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The course provides an introduction to the physical principles and mathematical techniques of current research in general relativity, quantum gravity, particle physics, quantum field theory, quantum information theory, cosmology and the early universe. Read more

Overview

The course provides an introduction to the physical principles and mathematical techniques of current research in general relativity, quantum gravity, particle physics, quantum field theory, quantum information theory, cosmology and the early universe.

The programme of study includes a taught component of closely-related modules in this popular area of mathematical physics. The course also includes a substantial project that will allow students to develop their interest and expertise in a specific topic at the frontier of current research, and develop their skills in writing a full scientific report.

The course will provide training in advanced methods in mathematics and physics which have applications in a wide variety of scientific careers and provide students with enhanced employability compared with undergraduate Bachelors degrees. In particular, it will provide training appropriate for students preparing to study for a PhD in the research areas listed above. For those currently in employment, the course will provide a route back to academic study.

Key facts:

- The course is taught jointly by the School of Mathematical Sciences and the School of Physics and Astronomy.

- Dissertation topics are chosen from among active research themes of the Particle Theory group, the Quantum Gravity group and the Quantum Information group.

- In addition to the lectures there are several related series of research-level seminars to which masters students are welcomed.

- The University of Nottingham is ranked in the top 1% of all universities worldwide.

Module details

Advanced Gravity

Black Holes

Differential Geometry

Gravity

Gravity, Particles and Fields Dissertation

Introduction to Quantum Information Science

Modern Cosmology

Quantum Field Theory

English language requirements for international students

IELTS: 6.0 (with no less than 5.5 in any element)

Further information



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his is a one year advanced taught course. The aim of this course is to bring students in twelve months to the frontier of elementary particle theory. Read more
his is a one year advanced taught course. The aim of this course is to bring students in twelve months to the frontier of elementary particle theory. This course is intended for students who have already obtained a good first degree in either physics or mathematics, including in the latter case courses in quantum mechanics and relativity.

The course consists of three modules: the first two are the Michaelmas and Epiphany graduate lecture courses, which are assessed by examinations in January and March. The third module is a dissertation on a topic of current research, prepared under the guidance of a supervisor with expertise in the area. We offer a wide variety of possible dissertation topics. The dissertation must be submitted by September 15th, the end of the twelve month course period.

Course Structure
The main group of lectures are given in the first two terms of the academic year (Michaelmas and Epiphany). This part of the lecture course is assessed by examinations. In each term there are two teaching periods of 4 weeks, with a week's break in the middle of the term in which students will be able to revise the material. most courses are either 8 lectures or 16 lectures in length. There are 14 lectures/week in the Michaelmas term and 14 lectures/week in Epiphany term.

Core Modules
- Introductory Field Theory
- Group Theory
- Standard Model
- General Relativity
- Quantum Electrodynamics
- Quantum Field Theory
- Conformal Field Theory
- Supersymmetry
- Anomalies
- Strong Interaction Physics
- Cosmology
- Superstrings and D-branes
- Non-Perturbative Physics
- Euclidean Field Theory
- Flavour Physics and Effective Field Theory
- Neutrinos and Astroparticle Physics
- 2d Quantum Field Theory
- Optional Modules
- Differential Geometry for Physicists
- Boundaries and Defects in Integrable Field Theory
- Computing for Physicists.

For further information on this course, please visit the Centre for Particle Theory website (http://www.cpt.dur.ac.uk/GraduateStudies)

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This is a one year advanced taught course. The aim of this course is to bring students in twelve months to the frontier of elementary particle theory. Read more
This is a one year advanced taught course. The aim of this course is to bring students in twelve months to the frontier of elementary particle theory. This course is intended for students who have already obtained a good first degree in either physics or mathematics, including in the latter case courses in quantum mechanics and relativity.

The course consists of three modules: the first two are the Michaelmas and Epiphany graduate lecture courses, which are assessed by examinations in January and March. The third module is a dissertation on a topic of current research, prepared under the guidance of a supervisor with expertise in the area. We offer a wide variety of possible dissertation topics. The dissertation must be submitted by September 15th, the end of the twelve month course period.

Course Structure

The main group of lectures are given in the first two terms of the academic year (Michaelmas and Epiphany). This part of the lecture course is assessed by examinations. In each term there are two teaching periods of four weeks, with a week's break in the middle of the term in which students will be able to revise the material. Most courses are either eight lectures or 16 lectures in length. There are 14 lectures/week in the Michaelmas term and 14 lectures/week in Epiphany term.

Core Modules

-Introductory Field Theory
-Group Theory
-Standard Model
-General Relativity
-Quantum Electrodynamics
-Quantum Field Theory
-Conformal Field Theory
-Supersymmetry
-Anomalies
-Strong Interaction Physics
-Cosmology
-Superstrings and D-branes
-Non-Perturbative Physics
-Euclidean Field Theory
-Flavour Physics and Effective Field Theory
-Neutrinos and Astroparticle Physics
-2d Quantum Field Theory

Optional Modules available in previous years included:

-Differential Geometry for Physicists
-Boundaries and Defects in Integrable Field Theory
-Computing for Physicists

Learning and Teaching

This is a full-year degree course, starting early October and finishing in the middle of the subsequent September. The aim of the course is to bring students to the frontier of research in elementary particle theory. The course consists of three modules: the first two are the Michaelmas and Epiphany graduate lecture courses. The third module is a dissertation on a topic of current research, prepared under the guidance of a supervisor with expertise in the area. We offer a wide variety of possible dissertation topics.

