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Masters Degrees (Natural Hazard)

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This course focuses on the physical processes that generate natural hazards through an advanced understanding of geological and environmental processes. Read more

Why take this course?

This course focuses on the physical processes that generate natural hazards through an advanced understanding of geological and environmental processes.

You will be fully trained by internationally recognised experts in hazard identification, terrain evaluation techniques as well as hazard modelling and risk assessment techniques. Providing you with the essential skills to monitor, warn and help control the consequences of natural hazards.

What opportunities might it lead to?

This course is accredited by the Geological Society of London. It offers advanced professional and scientific training providing an accelerated route for you to attain Chartered Status, such as Chartered Geologist (CGeol) and Chartered Scientist (CSci) on graduation.

Here are some routes our graduates have pursued:

Aid organisations
Environmental organisations
Offshore work
Civil sector roles
Mining
Insurance companies

Module Details

You can opt to take this course in full-time or part-time mode.

The course is divided into two parts. The first part comprises the lecture, workshop, practical and field work elements of the course, followed by a five-month independent research project. The course is a mixture of taught units and research project covering topics including site investigation, hazard modelling and mapping, soil mechanics and rock mechanics, contaminated land, flooding and slope stability.

Here are the units you will study:

Natural Hazard Processes: The topic of this unit forms the backbone of the course and give you an advanced knowledge of a broad range of geological and environmental hazards, including floods, landslides, collapsible ground, volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hydro-meteorological and anthropogenic hazards. External speakers are used to provide insights and expertise from an industry, regulatory and research perspective.

Numerical Hazard Modelling and Simulation: This forms an important part of the course, whereby you are trained in the application of computer models to the simulation of a range of geological and environmental hazards. You will develop skills in computer programming languages and use them to develop numerical models that are then used to simulate different natural hazard scenarios.

Catastrophe Modelling: On this unit you will cover the application of natural hazard modelling to better understand the insurance sector exposure to a range of geological and environmental hazards. It includes external speakers and sessions on the application of models for this type of catastrophe modelling.

Volcanology and Seismology: You will gain an in-depth knowledge of the nature of volcanism and associated hazards and seismology, associated seismo-tectonics and earthquake hazards. This unit is underpinned by a residential field course in the Mediterranean region that examines the field expression of volcanic, seismic and other natural hazards.

Flooding and Hydrological Hazards: These are a significant global problem that affect urban environments, one that is likely to increase with climate change. This unit will give you an in-depth background to these hazards and opportunities to simulate flooding in order to model the flood hazard and calculate the risk.

Hazard and Risk Assessment: This unit gives you the chance to study the techniques that are employed once a hazard has been identified and its likely impact needs to be measured. You will have advanced training in the application of qualitative and quantitative approaches to hazard and risk assessment and their use in the study of different natural hazards.

Field Reconnaissance and Geomorphological Mapping: These techniques are integral to the course and an essential skill for any graduate wishing to work in this area of natural hazard assessment. On this unit you will have fieldwork training in hazard recognition using techniques such as geomorphological mapping and walk-over surveys, combined with interpretation of remote sensing and aerial photography imagery.

Spatial Analysis and Remote Sensing: You will learn how to acquire and interpret aerial photography and satellite imagery, and the integration and analysis of spatial datasets using GIS – all key tools for hazard specialists.

Geo-mechanical Behaviour of Earth Materials: You will train in geotechnical testing and description of soils and rocks to the British and international standards used by industry.

Landslides and Slope Instability: This unit will give you an advanced understanding of landslide systems, types of slides in soils and rocks and methods for identification and numerical analysis.

Impacts and Remediation of Natural Hazards: You will cover a growing area of study, including the impact of hazardous events on society and the environment, and potential mitigation and remediation methods that can be employed.

Independent Research Project: This provides you with an opportunity to undertake an original piece of research to academic or industrial standards, typically in collaboration with research staff in the department or external industry partners. In addition to submission of a thesis report, you also present the results of your project at the annual postgraduate conference held at the end of September.

Programme Assessment

The course provides a balanced structure of lectures, seminars, tutorials and workshops. You will learn through hands-on practical sessions designed to give you the skills in laboratory, computer and field techniques. The course also includes extensive field work designed to provide field mapping and data collection skills.

Assessment is varied, aimed at developing skills relevant to a range of working environments. Here’s how we assess your work:

Poster and oral presentations
Project reports
Literature reviews
Lab reports
Essays

Student Destinations

This course provides vocational skills designed to enable you to enter this specialist environmental field. These skills include field mapping, report writing, meeting deadlines, team working, presentation skills, advanced data modelling and communication.

You will be fully equipped to gain employment in the insurance industry, government agencies and specialist geoscience companies, all of which are tasked with identifying and dealing with natural hazards. Previous destinations of our graduates have included major re-insurance companies, geological and geotechnical consultancies, local government and government agencies.

It also has strong research and analytical components, ideal if you wish to pursue further research to PhD level.

We aim to provide you with as much support as possible in finding employment through close industrial contacts, careers events, recruitment fairs and individual advice.

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This programme is for graduates who wish to pursue a career in the environment sector in the UK or internationally, or those already working in the sector seeking to enhance their skills and employability. Read more
This programme is for graduates who wish to pursue a career in the environment sector in the UK or internationally, or those already working in the sector seeking to enhance their skills and employability. Graduates have an excellent track record of securing jobs in environmental consultancy, research and government agencies.

The unique emphasis of this programme is the practical challenge of measuring, analysing and evaluating dynamic environmental data for environmental problem-solving and management purposes. Learning is focussed around practical field and laboratory work.

A key element of the programme is the dissertation, for which students undertake research relating to any special interests they have in environmental management.

