and independent research. Following eight taught modules, students pursue an individual project typically based on the diverse range of industrially focused manufacturing research strengths within the School. Part time students may base their projects on particular needs of their current employer.

Examinations are in January and May / June with coursework throughout the programme. The project is assessed by written report, presentation and exhibition.

Careers and further study

Within national or multinational manufacturing industry companies working as a Manufacturing Engineer, Project Engineer, Systems Analyst or Software Development Specialist. Graduates may also study for an MPhil or PhD with the School’s research groups.

Scholarships

The University offers over 100 scholarships each year to new self-financing full-time international students who are permanently resident in a country outside the European Union. These scholarships are to the value of 25% of the programme tuition fee and that value will be credited to the student’s tuition fee account.
You can apply for a scholarship once you have received an offer for a place on this programme.

Why Choose Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at Loughborough?

The School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering is a leader in technological research and innovation, with extensive national and international industrial links, and a long standing tradition of excellent teaching.

Our Industrial Advisory Committee, comprising of engineers at senior levels in the profession, ensures that our programmes contain the optimal balance of subjects and industrial relevance, with our programmes accredited by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Engineering and Technology and Institution of Engineering Designers.

- Facilities
The School has laboratories devoted to disciplines such as; dynamics and control, automation, fluid mechanics, healthcare engineering, internal combustion engines, materials, mechatronics, metrology, optical engineering, additive manufacturing, sports engineering, structural integrity and thermodynamics.

- Research
The School has a busy, multi-national community of well over 150 postgraduate research students who form an important part of our internationally recognised research activities.
We have seven key research centres (Electronics Manufacture, Intelligent Automation, Regenerative Medicine Embedded Intelligence, High Efficiency SCR for Low Emission Vehicles and High Value Manufacturing Catapult Centre) and we are a lead governing partner in the newly formed UK Manufacturing Technology Centre.

- Career prospects
90% of our graduates were in employment or further study within six months of graduating. Our graduates go on to work with companies such as Airbus, BAE Systems, Caterpillar, EDF Energy, Ford, IBM, Jaguar Land Rover, Millbrook Proving Ground, Rolls Royce and Tata Steel.

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/mechanical-manufacturing/advanced-manuf-eng-mgt/

Read less
We worked with industry professionals to develop an MSc Applied Instrument and Control programme that is accredited by the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC). Read more

We worked with industry professionals to develop an MSc Applied Instrument and Control programme that is accredited by the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC). It covers both the latest developments in the field and the industry knowledge we've gained through years of experience.

You'll acquire a specialised skillset and expertise that's highly desirable to employers, making you a competitive candidate for rewarding careers in many industries, with oil and gas pathways available. The programme draws on relevant case studies with real-world implications, so you'll gain practical knowledge that you can apply on the job from day one.

The programme also fulfils the Engineering Council's further learning requirements for registration as a Chartered Engineer.

  • Gain a solid foundation in measurement science and control theory
  • Practise data acquisition and instrument networking
  • Study analysis of systems for condition monitoring
  • Investigate fault detection and control system design
  • Complete a hands-on project in the industry for experiential learning

At GCU, you'll find a welcoming community of people like yourself - hardworking, career-focused individuals with the vision and discipline to pursue meaningful work. We'll help you develop the tools to be successful, in your career and in your life.

We hope you'll use those tools to make a positive impact on your community and contribute to the common good through everything you do.

What you will study

The curriculum has been developed in consultation with industry and can be broadly grouped in three areas: the introduction of new facts and concepts in measurement and control; the application of facts and concepts to real measurement problems and systems; and subjects which are of general importance to the professional engineer, for example safety and safety management and management ethics and project planning.

Students complete eight taught modules - four in trimester A and four in trimester B; and a Masters project in trimester C.The MSc project will be carried out at the student's workplace; this can be in an area relevant to the company's production/maintenance function, thus providing maximum benefit to both the company and the individual.

Control Systems

Consolidates advanced classical and modern control design techniques emphasising the practical considerations in applying control design in an industrial environment. The appropriateness and difficulties encountered in applying various design techniques in practice will be explored. In particular system sensitivity, robustness and nonlinearity will be studied.

Data Acquisition and Analysis

Develops the ability to evaluate, in a given situation, the most appropriate strategy for acquiring data and understand the merits of this strategy with respect to other approaches. A range of modern time and frequency domain analysis techniques will also be discussed.

Industrial Case Studies

Following on from the foundation in measurement and instrumentation provided by the Measurement Theory and Devices module, students will now be equipped to study in depth instrumentation in industrial processes. This module will cover aspects of designing sensor systems for industrial measurements, instrument control, system troubleshooting and optimisation in industrial applications.

Distributed Instrumentation

Develops the ability to evaluate, in a given situation, the most appropriate strategy for acquiring and transmitting data and understand the merits of this strategy with respect to other approaches. A wide range of different instrument communication and networking techniques will be studied. In addition the module provides practical experience of hardware setup and software development, relating to these techniques.

Industrial Process Systems

Identification and system modelling from real data play an important role in this module. This approach thus leads to more complex and realistic models that can be used to design more robust and reliable controllers that take into account problematic physical effects such as time-delays and sensor noise. The module will cover more advanced aspects of control design such as feed forward and multivariable control.