The lectures begin with a general survey of particle physics and introductory courses on quantum field theory and group theory. These lead on to more specialised topics, amongst others in string theory, cosmology, supersymmetry and more detailed aspects of the standard model.

The main group of lectures is given in the first two terms of the academic year (Michaelmas and Epiphany). This part of the lecture course is assessed by examinations. In each term there are two teaching periods of 4 weeks, with a week's break in the middle of the term in which students will be able to revise the material. Most courses are either 8 lectures or 16 lectures in length. There are 14 lectures/week in the Michaelmas term and 14 lectures/week in Epiphany term they are supported by weekly tutorials. In addition lecturers also set a number of homework assignments which give the student a chance to test his or her understanding of the material.

There are additional optional lectures in the third term. These introduce advanced topics and are intended as preparation for research in these areas.

The dissertation must be submitted by mid-September, the end of the twelve month course period.

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Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Read more
Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Not only must further research be done, but industry and business also need environmental specialists with a strong background in natural sciences. As new regulations and European Union directives are adopted in practice, people with knowledge of recent scientific research are required.

Upon graduating from the Programme you will have competence in:
-Applying experimental, computational and statistical methods to obtain and analyse atmospheric and environmental data.
-Knowledge applicable to solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.
-Making systematic and innovative use of investigation or experimentation to discover new knowledge.
-Reporting results in a clear and logical manner.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The six study lines are as follows:
Aerosol Physics
Aerosol particles are tiny liquid or solid particles floating in the air. Aerosol physics is essential for our understanding of air quality, climate change and production of nanomaterials. Aerosol scientists investigate a large variety of phenomena associated with atmospheric aerosol particles and related gas-to-particle conversion using constantly improving experimental, theoretical, model-based and data analysis methods. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the most recent theoretical concepts, measurement techniques and computational methods applied in aerosol research.

Geophysics of the Hydrosphere
Hydrospheric geophysics studies water in all of its forms using physical methods. It includes hydrology, cryology, and physical oceanography. Hydrology includes the study of surface waters such as lakes and rivers, global and local hydrological cycles as well as water resources and geohydrology, the study of groundwater. Cryology focuses on snow and ice phenomena including glacier mass balance and dynamics, sea ice physics, snow cover effects and ground frost. Physical oceanography covers saline water bodies, focusing on describing their dynamics, both large scale circulation and water masses, and local phenomena such as surface waves, upwelling, tides, and ocean acoustics. Scientists study the hydrosphere through field measurements, large and small scale modelling, and formulating mathematical descriptions of the processes.

Meteorology
Meteorology is the physics of the atmosphere. Its best-known application is weather forecasting, but meteorological knowledge is also essential for understanding, predicting and mitigating climate change. Meteorologists study atmospheric phenomena across a wide range of space and time scales using theory, model simulations and observations. The field of meteorology is a forerunner in computing: the development of chaos theory, for example, was triggered by the unexpected behaviour of a meteorological computer model. Meteorology in ATM-MP is further divided into dynamic meteorology and biometeorology. Dynamic meteorology is about large-scale atmospheric dynamics, modelling and observation techniques, whereas biometeorology focuses on interactions between the atmosphere and the underlying surface by combining observations and modelling to study the flows of greenhouse gases and energy with links to biogeochemical cycles, for example. As a graduate of the meteorology line, you will be an expert in atmospheric phenomena who can produce valuable new information and share your knowledge.

Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeochemistry studies the processes involved in cycling of elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by integrating physics, meteorology, geophysics, chemistry, geology and biology. Besides natural ecosystems, it also studies systems altered by human activity such as forests under different management regimes, drained peatlands, lakes loaded by excess nutrients and urban environments. The most important elements and substances studied are carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, water and phosphorus, which are vital for ecosystem functioning and processes such as photosynthesis. Biogeochemistry often focuses on the interphases of scientific disciplines and by doing so, it also combines different research methods. It treats ecosystems as open entities which are closely connected to the atmosphere and lithosphere. You will thus get versatile training in environmental issues and research techniques. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the functioning of ecosystems and the interactions between ecosystems and the atmosphere/hydrosphere/lithosphere in the context of global change. You will have knowledge applicable for solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.

Remote Sensing
Remote sensing allows the collection of information about the atmosphere, oceans and land surfaces. Various techniques are applied for monitoring the state and dynamics of the Earth system from the ground, aircraft or satellites. While Lidar and radar scan from the surface or mounted on aircraft, instruments on polar orbiting or geostationary satellites permit measurements worldwide. In atmospheric sciences remote sensing has found numerous applications such as observations of greenhouse and other trace gases, aerosols, water vapour, clouds and precipitation, as well as surface observations, for example of vegetation, fire activity, snow cover, sea ice and oceanic parameters such as phytoplankton. Synergistic satellite data analysis enables the study of important processes and feedback in the climate system. Remote sensing advances climate research, weather forecasting, air quality studies, aviation safety and the renewable energy industry. As a graduate of the remote sensing line you will have broad expertise in the operational principles of remote sensing instruments as well as methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation.

Atmospheric Chemistry and Analysis
Atmospheric chemistry studies the composition and reactions of the molecules that make up the atmosphere, including atmospheric trace constituents and their role in chemical, geological and biological processes, including human influence. The low concentrations and high reactivity of these trace molecules place stringent requirements on the measurement and modelling methods used to study them. Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter and plays an essential role in the development of science. Environmental analysis consists of the most recent procedures for sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis and learning how to choose the best analytical methods for different environmental samples. Physical atmospheric chemistry studies focus on the reaction types and reaction mechanisms occurring in the atmosphere, with emphasis on reaction kinetics, thermodynamics and modelling methods. As a graduate of this line you will have understanding of the chemical processes of the atmosphere and the latest environmental analytical methods, so you will have vital skills for environmental research.