Core study areas include tools for river management, lake monitoring and management, wind erosion measurement and mitigation, natural hazard and catastrophe modelling, applied environmental GIS, hydroclimatological monitoring and modelling, evidence-based environmental management, research design, professional practice in environmental management, and a dissertation.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/geography/environmental-monitoring-management/

Programme modules

Environment-specific theory and skills:
- Tools for River Management
- Lake Monitoring and Management
- Wind Erosion Measurement and Mitigation

Generic skills:
- Natural Hazard and Catastrophe Modelling for Environmental Management
- Applied Environmental GIS
- Hydroclimatological Monitoring and Modelling
- Evidence-based Environmental Management
- Research Design
- Professional Practice in Environmental Management

Research Project:
- Dissertation

Selection

Interviews may be held on consideration of a prospective student’s application form. Overseas students are often accepted on their grades and strong recommendation from suitable referees.

Assessment

Coursework reports and a dissertation of up to 50 pages on an agreed topic.

Careers and further study

Our graduates have outstanding employment prospects. Recent graduates are working in research, consultancy and government agencies in the fields of flood risk modelling and engineering, catastrophe risk analysis, water quality monitoring and transport planning.

Scholarships and sponsorships

Support may be available in the form of scholarships, and studentships awarded on a competitive basis.

Why choose geography at Loughborough?

The Department of Geography is a dynamic and vibrant place to be a postgraduate student and we are proud of our reputation for creating a friendly, supportive working environment.

We have over 25 academic staff who are all leading international experts in their fields.For example, our human geographers conduct research that informs government policy on student housing, international aid, alcohol policy and community cohesion, while our physical geographies continue to influence climate adaptation and development planning, the management of river sediments, and conservation management.

The work undertaken in our Department spans the breadth of contemporary physical and human geographical research (and involves strong connections into other disciplines) and deals with many of the most striking environmental, social and economic challenges facing our world, as demonstrated by our innovative programmes.

- Research
Postgraduate research, whether at PhD or MSc dissertation level, is a very important part of the academic life of our Department, and we invest a great deal of time and resources in supporting postgraduate students in their research.

- Career prospects
Loughborough postgraduates are highly employable. Employability skills are embedded throughout our programmes, with graduates appointed to posts across a full range of industries and sectors. Almost all of our postgraduates are in employment within a few months of graduating, and many who have studied in the Geography Department have embarked on academic research careers.

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/geography/environmental-monitoring-management/

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Climate change, increasing urbanisation and mounting exposure to natural hazards are imposing growing pressure on insurers and reinsurers to seek ways of limiting exposure. Read more
Climate change, increasing urbanisation and mounting exposure to natural hazards are imposing growing pressure on insurers and reinsurers to seek ways of limiting exposure. This programme offers students a better understanding of natural hazards and the means by which their impacts on the market can be mitigated or avoided.

Degree information

Strong emphasis is placed on developing an improved understanding of natural hazards – the nature of available data, the conclusions we can draw from them, limitations and relevant cutting-edge research. Content focuses on hazards of most interest to the market, most notably windstorm, flood and earthquake, but also addresses geotechnical issues such as contaminated land and energy resource issues.

Students undertake modules to the value of 60 credits.

The programme consists of two core modules (40 credits) and an individual research project (20 credits). There are no optional modules for this programme.

Core modules
-Geological and Geotechnical Hazards
-Meteorological Hazards

Dissertation/report
All students undertake an independent project, which culminates in a 10,000-word dissertation and an oral presentation.

Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through lectures, seminars, discussions, directed reading, and problem-solving exercises. Student performance is assessed through a combination of examination and coursework in the form of essays, reports and exercises. The independent project is assessed through a 10,000-word report and an oral presentation

Careers

This programme is accredited by the Chartered Insurance Institute (CII), the premier professional organisation for those working in the insurance and financial services industry.

Top career destinations for this degree:
-Geographical Hazards, University College London (UCL)
-Property Underwriter, Ascot Underwriting
-Catastrophe Exposure Manager, Canopius
-Catastrophe Risk Specialist, Canopius
-Pipeline Engineer, Petromap Ltd

Why study this degree at UCL?

Top hazard scientists at UCL and other leading academic institutions have worked with the under 35s reinsurance group and market professionals, to develop this flexible programme.

Students benefit from our welcoming environment and world-class facilities, which include the UCL Hazard Centre, Europe's leading multidisciplinary hazard research centre.

The programme is staffed by a combination of UCL academics from the Aon Benfield UCL Hazard Centre and other departments; academics from other institutions with hazard research expertise, including the British Geological Survey, Birkbeck College, the University of East Anglia, and Imperial College London; and industry and market practitioners.

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The MSc in Water Hazards, Risk and Resilience is unique in Scotland offering an applied interdisciplinary approach to real world case studies and problems faced by environmental agencies, local and regional councils, as well as government level implementation of a robust hazard policy. Read more
The MSc in Water Hazards, Risk and Resilience is unique in Scotland offering an applied interdisciplinary approach to real world case studies and problems faced by environmental agencies, local and regional councils, as well as government level implementation of a robust hazard policy. With a potential increase in intensity and duration of water hazards associated with on-going climate change, the course is well placed to address a real need for graduates with hazard analysis and assessment expertise across a wide range of sectors.

Why study Water Hazards, Risk and Resilience at Dundee?

This course is uniquely placed as the only MSc in the UK to offer a balanced interpretation and adaptation to water hazards, bringing together an understanding of the science with its impacts on Society.

The course will be integrated with public and third sector bodies in order to meet the growing demand for graduates who wish to pursue or advance a career in water hazard or risk management, environmental monitoring, emergency planning or catastrophe-related mitigation for NGOs. Emergency response officers and members from a range of bodies will participate and run workshops as an integral part of research training.