Measurement Systems

A range of advanced measurement systems will be studied in depth. Sensors, signal processing, low-level signal measurements, noise-reduction methods and appropriate measurement strategies will be applied to industrial and environmental applications. The influence of environmental factors and operation conditions will be considered in relation to the optimisation of the measurement system.

Measurement Theory and Devices

Adopts a generalised approach to measurement theory and devices, allowing students to become familiar with the characteristics of measurement systems in terms of the underlying principles. In this way, the students will be able to develop a systems approach to problem solving. They should find this methodology to be a considerable benefit to them when they have to apply their expertise to solving more complex industrial measurement problems.

Professional Practice

Develops the students' ability to select, develop and plan an MSc research project, to research and critically analyse the literature associated with the project and to present research findings effectively, it will also provide students with the ability to apply a competent process of thinking to project planning and give them a critical understanding of safe and ethical working.

Accreditation

The programme is accredited by the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC) as meeting the Engineering Council’s further learning requirements for registration as a Chartered Engineer.

Graduate prospects

The MSc Applied Instrumentation and Control offers graduates a highly focused skillset that's valuable to an extremely wide range of industries - any business that benefits from the measurement of process variables and environmental factors. For instance, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, optics and optoelectronics, medical instrumentation and more.

Across these industries, you might focus on computer-controlled instrumentation systems, process instrumentation, technical management and sales, process control and automation, sensor development and manufacturing, instrument networking, industrial development or test and measurement systems.

You might also pursue a career with a company that designs and manufactures measurement systems.



Read less
The Programme, entirely offered in English, prepares high-level professionals that can work in the field of the built environment, and in particular of high energy performance, low environmental impact buildings, thanks to a multi-disciplinary training and to the acquisition of specialist engineering skills. Read more

Mission and goals

The Programme, entirely offered in English, prepares high-level professionals that can work in the field of the built environment, and in particular of high energy performance, low environmental impact buildings, thanks to a multi-disciplinary training and to the acquisition of specialist engineering skills.
The Programme offers two tracks with specific characteristics:
- Architectural Engineering (offered in Lecco), giving students the ability to manage – and take part in – the integrated design process of complex construction projects;
- Building Engineering (offered in Milano Leonardo), giving students the ability to design, model and predict the physical, mechanical, and energy behaviour of complex building components and systems, services and structures.

See the website http://www.polinternational.polimi.it/educational-offer/laurea-magistrale-equivalent-to-master-of-science-programmes/building-and-architectural-engineering/

Career opportunities

The Building and Architectural Engineer is a professional that can effectively practice in complex, multi-disciplinary and multi-scale projects, and in particular in the following fields:
- design of complex new buildings, in particular in the areas of technology, structures, energy efficiency and environmental quality;

- refurbishment and retrofit of existing buildings, in particular in the areas of technology, energy upgrade and structural consolidation;

- management of the multi-disciplinary, multi-scalar design process, with the help of specific design and information tools;

- technological innovation of building components and systems;

- advanced performance modelling of complex building components and systems, services and structures;

- management of global performances, with the goal of reducing the environmental impact of buildings.

More information on the programme website: http://www.ccsarcheng.polimi.it/

Presentation

See http://www.polinternational.polimi.it/uploads/media/Building_Engineering_01.pdf
This track of the Master of Science in Building and Architectural Engineers trains Building Engineers that can manage the complexity of building projects, through the application of engineering principles and tools to building design and construction. The programme
focuses on sustainability, energy efficiency and safety issues in the building sector, considering both horizontal (interdisciplinary) and vertical (life cycle-related) integration.
The Building Engineer is a professional with robust scientific and technical skills ready to:
• engineer the architectural design of complex, large and/or special buildings;
• supervise the design integration of all technological and technical parts (building fabric, structure, building systems);
• manage the whole manufacturing and life cycle of building systems and components;
• organize and control the construction and maintenance process.

More specifically, the Building Engineering programme provides students with knowledge and tools necessary to model the detailed physical and structural behaviour of building components and, in particular, of the building envelope, the filter between the interior and exterior environment. Hence, the Building Engineer is able to bring, into multidisciplinary design teams, the necessary skills to design innovative envelope components and assess the related performances in their service life.

Subjects

Some of the key subjects are:
- Engineering Design for Architecture
- Advanced Construction Materials
- Advanced Building Systems Engineering
- Structural modelling and analysis, design of structure
- Earthquake resistant design
- Advanced Building Physics
- Building Energy Modelling and Building Envelope Design
- Multiphysics optimization on Building Envelope

See the website http://www.polinternational.polimi.it/educational-offer/laurea-magistrale-equivalent-to-master-of-science-programmes/building-and-architectural-engineering/

For contact information see here http://www.polinternational.polimi.it/educational-offer/laurea-magistrale-equivalent-to-master-of-science-programmes/building-and-architectural-engineering/

Find out how to apply here http://www.polinternational.polimi.it/how-to-apply/

Read less

Show 10 15 30 per page



Cookie Policy    X