Programme Structure

The basic degree in the Programme is the Master of Science (MSc). The scope of the degree is 120 credits (ECTS). As a prerequisite you will need to have a relevant Bachelor’s degree. The possible major subjects are Physics, Meteorology, Geophysics, Chemistry, and Forest Ecology. The programme is designed to be completed in two years. Studies in ATM-MP consist of various courses and project work: lecture courses, seminars, laboratory work and intensive courses.

Your first year of studies will consist mainly of lecture courses. During the second year, you must also participate in the seminar course and give a presentation yourself. There is also a project course, which may contain laboratory work, data analysis, or theoretical or model studies. You will have to prepare a short, written report of the project. There are also several summer and winter schools as well as field courses for students in the Programme. Many of the courses take place at the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Southern Finland. The intensive courses typically last 5–12 days and include a concise daily programme with lectures, exercises and group work.

Career Prospects

There is a global need for experts with multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and environmental issues. Governmental environmental agencies need people who are able to interpret new scientific results as a basis for future legislation. Industry, transportation and businesses need to be able to adapt to new regulations.

As a Master of Science graduating from the Programme you will have a strong background of working with environmental issues. You will have the ability to find innovative solutions to complex problems in the field of environmental sciences, climate change and weather forecasting. Graduates of the Programme have found employment in Meteorological Institutes and Environmental Administration in Finland and other countries, companies manufacturing instrumentation for atmospheric and environmental measurements and analysis, and consultancy companies. The Master's degree in ATM-MP also gives you a good background if you intend to proceed to doctoral level studies.

Internationalization

The Programme offers an international study environment with more than 30% of the students and teaching staff coming from abroad.

The ATM-MP is part of a Nordic Nordplus network in Atmosphere-Biosphere Studies, which gives you good opportunities to take courses currently in fourteen Nordic and Baltic universities. There are also several Erasmus agreements with European universities. The PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX) project provides you with opportunities to carry out part of your studies especially in China and Russia.

Research Focus

All the units teaching in the Programme belong to the National Centre of Excellence (FCoE) in Atmospheric Science – From Molecular and Biological processes to the Global Climate (ATM), which is a multidisciplinary team of the Departments of Physics, Forest Sciences and Chemistry at the University of Helsinki, the Department of Applied Physics at the University of Eastern Finland (Kuopio) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

The main objective of FCoE ATM is to quantify the feedbacks between the atmosphere and biosphere in a changing climate. The main focus of the research is on investigating the following topics:
1. Understanding the climatic feedbacks and forcing mechanisms related to aerosols, clouds, precipitation and biogeochemical cycles.
2. Developing, refining and utilising the newest measurement and modelling techniques, from quantum chemistry to observations and models of global earth systems.
3. Creating a comprehensive understanding of the role of atmospheric clusters and aerosol particles in regional and global biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen and their linkages to atmospheric chemistry.
4. Integrating the results in the context of understanding regional and global Earth systems.

In addition to the research focus of FCoE, current research in hydrospheric geophysics at Helsinki University has an emphasis on cryology, with a focus on the effect of aerosols on Indian glaciers, the impact of climate change on the Arctic environment, the dynamics of the Austfonna ice cap in Svalbard, and the winter season in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

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The M.Sc. in Medical Physics is a full time course which aims to equip you for a career as a scientist in medicine. You will be given the basic knowledge of the subject area and some limited training. Read more
The M.Sc. in Medical Physics is a full time course which aims to equip you for a career as a scientist in medicine. You will be given the basic knowledge of the subject area and some limited training. The course consists of an intense program of lectures and workshops, followed by a short project and dissertation. Extensive use is made of the electronic learning environment "Blackboard" as used by NUI Galway. The course has been accredited by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (UK).

Syllabus Outline. (with ECTS weighting)
Human Gross Anatomy (5 ECTS)
The cell, basic tissues, nervous system, nerves and muscle, bone and cartilage, blood, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, nutrition, genital system, urinary system, eye and vision, ear, hearing and balance, upper limb – hand, lower limb – foot, back and vertebral column, embryology, teratology, anthropometrics; static and dynamic anthropometrics data, anthropometric dimensions, clearance and reach and range of movement, method of limits, mathematics modelling.

Human Body Function (5 ECTS)
Biological Molecules and their functions. Body composition. Cell physiology. Cell membranes and membrane transport. Cell electrical potentials. Nerve function – nerve conduction, nerve synapses. Skeletal muscle function – neuromuscular junction, muscle excitation, muscle contraction, energy considerations. Blood and blood cells – blood groups, blood clotting. Immune system. Autonomous nervous system. Cardiovascular system – electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. – the peripheral circulation. Respiratory system- how the lungs work. Renal system – how the kidneys work. Digestive system. Endocrine system – how hormones work. Central nervous system and brain function.

Occupational Hygiene (5 ECTS)
Historical development of Occupational Hygiene, Safety and Health at Work Act. Hazards to Health, Surveys, Noise and Vibrations, Ionizing radiations, Non-Ionizing Radiations, Thermal Environments, Chemical hazards, Airborne Monitoring, Control of Contaminants, Ventilation, Management of Occupational Hygiene.