Potential for work-based placements across the wide sector identified above will provide unique opportunities for students to gain real-hazards experience in conjunction with the dissertation module. Internationally recognised experts teach the MSc with cross-disciplinary expertise in environmental hazards, environmental sciences, human geography and health.

What's so good about this course?

The MSc programme will provide a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to the study of natural water hazards. This will provide training in the key fundamentals of the geoscience of water hazards which underpins hazard research and assessment. Skills will be developed to allow a career in a range of environmental sectors. These include rapid hazard assessment techniques, key field skills in the geomorphological mapping of hazard zones as well as a comprehensive study of the impacts of hazards on both the landscape and human populations.

This course focuses on the physical processes that generate natural hazards through an advanced understanding of geological and environmental processes, field recognition and mapping of hazards, GIS and remote sensing techniques for mapping and modelling of hazards, risk assessment techniques as well as the social and cultural dimension of those hazards. Links with industry and practitioners in the emergency and disaster management field, including, community resilience officers, Local Authority Emergency Planning Departments, NGOs (e.g. Red Cross) and major disability and older persons charities will allow graduates to develop a range of skills and real-world expertise in preparedness and planning.

Who should study this course?

This course should appeal to graduates of geography, geoscience, environmental science, planning and related disciplines, who wish to widen their subject knowledge of natural water hazards and combine integration of science with societal impact and policy.

Funded places

Due to an initiative from the Scottish Funding Council (SFC) designed to support key sectors in the Scottish economy, there are 10 fully-funded places available to eligible students starting this course in 2013/14. This covers all tuition fees associated with the MSc programme and can be held by students classified as Scottish or EU for fee purposes only. Please indicate your interest in being considered for a funded place when you apply through UKPASS.

The start date is September each year, and lasts for 12 months full time.

How you will be taught

Modules start at the beginning of the academic session in September.

The course is taught using lectures, seminars and workshops as well as integrated field study of between 1 day to 1 week duration.

What you will study

The programme is taught over two semesters, plus the summer period for the Dissertation. It consists of four core modules and two optional modules which the student can choose from a list of six possible modules. Modules will be taught as follows:

Semester 1: September to December

Core modules (20 credits):

Research Training
Water Hazard Geoscience
Plus one option module (20 credits):

Hydrological Monitoring and Modelling
Quantitative Methods
Semester 2: January to April

Core modules (20 credits):

Population Vulnerability and Resilience
Fieldcourse
Plus one option module (20 credits):

Research in Practice (work placement)
Qualitative Methods
Applied GIS and Geospatial Data Analysis
Hydrological Applications
Students enrolled on the MSc programme also complete a Dissertation (worth 60 credits) over the summer period.

Careers

This course is relevant for individuals who wish to pursue careers in:
Water hazard or risk management
Environmental monitoring
Emergency planning
Catastrophe-related mitigation for NGOs
Further postgraduate research (PhD)
Research and development organisations

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This MSc provides a broad introduction to geohazards, together with advanced courses in seismology, volcanology, hydrogeological hazards and meteorology. Read more
This MSc provides a broad introduction to geohazards, together with advanced courses in seismology, volcanology, hydrogeological hazards and meteorology. A key goal is to provide an essential grounding in quantitative modelling that can be widely applied to several fields, from pure research to the commercial sector.

Degree information

The programme provides an introduction to the spectrum and impact of geophysical hazards, and a focus on quantitative models for hazard forecasting and assessment. Selected case studies illustrate how these models are essential for improving decision making during emergencies, for raising the awareness of vulnerable populations, and for evaluating and implementing mitigation strategies.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits. The programme consists of six core modules (120 credits) and a research dissertation (60 credits). There are no optional modules for this programme.

Core modules
-Geological and Geotechnical Hazards
-Meteorological Hazards
-Research Methods
-Earthquake Seismology and Earthquake Hazard
-Physical Volcanology and Volcanic Hazard
-Meteorological, Climate and Hydrogeological Hazard

Dissertation/report
All students undertake an independent research project in geophysical hazards, which culminates in a dissertation of 15,000 words.

Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, directed reading and practical exercises. There are excellent opportunities for field investigations in the UK and abroad. Assessment is through unseen written examinations, practical problem-solving exercises and essays. The independent research report is assessed through the dissertation and an oral presentation.

Careers

The MSc programme in Geophysical Hazards will provide essential training for careers in hazard assessment and risk evaluation, including: industry, from engineering to insurance; academic research; civil protection agencies and government organisations; and NGOs related to aid and development. About one-third of previous graduates have continued with further research (PhDs), one-third have entered the insurance industry, and one-third have pursued careers in other fields.

Top career destinations for this degree:
-Catastrophy risk analyst, Aon Benfield
-Geographic Risk Analyst, QBE
-Senior Catastrophy Halard, Hardy Underwriting
-Environmental Risk Advisor, HelpAge International
-Policy Adviser, Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

Employability
On graduation from this programme about one third of students have followed careers in global insurance and re-insurance and another third have pursued research with a PhD in hazard-related studies. The remaining third have developed careers in a wide range of sectors, from non-governmental organisations, through teaching, to the fields of emergency planning and environmental management.

Why study this degree at UCL?

UCL Earth Sciences is engaged in world-class research into the processes at work on and within the Earth and planets.

Graduate students benefit from our lively and welcoming environment and world-class facilities. The department hosts UCL Hazard Centre, Europe's leading multidisciplinary hazard research centre, and engages in extensive collaborative work with the Royal Institution and the Natural History Museum.

This MSc aims to include a short field trip to locations that illustrate the impact of natural hazards. Previous trips have included the Neapolitan volcanic district, the Italian Alps and the Po Delta, and the Cádiz region in south-western Spain.

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Uniting emergency response, disaster risk reduction and space technology this programme is designed to prepare students to work in the fields of satellite technology and disaster response to explore the management of risk and disaster losses from a range of perspectives, focusing on emerging risks posed to modern technology by space weather and the monitoring of hazards on Earth from outer space. Read more
Uniting emergency response, disaster risk reduction and space technology this programme is designed to prepare students to work in the fields of satellite technology and disaster response to explore the management of risk and disaster losses from a range of perspectives, focusing on emerging risks posed to modern technology by space weather and the monitoring of hazards on Earth from outer space.

Degree information

Students will learn about a wide variety of natural hazards, how to prepare and plan for emergencies and disasters and how to respond. Students will also learn practical aspects of designing, building and operating satellites and spacecraft including the challenges and risks posed by the environment of outer space.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits.

The programme consists of six core modules (90 credits), two optional modules (30 credits) and a dissertation (60 credits).

Core modules
-Integrating Science into Risk and Disaster Reduction
-Emergency and Crisis Management
-Research Appraisal and Proposal
-The Variable Sun: Space Weather Risks
-Space Science, Environment and Satellite Missions
-Space Systems Engineering

Optional modules - students choose two 15-credit optional modules from the following:
-Decision and Risk Statistics
-Emergency and Crisis Planning
-Global Monitoring and Security
-Mechanical Design of Spacecraft
-Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards and Vulnerability
-Risk and Disaster Research Tools
-Space-Based Communication Systems
-Space Instrumentation and Applications
-Spacecraft Design - Electronic Sub-systems

Optional modules are subject to availability of places.

Dissertation/report
All students undertake an independent project culminating in a report of between 10,000 and 12,000 words.

Teaching and learning
Teaching is delivered by lectures, seminars and interactive problem sessions. Assessment is by examination, poster, presentation and written essay coursework.

Why study this degree at UCL?

The unique selling point of the programme is the direct access to key government and business drivers in the field of space weather, with invited seminars and reserch projects supported by the UK Met Office, EDF, Atkins and other institutions interested in the hazards of space.

The natural hazard of space weather is a "new" hazard which has only recently been identified as a significant risk to human society. As the first generation of researchers, practitioners and engineers in this field, students will be at the forefront of major new issues in an expanding sector of the economy. As disaster response comes to rely on more advanced technology aid, relief and disaster response agencies require experts trained in the technological infrastructure to innovate, explain, operate and understand the limitations of these novel systems and the help they can provide before, during and after disasters.

The programme will also provide students will advanced training in many transferable skills, such as computor programming, technical writing, oral and written presentation, the use of engineering design tools and graphic visualisation software.

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This course focuses on both the scientific knowledge of hazards and modern strategies of emergency planning. Its interdisciplinary approach combines traditional classroom and field-based teaching and learning techniques with modern ICT-based learning support. Read more
This course focuses on both the scientific knowledge of hazards and modern strategies of emergency planning. Its interdisciplinary approach combines traditional classroom and field-based teaching and learning techniques with modern ICT-based learning support. A strong emphasis is placed on research-led teaching, student-centred learning and team-based activities, all of which develop the necessary skills required by practitioners in the field of hazard and disaster management.

-This course is ideal if you want to start or advance a career in hazard or risk management, environmental monitoring, emergency planning or catastrophe-related mitigation.
-Small student numbers allow us to modify the emphasis of the course content from year to year to cater to individual needs.
-Our unique approach to focusing on both the scientific knowledge of hazards and modern strategies of emergency planning make graduates of this course highly employable.
-The independent research project gives you the chance to specialise further by studying an area of interest in greater depth and gain valuable research skills. Our students often find this an excellent selling point when looking for a job or promotion.
-We have strong links with industry and practitioners in the emergency and disaster management field, including Search And Rescue Assistance In Disasters (SARAID), RNLI, Tearfund, Community Resilience and Surrey County Council Emergency Planning Unit.

Assessment

Written examinations, coursework (incorporating scenario-based hazard management exercises, ICT-based and paper-based practical exercises, role-play exercises, oral presentations, field reports, essays).

Work placement scheme

Kingston University has set up a scheme that allows postgraduate students in the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing to include a work placement element in their course starting from September 2017. The placement scheme is available for both international and home/EU students.

-The work placement, up to 12 months; is optional.
-The work placement takes place after postgraduate students have successfully completed the taught portion of their degree.
-The responsibility for finding the placement is with the student. We cannot guarantee the placement, just the opportunity to undertake it.
-As the work placement is an assessed part of the course for international students, this is covered by a student's tier 4 visa.

Details on how to apply will be confirmed shortly.

Fieldwork opportunities

Fieldwork is an essential part of the Hazard and Disaster Management MSc. You will undertake a supervised week-long visit to a European field destination affected by multi-hazards (usually to Tenerife in June). You will conduct hazard, risk and vulnerability assessment of the area and evaluate existing hazard management strategies by the regional/local authorities. Find out more...

Course structure

You will study the underpinning scientific principles of both natural hazards (eg hurricanes, storms and tornadoes, flooding, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and radon gas emissions) and human-induced disasters (eg terrorism, explosions and oil tanker accidents).

You will also cover modern disaster management strategies and planning techniques for the mitigation (eg structural measures and education), preparation (eg early warning), response (eg search and rescue) and recovery (eg insurance) phases.

You will also undertake active research in one or more of your chosen hazard areas.

Please note that this is an indicative list of modules and is not intended as a definitive list.

Modules
-Natural Hazards: Science and Society
-Managing Disasters
-GIS for Hazards and Emergency Planning
-Research Methods and Techniques
-Research Project (Dissertation)

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The Geoscience MSc at UCL aims to provide a set of programmes that suit each student's aspirations, background and experience. The MSc offers several pathways to ensure a coherent programme of study. Read more
The Geoscience MSc at UCL aims to provide a set of programmes that suit each student's aspirations, background and experience. The MSc offers several pathways to ensure a coherent programme of study: Earth Systems Science; Palaeobiology; Earth and Planetary Physics; Environment; and Hydrogeology.