Medical Informatics (5 ECTS)
Bio statistics, Distributions, Hypothesis testing. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, T-tests, ANOVA, regression. Critical Appraisal of Literature, screening and audit. Patient and Medical records, Coding, Hospital Information Systems, Decision support systems. Ethical consideration in Research.
Practicals: SPSS. Appraisal exercises.

Clinical Instrumentation (6 ECTS)
Biofluid Mechanics: Theory: Pressures in the Body, Fluid Dynamics, Viscous Flow, Elastic Walls, Instrumentation Examples: Respiratory Function Testing, Pressure Measurements, Blood Flow measurements. Physics of the Senses: Theory: Cutaneous and Chemical sensors, Audition, Vision, Psychophysics; Instrumentation Examples: Evoked responses, Audiology, Ophthalmology instrumentation, Physiological Signals: Theory Electrodes, Bioelectric Amplifiers, Transducers, Electrophysiology Instrumentation.

Medical Imaging (10 ECTS)
Theory of Image Formation including Fourier Transforms and Reconstruction from Projections (radon transform). Modulation transfer Function, Detective Quantum Efficiency.
X-ray imaging: Interaction of x-rays with matter, X-ray generation, Projection images, Scatter, Digital Radiography, CT – Imaging. Fundamentals of Image Processing.
Ultrasound: Physics of Ultrasound, Image formation, Doppler scanning, hazards of Ultrasound.
Nuclear Medicine : Overview of isotopes, generation of Isotopes, Anger Cameras, SPECT Imaging, Positron Emitters and generation, PET Imaging, Clinical aspects of Planar, SPECT and PET Imaging with isotopes.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Magnetization, Resonance, Relaxation, Contrast in MR Imaging, Image formation, Image sequences, their appearances and clinical uses, Safety in MR.

Radiation Fundamentals (5 ECTS)
Review of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Radiation from charged particles. X-ray production and quality. Attenuation of Photon Beams in Matter. Interaction of Photons with Matter. Interaction of Charged Particles with matter. Introduction to Monte Carlo techniques. Concept to Dosimetry. Cavity Theory. Radiation Detectors. Practical aspects of Ionization chambers

The Physics of Radiation Therapy (10 ECTS)
The interaction of single beams of X and gamma rays with a scattering medium. Treatment planning with single photon beams. Treatment planning for combinations of photon beams. Radiotherapy with particle beams: electrons, pions, neutrons, heavy charged particles. Special Techniques in Radiotherapy. Equipment for external Radiotherapy. Relative dosimetry techniques. Dosimetry using sealed sources. Brachytherapy. Dosimetry of radio-isotopes.

Workshops / Practicals
Hospital & Radiation Safety [11 ECTS]
Workshop in Risk and Safety.
Concepts of Risk and Safety. Legal Aspects. Fundamental concepts in Risk Assessment and Human Factor Engineering. Risk and Safety management of complex systems with examples from ICU and Radiotherapy. Accidents in Radiotherapy and how to avoid them. Principles of Electrical Safety, Electrical Safety Testing, Non-ionizing Radiation Safety, including UV and laser safety.
- NUIG Radiation Safety Course.
Course for Radiation Safety Officer.
- Advanced Radiation Safety
Concepts of Radiation Protection in Medical Practice, Regulations. Patient Dosimetry. Shielding design in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy.
- Medical Imaging Workshop
Operation of imaging systems. Calibration and Quality Assurance of General
radiography, fluoroscopy systems, ultrasound scanners, CT-scanners and MR scanners. Radiopharmacy and Gamma Cameras Quality Control.

Research Project [28 ECTS]
A limited research project will be undertaken in a medical physics area. Duration of this will be 4 months full time

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Are you interested in theoretical and/or experimental research of elementary particles, stars and the universe? Do you want to attend lectures by Nobel… Read more

Something for you?

Are you interested in theoretical and/or experimental research of elementary particles, stars and the universe? Do you want to attend lectures by Nobel Prize laureates and other internationally renowned researchers during your education? Do you want to participate actively in the latest, innovative experiments at CERN or on Antarctica? Or do you aspire to have a career in academia, industry, banking, in the medical sector or education? In that case this Master programme is what you are looking for!

About the programme

This MSc programme combines the expertise in research of both the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) and Ghent University (UGent). This allows you to tailor your study programme according to your interests. The programme consists of several components: basic competences, electives, Master’s thesis and, specifically for the minor Research, mobility / internship. Mobility means taking courses at another university, usually in Belgium, while the internship can be either in Belgium or abroad.

Content

Elementary particles
The structure of this Master’s programme ensures a broad formation as a physicist and offers you the opportunity to partake in top-level research in our very own research groups. This programme focuses on the physics of elementary particles, where both experimental and theoretical research topics are discussed, as well as astro-particle physics.

Experimental physicist
As an aspiring experimental physicist you can focus on the experimental study of high-energy interactions and cosmic radiation, and you can work with the most innovative detectors in the biggest particle accelerators.

Theoretical physicist
As a future theorist you will be confronted with gauge theories, strings and branes, gravitation and cosmology. This theoretical part has links with theoretical research in astrophysics, since that discipline studies the evolution of massive double stars, the evolution of star birth galaxies and the chemical evolution of galaxies.

Astronomer
As an aspiring astronomer you can choose to do observational research on topics such as astroseismology and the development of photometric techniques.