Degree information

The programme aims to integrate theoretical studies with essential practical skills in the Earth sciences, both in the field and in the laboratory. Students develop the ability to work on group projects, prepare written reports, acquire oral skills and gain training in the methods of scientific research.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits. The programme consists of two core modules (30 credits), six optional modules (90 credits) and a research dissertation (60 credits).

Core modules
-Research Methods
-Project Proposal

Optional modules
-Earth and Planetary Systems Science
-Earth and Planetary Materials
-Melting and Volcanism
-Physical Volcanology and Volcanic Hazard
-Earthquake Seismology & Earthquake Hazard
-Tectonic Geomorphology
-Palaeoceanography
-Palaeoclimatology
-Biodiversity and Macroevolutionary Patterns
-Deep Earth and Planetary Modelling
-Geodynamics and Global Tectonics
-Crustal Dynamics, Mountain Building and Basin Analysis

Relevant modules can also be chosen from:
-UCL Geography

Dissertation/report
All MSc students undertake an independent research project which culminates in a dissertation of approximately 10,000–12,000 words.

Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, seminars, tutorials, and laboratory and fieldwork exercises. Student performance is assessed through coursework, written assignments, unseen written examination and the dissertation.

Careers

First destinations of recent graduates include:
-Neftex Petroleum Consultants Ltd: Geologist
-TWP Architects and Surveyors: Geotechnical Surveyor
-UCL Earth Sciences Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory: Research Assistant
-UCL: Research Degree, Earth Sciences

Employability
MSc Geoscience students have gone on to pursue careers in many varied areas, such as planning and surveying, governmental organisations, academic research.

Why study this degree at UCL?

UCL Earth Sciences is engaged in world-class research into the processes at work on and within the Earth and planets.

Graduate students benefit from our lively and welcoming environment and world-class facilities, which include the UK's only NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility and access to the University of London Observatory in north London.

The department also hosts the Aon Benfield UCL Hazard Research Centre, Europe's leading multidisciplinary hazard research centre, and engages in extensive collaborative work with the Royal Institution and the Natural History Museum.

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The School of Earth Sciences has strong international links and the presence of researchers from all over the world makes for an exciting and stimulating environment. Read more
The School of Earth Sciences has strong international links and the presence of researchers from all over the world makes for an exciting and stimulating environment. Research involves the full breadth of the earth sciences and has benefited from major investment in new laboratories and equipment in the past few years. Important initiatives include experimental and theoretical studies of physical, chemical and biological processes of the Earth.

Please note: If you are applying for this programme, you need to select Geology as the programme choice when completing your online application form.

Research groups

The research programme at Bristol is characterised by an expanding range of exciting subject areas. Research in the School of Earth Sciences encourages interdisciplinary collaboration between its five research groups, which in turn nurtures revolutionary research.

Geochemistry
The Geochemistry group uses fundamental chemical techniques to understand natural processes on a range of temporal and spatial scales. This can be from single atoms on mineral surfaces and the environmental geochemistry of the modern Earth to the large-scale chemical structure of planets and the birth of the solar system. The group has considerable expertise in isotopic measurements, spectroscopy and first-principles calculations.

Geophysics
Geophysics uses physical properties of the solid Earth to measure structure and processes on scales from the single crystal to the entire planet. Members of the Bristol Geophysics group use gravity, seismic and satellite data to image the Earth in a variety of different contexts. These include the Earth's core, mantle and tectonic processes, volcanoes, oil and gas reservoirs and mines.

Palaeobiology
The Palaeobiology group uses the fossil record to study the history of life. Research focuses on major diversifications, mass extinctions, dating the tree of life, phylogenomics and molecular palaeobiology, morphological innovation, biomechanics, and links between evolution and development; the organisms of interest range from foraminifera to dinosaurs.

Petrology
The Petrology group uses a combination of high-pressure and high-temperature experiments, petrology, geochemistry and mineral physics to attack a wide range of problems in the solid Earth - from the core to the surface.

Volcanology
The Volcanology group at Bristol aims to understand the physical processes underlying volcanic phenomena and develop methods of hazard and risk assessment that can be applied to volcanoes worldwide.

Recent case studies and collaborators include the Met Office, Montserrat Volcano Observatory, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland and INGEOMINAS in Columbia.

Research centres

The School of Earth Sciences is involved in a number of collaborative research groups on an international level. Inter-faculty research centres such as the Biogeochemistry Research Centre and the Cabot Institute involve collaboration across several departments and faculties.

Centre for Environmental and Geophysical Flows
This interdisciplinary research centre brings together expertise from the Schools of Earth Sciences, Geographical Sciences, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics. This creates diverse research activities and interests, from traffic flow to explosive volcanic flows, meteorology to oceanography.

Biogeochemistry Research Centre
The Biogeochemistry Research Centre involves staff from the Schools of Earth Sciences, Geographical Sciences and Chemistry. The research aims to develop our understanding of the biogeochemistry of modern-day and ancient environments and the way that it is affected by natural processes and the actions of mankind.

Bristol Isotope Group
The Bristol Isotope Group is a world-class research facility for isotope measurements directed at understanding natural processes, from the formation of the solar system, the origin of Earth - its deep structure and atmosphere, through to the evolution of that atmosphere and contemporary climate change.

Interface Analysis Centre
The Interface Analysis Centre specialises in the application of a wide range of analytical techniques and is used by the Schools of Chemistry, Earth Sciences and Physics.