Quantum physics
Finally, you can also decide to specialise in the most fundamental aspects of quantum physics and its recent applications in the field of quantum information.

Curriculum

The curriculum consists of four components:

1. Mandatory courses
2. Electives
3. Internship
4. Master thesis
This structure ensures that you will have a solid formation as a physicist, while offering you the possibility to participate in high-level research in our research groups.

Room for interaction and discussion

Physics students at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel attend lectures, exercises, lab sessions and excursions in small groups. There is room for interaction and discussion, and a low threshold for students to actively participate. This programme pays special attention to critical analysis.

The different research groups at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel are in close contact with leading universities and research institutes around the world, which allows you to do part of your studies and/or the research for your Master’s thesis abroad. Our research groups work for example at the particle accelerator at CERN.

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A physics programme that covers the inner workings of the universe from the smallest to the largest scale. Although Particle Physics and Astrophysics act on a completely different scale, they both use the laws of physics to study the universe. Read more

Master's specialisation in Particle and Astrophysics

A physics programme that covers the inner workings of the universe from the smallest to the largest scale
Although Particle Physics and Astrophysics act on a completely different scale, they both use the laws of physics to study the universe. In this Master’s specialisation you’ll dive into these extreme worlds and unravel questions like: What did our universe look like in the earliest stages of its existence? What are the most elementary particles that the universe consists of? And how will it evolve?
If you are fascinated by the extreme densities, gravities, and magnetic fields that can be found only in space, or by the formation, evolution, and composition of astrophysical objects, you can focus on the Astrophysics branch within this specialisation. Would you rather study particle interactions and take part in the search for new particles – for example during an internship at CERN - then you can choose a programme full of High Energy Physics. And for students with a major interest in the theories and predictions underlying all experimental work, we offer an extensive programme in mathematical or theoretical physics.
Whatever direction you choose, you’ll learn to solve complex problems and think in an abstract way. This means that you’ll be highly appealing to employers in academia and business. Previous students have, for example, found jobs at Shell, ASML, Philips and space research institute SRON.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/physicsandastronomy/particle

Why study Particle and Astrophysics at Radboud University?

- This Master’s specialisation provides you with a thorough background in High Energy Physics, Astrophysics, and Mathematical Physics and the interface between them.
- Apart from the mandatory programme, there’s plenty of room to adapt the programme to your specific interests.
- The programme offers the opportunity to perform theoretical or experimental research.
- During this specialisation it is possible to participate in large-scale research projects, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or the LOFAR telescope.

Career prospects

This Master’s specialisation is an excellent preparation for a career in research, either at a university, at an institute (think of ESA and CERN) or at a company. However, many of our students end up in other business or government positions as well. Whatever job you aspire, you can certainly make use of the fact that you have learned:
- Thinking in an abstract way
- Solving complex problems
- Using statistics
- Computer programming
- Giving presentations

Some of our alumni now work as:
- National project manager at EU Universe Awareness
- Actuarial trainee at Talent & Pro
- Associate Private Equity at HAL Investments
- Consultant at Accenture
- ECO Operations Manager at Ofgem
- Scientist at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research
- Technology strategy Manager at Accenture

Working at a company

Other previous students have found jobs at for example:
- Shell
- KNMI
- Liander
- NXP
- ASML
- Philips
- McKinsey
- DSM
- Solvay
- Unilever
- AkzoNobel

Researchers in the field of Particle and Astrophysics develop advanced detector techniques that are often also useful for other applications. This resulted in numerous spin-off companies in for example medical equipment and detectors for industrial processes:
- Medipix
- Amsterdam Scientific Instruments
- Omics2Image
- InnoSeis

PhD positions

At Radboud University, there are typically a few PhD positions per year available in the field of Particle and Astrophysics. Many of our students attained a PhD position, not just at Radboud University, but at universities all over the world.

Our approach to this field

In the Particle and Astrophysics specialisation, you’ll discover both the largest and the smallest scales in the universe. Apart from Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, this specialisation is also aimed at the interface between them: experiments and theory related to the Big Bang, general relativity, dark matter, etc. As all relevant research departments are present at Radboud University – and closely work together – you’re free to choose any focus within this specialisation. For example:

- High energy physics
You’ll dive into particle physics and answer questions about the most fundamental building blocks of matter: leptons and quarks. The goal is to understand particle interactions and look for signs of physics beyond the standard model by confronting theoretical predictions with experimental observations.

- Astrophysics
The Astrophysics department concentrates on the physics of compact objects, such as neutron stars and black holes, and the environments in which they occur. This includes understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. While galaxies may contain of up to a hundred billion stars, most of their mass actually appears to be in the form of unseen ‘dark matter’, whose nature remains one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics.

- Mathematical physics
Research often starts with predictions, based on mathematical models. That’s why we’ll provide you with a theoretical background, including topics such as the properties of our space-time, quantum gravity and noncommutative geometry.

- Observations and theory
The Universe is an excellent laboratory: it tells us how the physical laws work under conditions of ultra-high temperature, pressure, magnetic fields, and gravity. In this specialisation you’ll learn how to decode that information, making use of advanced telescopes and observatories. Moreover, we’ll provide you with a thorough theoretical background in particle and astrophysics. After you’ve got acquainted with both methods, you can choose to focus more on theoretical physics or experimental physics.

- Personal approach
If you’re not yet sure what focus within this specialisation would best fit your interests, you can always ask one of the teachers to help you during your Master’s. Based on the courses that you like and your research ambitions, they can provide you with advice about electives and the internship(s).

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/physicsandastronomy/particle

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The brain, the immune system and the formation of clouds, are all examples of complex adaptive systems comprising of many interacting components, often non linear and dynamic, leading to multiple levels of collective structures and organization. Read more
The brain, the immune system and the formation of clouds, are all examples of complex adaptive systems comprising of many interacting components, often non linear and dynamic, leading to multiple levels of collective structures and organization.

Inspired by complex adaptive systems in nature, several new methods for information processing have emerged: artificial neural networks resemble neurobiology; genetic algorithms and genetic programming are based on evolutionary processes in nature; the construction of artificial life, the design of autonomous robots and software agents are based on the behaviour of living systems.

Programme description

To understand the dynamics of increasingly complex phenomena where standard simulation methods are inadequate, stochastic algorithms, game theory, adaptive programming, self similarity, chaos theory and statistical methods are used to describe and increase our understanding of complex systems in nature and society, in the end trying to predict the unpredictable.
Examples are gene-regulation networks, the motion of dust particles in turbulent air or the dynamics of financial markets.

One example is fluctuations of share and option prices determining the stability of our economy. Other examples are the dynamics of dust particles in the exhaust of diesel engines, the dynamics of biological or artificial populations, earthquake prediction, and last but not least adaptive learning: the problem of teaching a robot how to respond to unexpected changes in its environment.

Truly interdisciplinary and encompassing several theoretical frameworks, this programme provides you with a broad and thorough introduction to the theory of complex systems and its applications to the world around us. The programme is based on a physics perspective with a focus on general principles, but it also provides courses in information theory, computer science and optimisation algorithms, ecology and genetics as well as adaptive systems and robotics.

Educational methods

Besides traditional lectures on simulation and theory of complex systems, the programme is largely based on numerical calculation and simulation projects and depending on course selection possibly practical work in the robotics lab.

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Applied Mathematical Sciences offers a clear and relevant gateway into a successful career in business, education or scientific research. Read more
Applied Mathematical Sciences offers a clear and relevant gateway into a successful career in business, education or scientific research. The programme arms students with the essential knowledge required by all professional mathematicians working across many disciplines. You will learn to communicate their ideas effectively to peers and others, as well as the importance of research, planning and self-motivation.

Students will take a total of 8 courses, 4 in each of the 1st and 2nd Semesters followed by a 3-month Project in the summer. A typical distribution for this programme is as follows:

Core courses

:

Modelling and Tools;
Optimization;
Dynamical Systems;
Applied Mathematics (recommended);
Applied Linear Algebra (recommended).

Optional Courses

:

Mathematical Ecology;
Functional Analysis;
Numerical Analysis of ODEs;
Pure Mathematics;
Statistical Methods;
Stochastic Simulation;
Software Engineering Foundations;
Mathematical Biology and Medicine;
Partial Differential Equations;
Numerical Analysis;
Geometry.

Typical project subjects

:

Pattern Formation of Whole Ecosystems;
Climate Change Impact;
Modelling Invasive Tumour Growth;
Simulation of Granular Flow and Growing Sandpiles;
Finite Element Discretisation of ODEs and PDEs;
Domain Decomposition;
Mathematical Modelling of Crime;
The Geometry of Point Particles;
Can we Trust Eigenvalues on a Computer?

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The University of Dundee has a long history of mathematical biology, going back to Professor Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Chair of Natural History, 1884-1917. Read more

Mathematical Biology at Dundee

The University of Dundee has a long history of mathematical biology, going back to Professor Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Chair of Natural History, 1884-1917. In his famous book On Growth and Form (where he applied geometric principles to morphological problems) Thompson declares:

"Cell and tissue, shell and bone, leaf and flower, are so many portions of matter, and it is in obedience to the laws of physics that their particles have been moved, molded and conformed. They are no exceptions to the rule that God always geometrizes. Their problems of form are in the first instance mathematical problems, their problems of growth are essentially physical problems, and the morphologist is, ipso facto, a student of physical science."

Current mathematical biology research in Dundee continues in the spirit of D'Arcy Thompson with the application of modern applied mathematics and computational modelling to a range of biological processes involving many different but inter-connected phenomena that occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Specific areas of application are to cancer growth and treatment, ecological models, fungal growth and biofilms. The overall common theme of all the mathematical biology research may be termed"multi-scale mathematical modelling" or, from a biological perspective, "quantitative systems biology" or"quantitative integrative biology".

The Mathematical Biology Research Group currently consists of Professor Mark Chaplain, Dr. Fordyce Davidson and Dr. Paul Macklin along with post-doctoral research assistants and PhD students. Professor Ping Lin provides expertise in the area of computational numerical analysis. The group will shortly be augmented by the arrival of a new Chair in Mathematical Biology (a joint Mathematics/Life Sciences appointment).

As a result, the students will benefit directly not only from the scientific expertise of the above internationally recognized researchers, but also through a wide-range of research activities such as journal clubs and research seminars.

Aims of the programme

1. To provide a Masters-level postgraduate education in the knowledge, skills and understanding of mathematical biology.
2. To enhance analytical and critical abilities and competence in the application of mathematical modeling techniques to problems in biomedicine.

Prramme Content

This one year course involves taking four taught modules in semester 1 (September-December), followed by a further 4 taught modules in semester 2 (January-May), and undertaking a project over the Summer (May-August).