The Cabot Institute
The Cabot Institute carries out fundamental and responsive research on risks and uncertainty in a changing environment. Interests include climate change, natural hazards, food and energy security, resilience and governance, and human impacts on the environment.

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You will take eight Assessed Modules plus an Individual Project carried out in the department. Six of the modules cover core Software Engineering methods, practices and tools, and are compulsory. Read more
You will take eight Assessed Modules plus an Individual Project carried out in the department. Six of the modules cover core Software Engineering methods, practices and tools, and are compulsory. For the remaining two modules, you will be able to choose from Natural Language Processing, Topics in Privacy & Security, Evolutionary Computation, Concurrent & Real-Time Programming, and Functional Programming Technology.

Software Engineering has become a crucial discipline in the functioning of the modern world. Information systems, communications, transport, manufacturing and services all require well-engineered and reliable software. The focus of our MSc in Software Engineering is automated and large-scale software engineering, so the course will equip you to deal with the types of systems widely found in industry.

The MSc is a full-time, one-year course for those with some experience or background in Software Engineering. You will learn up-to-date theory and practice in the core areas of Software Engineering, and the main methods and tools used in industry. The course also covers model-driven engineering, service-oriented architectures, software architectures and user-centred design. You will gain a thorough understanding of techniques and practices of software management, including measurement and testing. This in-depth understanding of the role of software in commercial organisations will enable you to develop and maintain large-scale software systems.

You will gain a thorough understanding of techniques and practices of software management, including measurement and testing. These techniques will allow you to understand the role of software in commercial organisations and you will be able to develop and maintain these large scale systems.

Course Aims
When you graduate, you will be able to apply advanced Software Engineering techniques to analyse systems and design solutions, particularly in a commercial context. You will have experience of using state-of-the-art Software Engineering tool suites (e.g., Eclipse and Epsilon). You will also understand the human factors in Software Engineering, and will be able to design systems taking into account the needs of users.

Your individual project gives you the chance to specialise in a specific area of Software Engineering, as you will undertake independent research and apply your results to develop a real solution – an application, tool or technique.

On graduation, you will be equipped to design and maintain large systems in a wide range of industries, or to pursue an academic research career in Software Engineering.

Learning Outcomes
A thorough grounding and practical experience in the use of state-of-the-art techniques for developing software-based systems.
An in-depth understanding of the principles underpinning these techniques, so as to make sound judgements throughout the systems and software engineering life cycle.

Project

Team Project
You are taught a broad range of project management skills, which you will directly apply to a medium-sized software project that is conducted in small student teams.

Individual Project
The course concludes with your individual project. You may choose a topic among the many offered by the academic staff, or you may propose your own topic. Some recent topics were:
-Air Traffic Control application using PostgreSQL
-Automated Development of Graphical Editors built atop Graphiti
-Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Conquest of Mars
-Natural Disaster Planning - A System of Systems Analysis
-Reinforcement Learning for Mobile Cognitive Radio Agents
-Simulation-based Hazard Analysis for Autonomous Robots
-Study of Business Processes in a Complex Enterprise System
-Using heuristics for Monte Carlo Tree Search

Careers

Here at York, we're really proud of the fact that more than 97% of our postgraduate students go on to employment or further study within six months of graduating from York. We think the reason for this is that our courses prepare our students for life in the workplace through our collaboration with industry to ensure that what we are teaching is useful for employers.

Our postgraduate taught courses are specifically designed to meet the needs of industry, and the thorough grounding we provide, alongside the skills you learn from undertaking a Masters degree, will stand you in good stead in the workplace.

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We have a broad range of civil engineering water resource research. Our expertise ranges from climate modelling to developing practical responses to global change challenges. Read more
We have a broad range of civil engineering water resource research. Our expertise ranges from climate modelling to developing practical responses to global change challenges. Our research has global consequences and our academics are leaders in their field.

Our School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences has a successful research group that focuses on water resources. Our mission is to foster, promote and conduct research of international quality. This means that we attract high quality graduates and researchers and train them to international standards.

Our research themes include:
-Catchment hydrology and sustainable management
-Flood risk and coastal management
-Climate change impacts and adaptation

We supervise MPhil and PhD students in the following areas:
-Flow and transport processes in surface and subsurface systems. This includes river mechanics and contaminant and sediment transport
-Planning and control of hydraulic networks
-Sustainable management of the water environment, including urban, rural agricultural and forestry environments
-Climate change impact assessment, including flood risk
-Environmental hazard assessment and mitigation, including landslide hazard
-Integrated surface and groundwater pollution controls
-Integrated assessment of coupled natural, technological and human systems

Our research has access to facilities and centres within the Newcastle Institute for Sustainability:
-Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory
-Centre for Earth Systems Engineering Research (CESER)
-Centre for Land Use and Water Resources Research (CLUWRR)

Delivery

We offer the MPhil and PhD on a full time and part time basis. You will have formal training in research skills and methods. Discipline-specific training is available if you need it. You may be able to undertake paid laboratory demonstrating to gain teaching experience.

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**Accredited by the Institute of Food Science & Technology (IFST), the leading qualifying body for food professionals in Europe.**. Read more
**Accredited by the Institute of Food Science & Technology (IFST), the leading qualifying body for food professionals in Europe.**

This programme provides graduates with an insight into measures that are required to provide a supply of safe and wholesome food to consumers globally. A wide spectrum of food safety and quality management issues are addressed following the farm to fork approach.

Topics covered include: good governance and national control systems; food inspection and testing services; legislation and private standards; and management of food safety and quality within the supply chain as well as in hotels and restaurants.

Students also acquire a knowledge of the design and management of safety and quality management systems based upon risk analysis, e.g. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), ISO 9001:2008 designed to meet the requirements of national and international legislation and private standards. Students sit the Royal Society for Public Health Level 3 Award in HACCP for Food Manufacturing and are also given membership of the Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Individual courses are offered on a stand-alone basis. These are attended by professionals working in the food industry. Lectures are also delivered by experts currently working in the food sector. This gives our postgraduate students the opportunity to interact with and learn from a range of practitioners.