A typical selection of taught modules would be:

Dynamical Systems
Computational Modelling
Statistics & Stochastic Models
Inverse Problems
Mathematical Oncology
Mathematical Ecology & Epidemiology
Mathematical Physiology
Personal Transferable Skills

Finally, all students will undertake a Personal Research Project under the supervision of a member of staff in the Mathematical Biology Research Group.

Methods of Teaching

The programme will involve a variety of teaching formats including lectures, tutorials, seminars, journal clubs, case studies, coursework, and an individual research project.

Taught sessions will be supported by individual reading and study.

Students will be guided to prepare their research project plan and to develop skills and competence in research including project management, critical thinking and problem solving, project reporting and presentation.

Career Prospects

The Biomedical Sciences are now recognizing the need for quantitative, predictive approaches to their traditional qualitative subject areas. Healthcare and Biotechnology are still fast-growing industries in UK, Europe and Worldwide. New start-up companies and large-scale government investment are also opening up employment prospects in emerging economies such as Singapore, China and India.

Students graduating from this programme would be very well placed to take advantage of these global opportunities.

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The Advanced Process Engineering programme advances students’ knowledge in process engineering by focusing on an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals of key chemical and industrial processes and on their application and translation to practice. Read more
The Advanced Process Engineering programme advances students’ knowledge in process engineering by focusing on an in-depth understanding of the fundamentals of key chemical and industrial processes and on their application and translation to practice.

You will encounter the latest technologies available to the process industries and will be exposed to a broad range of crucial operations. Hands-on exposure is our key to success.

The programme uses credit accumulation and offers advanced modules covering a broad range of modern process engineering, technical and management topics.

Core study areas include applied engineering practice, downstream processing, research and communication, applied heterogeneous catalysis and a research project.

The research project is conducted over two semesters and involves individual students working closely with a member of the academic staff on a topic of current interest. Recent examples, include water purification by advanced oxidation processes, affinity separation of metals, pesticides and organics from drinking water, biodiesel processing and liquid mixing in pharmaceutical reactors.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/chemical/advanced-process-engineering/

Programme modules

Compulsory Modules
Semester 1:
- Applied Engineering Practice
- Downstream Processing
- Research and Communication

Semester 2:
- Applied Heterogeneous Catalysis

Semester 1 and 2:
- MSc Project

Optional Modules (select four)
Semester 1:
- Chemical Product Design
- Colloid Engineering and Nano-science
- Filtration
- Hazard Identification and Risk Management

Semester 2:
- Mixing of Fluids and Particles
- Advanced Computational Methods for Modelling

Careers and further study

Our graduates go on to work with companies such as 3M, GE Water, GL Noble Denton, GSK, Kraft Food, Tata Steel Group, Petroplus, Shell, Pharmaceutical World and Unilever. Some students further their studies by enrolling on a PhD programme.

Why choose chemical engineering at Loughborough?

The Department of Chemical Engineering at Loughborough University is a highly active, research intensive community comprising 21 full time academic staff, in addition to research students, postdoctoral research fellows and visitors, drawn from all over the world.

Our research impacts on current industrial and societal needs spanning, for example, the commercial production of stem cells, disinfection of hospital wards, novel drug delivery methods, advanced water treatment and continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.

- Facilities
The Department has excellent quality laboratories and services for both bench and pilot scale work, complemented by first-rate computational and IT resources, and supported by mechanical and electronic workshops.

- Research
The Department has a strong and growing research programme with world-class research activities and facilities. Given the multidisciplinary nature of our research we work closely with other University departments across the campus as well as other institutions. The Departments research is divided into six key areas of interdisciplinary research and sharing of expertise amongst groups within the Department is commonplace.

- Career Prospects
The Department has close working relationships with AstraZeneca, BP, British Sugar, Carlsberg, E.ON, Exxon, GlaxoSmithKline, PepsiCo and Unilever to name but a few of the global organisations we work with and employ our graduates.

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/chemical/advanced-process-engineering/

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Theoretical physics is an international and highly competitive field. For several decades, Utrecht University's Institute for Theoretical Physics has been on the forefront of research in this area. Read more

Theoretical Physics

Theoretical physics is an international and highly competitive field. For several decades, Utrecht University's Institute for Theoretical Physics has been on the forefront of research in this area.

This programme serves as a gateway to understanding the fascinating world of physics, ranging from the unimaginably small scales of elementary particles to the vast dimensions of our universe.

The central goal of the Theoretical Physics programme is to obtain a detailed understanding of the collective behaviour of many particle systems from a fully microscopic point of view. In most physical systems, microscopic details determine the properties observed. Our condensed matter theorists and statistical physicists develop and apply methods for explaining and predicting these connections.

Examples include density functional theory, renormalisation-group theory and the scaling theory of critical phenomena. Dynamical properties are studied using such methods as kinetic theory and the theory of stochastic processes. These theories can be quantum mechanical, including theories of the quantum Hall effect, superconductivity, Bose-Einstein condensation, quantum magnetism and quantum computing. More classical are relationships between chaos and transport, nucleation phenomena, polymer dynamics and phase structure and dynamics of colloids.

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The Biomedical Materials research degrees cover an exciting area of research in the School focusing both on fundamental understanding of interactions between man-made materials and biological tissues and the development of useful applications. Read more
The Biomedical Materials research degrees cover an exciting area of research in the School focusing both on fundamental understanding of interactions between man-made materials and biological tissues and the development of useful applications. We have close links with the world’s leading pharmaceutical and medical device companies and the clinical applications of our research impact many areas of medicine.