Students have the opportunity to apply for short placements in the food sector, which provides them with the all important experience that they need to demonstrate when applying for jobs.

The aims of the programme are:

- To prepare graduates for careers in the national and international food chain, e.g. food businesses, consultancy, research and development

- To equip graduates with the knowledge and skills that will enhance their employability

- To enrich graduates understanding of the dynamics of food safety and quality management systems and the context under which they operate at national and international levels.

Visit the website http://www.gre.ac.uk/pg/engsci/foodsaf

Food and Agricultural Sciences

The Natural Resources Institute (NRI) has an internationally-recognised academic reputation and provides taught postgraduate courses in a wonderful environment for students.

NRI provide research, consultancy, training and advisory services to underpin sustainable development, economic growth and poverty reduction. The majority of our activities focus on the harnessing of natural and human capital for the benefit of developing countries, though much of our expertise has proved to be of growing relevance to industrialised nations.

What you'll study

- Food Safety (30 credits)
- Food Safety and Quality Management (30 credits)
- Research Methods (15 credits)
- Research Project (MSc only) (60 credits)
- Two or three optional courses chosen from a range of themes running across the programme (45 credits)

Fees and finance

Your time at university should be enjoyable and rewarding, and it is important that it is not spoilt by unnecessary financial worries. We recommend that you spend time planning your finances, both before coming to university and while you are here. We can offer advice on living costs and budgeting, as well as on awards, allowances and loans.

Find out more about our fees and the support available to you at our:
- Postgraduate finance pages (http://www.gre.ac.uk/finance/pg)
- International students' finance pages (http://www.gre.ac.uk/finance/international)

Find out how to apply here - http://www2.gre.ac.uk/study/apply

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"The course structure and the core modules cover the fundamentals of system safety in such depth and breadth as to be applicable to any safety standard, for example the ISO 26262. Read more
"The course structure and the core modules cover the fundamentals of system safety in such depth and breadth as to be applicable to any safety standard, for example the ISO 26262. I chose the modules Human Factors for Safety Critical Systems and Computers and Safety and believe this to be a very good combination for anybody working in the automotive industry. Unlike previous degree courses I refer to my York notes a great deal since they are extremely relevant to my day to day safety activities.”
Robert, Jaguar Land Rover

“As a clinician, I have found this course to be absolutely essential. I would recommend that anyone working in healthcare with an interest in patient safety should take the Foundations of System Safety Engineering module at the very least. For those who have a more focused safety role, particularly in healthcare technology, the University offers a number of modules to choose from, working up to the award of a Postgraduate Certificate, Diploma or MSc Safety Critical Systems Engineering.”
Beverley, Department of Health Informatics Directorate

The discipline of SSE has developed over the last half of the twentieth century. It can be viewed as a process of systematically analysing systems to evaluate risks, with the aim of influencing design in order to reduce risks, i.e. to produce safer products. In mature industries, such as aerospace and nuclear power, the discipline has been remarkably successful, although there have been notable exceptions to the generally good safety record, e.g. Fukushima, Buncefield and the Heathrow 777 accident.

Various trends pose challenges for traditional approaches to SSE. For example, classical hazard and safety analysis techniques deal poorly with computers and software where the dominant failure causes are errors and oversights in requirements or design. Thus these techniques need extending and revising in order to deal effectively with modern systems. Also, in our experience, investigation of issues to do with safety of computer systems have given some useful insights into traditional system safety engineering, e.g. into the meaning of important concepts such as the term hazard. The course therefore has a number of optional modules looking at software safety.

Learning Outcomes

The course aims to provide you with a thorough grounding and practical experience in the use of state-of-the-art techniques for development and operation of safety critical systems, together with an understanding of the principles behind these techniques so that you can make sound engineering judgements during the design, deployment and operation of such a system. On completing the course, you will be equipped to play leading and professional roles in safety-critical systems engineering related aspects of industry and commerce.

New areas of teaching are developed in response to new advances in the field as well as the requirements of the organisations that employ our graduates.

We aim to equip you with the knowledge, understanding and practical application of the essential components of Safety Critical Systems Engineering, to complement previously gained knowledge and skills. As a York Safety Critical Systems Engineering graduate, you will have a solid grounding of knowledge and understanding of the essential areas, as represented by the core modules. The optional modules give you the opportunity to gain knowledge in other areas which are of interest and these are taught by recognised experts in those areas.

Transferable Skills

Information-retrieval skills are an integrated part of many modules; you are expected to independently acquire information from on-line and traditional sources. These skills are required within nearly all modules, are an essential part of project work.

Numeracy is required and developed in some modules. Time management is an essential skill for any student on the course. The formal timetable has a substantial load of lectures and practical sessions. You are expected to fit your private study in around these fixed points. In addition, Open Assessments are set with rigid deadlines, so you must balance your time between the different commitments.

All students in the University are eligible to take part in the York Award in which they can gain certified transferable skills. This includes the Languages for All programme which allows students to improve their language skills.

Projects

For both full-time and part-time students, the project(s) enable(s) students to:
-Demonstrate knowledge of an area by means of a literature review covering all significant developments in the area and placing them in perspective;
-Exhibit critical awareness and appreciation of best practice and relevant standards;
Investigate particular techniques and methods for the construction of safe systems, possibly involving the construction of a prototype;
-Evaluate the outcome of their work, drawing conclusions and suggesting possible further work in the area.