The subject
The subject of biomedical materials covers those materials that are used in the context of biology and medicine, usually to evaluate, treat, augment or replace any tissue, organ or function of the body. In surgery, a biomaterial may be a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue.

A new area in biomaterials involves the exploration of nanotechnology for drug delivery, biological sensing or tissue regeneration. Examples of these bionanomaterials are small particles that may be used for the delivery of drug molecules to target sites within the body or to detect diseased areas.

Biomaterials are produced using chemical, physical, mechanical processes and they often employ or mimic biological phenomena in order for them to interact with their biological surroundings in defined ways..

Application of research
The clinical applications of our research impact many areas of medicine, including drug delivery, cancer, wound healing, stem cell technology, repair and regeneration of nerve, tendon, cartilage, bone, intevertebral disc, skin, ligament and cornea.

Industry collaboration
We have strong ties with industry, including ongoing collaboration with Smith & Nephew, Johnson & Johnson, and Versamatrix A/S (Denmark), developing novel biomaterial based strategies for wound healing, bone repair, control of inflammation and drug delivery.

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The Biomedical Materials research degrees cover an exciting area of research in the School focusing both on fundamental understanding of interactions between man-made materials and biological tissues and the development of useful applications. Read more
The Biomedical Materials research degrees cover an exciting area of research in the School focusing both on fundamental understanding of interactions between man-made materials and biological tissues and the development of useful applications. We have close links with the world’s leading pharmaceutical and medical device companies and the clinical applications of our research impact many areas of medicine.

The subject
The subject of biomedical materials covers those materials that are used in the context of biology and medicine, usually to evaluate, treat, augment or replace any tissue, organ or function of the body. In surgery, a biomaterial may be a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue.

A new area in biomaterials involves the exploration of nanotechnology for drug delivery, biological sensing or tissue regeneration. Examples of these bionanomaterials are small particles that may be used for the delivery of drug molecules to target sites within the body or to detect diseased areas.

Biomaterials are produced using chemical, physical, mechanical processes and they often employ or mimic biological phenomena in order for them to interact with their biological surroundings in defined ways..

Application of research
The clinical applications of our research impact many areas of medicine, including drug delivery, cancer, wound healing, stem cell technology, repair and regeneration of nerve, tendon, cartilage, bone, intevertebral disc, skin, ligament and cornea.

Industry collaboration
We have strong ties with industry, including ongoing collaboration with Smith & Nephew, Johnson & Johnson, and Versamatrix A/S (Denmark), developing novel biomaterial based strategies for wound healing, bone repair, control of inflammation and drug delivery.

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The Advanced Chemical Engineering with Information Technology and Management programme addresses recent developments in the global chemical industry by focusing on advancements of information technology and business management skills, including entrepreneurship. Read more
The Advanced Chemical Engineering with Information Technology and Management programme addresses recent developments in the global chemical industry by focusing on advancements of information technology and business management skills, including entrepreneurship.

It builds on the Department’s established strengths in computer modelling, process systems engineering, reaction engineering, numerical modelling, computational fluid dynamics, finite element modelling, process control and development of software for process technologies.

Teaching is augmented by staff from other departments and has an emphasis on design activities.

The programme aims to provide in-depth understanding of the IT skills required for advanced chemical processes and raise students’ awareness of the basic concepts of entrepreneurship, planning a new business, marketing, risk, and financial management and exit strategy.

Core study areas include process systems engineering and applied IT practice, research and communication, modelling and analysis of chemical engineering systems and a research project.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/chemical/advanced-chem-eng-it-management/

Programme modules

Core Modules
Semester 1:
- Process Systems Engineering and Applied IT Practice
- Research and Communication

Semester 2:
- Advanced Computational Methods for Modelling and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Systems

Semester 1 and 2:
- MSc Project

Optional Modules (select three)
Semester 1:
- Chemical Product Design
- Filtration
- Downstream Processing
- Colloid Engineering and Nano-science
- Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Semester 2:
- Mixing of Fluids and Particles

Optional Management Modules (select two)
Semester 1:
- Enterprise Technology

Semester 2:
- Entrepreneurship and Small Business Planning
- Strategic Management for Construction

Careers and further study

Our graduates go on to work with companies such as 3M, GE Water, GL Noble Denton, GSK, Kraft Food, Tata Steel Group, Petroplus, Shell, Pharmaceutical World and Unilever. Some students further their studies by enrolling on a PhD programme.

Why choose chemical engineering at Loughborough?

The Department of Chemical Engineering at Loughborough University is a highly active, research intensive community comprising 21 full time academic staff, in addition to research students, postdoctoral research fellows and visitors, drawn from all over the world.

Our research impacts on current industrial and societal needs spanning, for example, the commercial production of stem cells, disinfection of hospital wards, novel drug delivery methods, advanced water treatment and continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.

- Facilities
The Department has excellent quality laboratories and services for both bench and pilot scale work, complemented by first-rate computational and IT resources, and supported by mechanical and electronic workshops.

- Research
The Department has a strong and growing research programme with world-class research activities and facilities. Given the multidisciplinary nature of our research we work closely with other University departments across the campus as well as other institutions. The Departments research is divided into six key areas of interdisciplinary research and sharing of expertise amongst groups within the Department is commonplace.

- Career Prospects
The Department has close working relationships with AstraZeneca, BP, British Sugar, Carlsberg, E.ON, Exxon, GlaxoSmithKline, PepsiCo and Unilever to name but a few of the global organisations we work with and employ our graduates.

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/chemical/advanced-chem-eng-it-management/

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