The project(s) address(es) a major technical problem concerned with real issues. It should, if possible, include the development and application of a practical method, technique or system. It is a natural progression from the taught modules, and builds on material covered in them. Ideally it addresses the problem from a system perspective, including hardware, software and human factors. It will typically have an industrial flavour. If you are a part-time student, you are encouraged, with the help of your managers and academic staff, to select a project which is relevant to your own work in industry.

The project begins at the start of the Summer term after completion of the taught modules, and lasts 18 months part-time / 6 months full-time. For part-time students there are three weeks attendance at York during the project, for progress assessment and access to library facilities: in July near the start of the project; and in the following January and July. Full details are provided during the course.

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The importance of science in understanding disaster risks and the need for science-based strategies at local, national and international levels are now widely recognised. Read more
The importance of science in understanding disaster risks and the need for science-based strategies at local, national and international levels are now widely recognised. The Risk and Disaster Science MSc aims to meet the growing need for experts trained in disaster science in sectors ranging from finance to humanitarian response.

Degree information

In a science-led programme, students will explore the characterisation of risk from a fundamental understanding of hazard, statistical modelling, appreciation of causes of vulnerability, and quantifying exposure to the management and reduction of disaster risks. There is an emphasis on scientific analysis and statistical methods. Students will enjoy a wide range of taught modules covering scientific, technical, socio-economic, political, environmental, ethical and cultural perspectives.

Students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits.

The programme consists of six core modules (90 credits), optional modules (to the combined value of 30 credits) and an independent research project (60 credits). A Postgraduate Diploma (120 credits, six core modules and two optional modules), full-time nine months, part-time two years, is also offered.

Core modules
-Decision and Risk Statistics
-Earthquake Hazard Risk
-Emergency and Crisis Management
-Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards and Vulnerability
-Risk and Disaster Reduction Research Tools
-The Variable Sun: Space Weather Risks

Optional modules - choose options (to the combined value of 30 credits) from a list which may include the following:
-Climate Risks to Hydro-ecological Systems
-Emergency and Crisis Planning
-Integrating Science into Risk and Disaster Reduction
-Seismic Risk Assessment
-Statistical Computing

Dissertation/report
All students undertake an independent research project of 10,000-12,000 words which culminates in a research project and poster presentation.

Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, practicals, field visits, directed reading and problem-solving exercises and a real-time disaster scenario event, with an emphasis on hands-on learning and tutorial-style dialogue between students and lecturers. Assessment is by independent and group oral presentations, written examination, coursework essays, and the independent project. Practical applications of critical and creative problem solving will be encouraged and assessed throughout.

Careers

This programme provides excellent training towards careers in industry and commerce, research, research communication and public policy including insurance, catastrophe modelling, finance, risk management, business continuity, humanitarian assistance, engineering and many other fields. It supports the career development of professionals already working in risk and disaster reduction, as well as those who intend to go into this field.

The IRDR runs a careers and opportunities forum for students; this has been attended by insurance companies, catastrophe modelling firms, NGOs, academic institutions, and headhunters in the field of risk and disaster reduction.

Employability
This is a new programme and no information on graduate destinations is currently available. Career destinations of recent IRDR graduates include: a London-based international economic consultancy in the field of micro-finance; a consultancy role in disaster risk for an insurance company; a PhD studentship; the World Food Programme; and Rescue Global - an NGO based in London. A number of MSc students have also participated in internship programmes with Rescue Global.

Why study this degree at UCL?

The UCL Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction (IRDR), where teaching for this programme is based, leads and co-ordinates multidisciplinary research, knowledge exchange and advanced teaching in risk and disaster reduction across UCL.

UCL is uniquely well placed to lead research and teaching in this field; in addition to at least 70 academics across twelve departments and seven faculties involved in world-class research, the IRDR has established links with non-governmental organisations, industry and government departments based in and around London.

Teaching and project supervision will be provided by active researchers, practitioners and policymakers, all of whom are leaders in their respective fields.

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This MSc examines the physical processes governing the behaviour of volcanoes. Read more
This MSc examines the physical processes governing the behaviour of volcanoes. The programme is taught by leading scientists who are working at the cutting edge of research into volcanoes, and will provide you with a strong background for independent research to PhD level or for a career in industry, the public sector or an NGO.

The programme is designed to equip you with knowledge of the physical processes of volcanoes, including both sub-surface and surficial behaviour, insights into important historical eruptions, understanding of risk and risk mitigation, and instruction and experiential learning on data gathering, handling analysis and presentation to publishable standard.

You will develop a wide range of skills, such as quantitative and computational skills, including the use of statistical and data handling software; proficiency in critical analysis of scientific material from a variety of sources, including primary research documents and original data; and the ability to synthesise concise and informative material produced for a variety of audiences.

Programme structure

Core units
-Physics of Volcanoes and Hazardous Flows
-Scientific Communication
-Literature Review (Volcanology)
-Research Methods in Volcanology

Optional units
-Frontiers in Earth Science
-Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
-Natural Hazards in Central America
-Natural Hazards in Central America (without fieldwork)
-Seismology
-Volcanic Hazards: Observation, Modelling and GIS

Research project
The final part of the programme consists of a research project. For further information on research projects, please see the School of Earth Sciences website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/earthsciences/research/projects.html

Careers

The MSc in Volcanology prepares students for research-based careers. Most students then continue on one of three paths, using the skills they have acquired at Bristol. About 40 per cent of graduating students continue on to study for a PhD at a range of institutions in the UK, Europe, North America, Australia and Singapore. Most overseas students return to their home country to work for government agencies in hazard management.

Other graduates choose to work in the commercial sector for either geotechnical companies (who manage assets for large multinationals) or risk management and reinsurance companies, typically in London where we have a burgeoning presence within that community.

The volcanology programme is rigorous and quantitative, and prepares students for settings where both domain-specific knowledge and the ability to conduct independent research are highly valued.

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