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With the enormous growth in international commerce over the last few decades knowledge of international commercial law has become an essential element of legal practice in all major law firms. Read more
With the enormous growth in international commerce over the last few decades knowledge of international commercial law has become an essential element of legal practice in all major law firms. The programme is also especially relevant to those seeking opportunities in the commercial world. Members of staff in the Sutherland School of Law have engaged in major research in this area spanning the full range of international commercial law from the World Trade Organisation through competition law in the domestic, European and international contexts to the issues arising out of the complexities of regulation.

A sound knowledge of international commercial law is increasingly necessary given the demands imposed by globalisation, whether
you wish to join a major law firm or be engaged in a company with european and international aspirations.

Directed at well-qualified graduates in law and related disciplines, this programme promotes critical analysis of different aspects of international commercial law. Leading the analysis and discussion, the members of staff in the Sutherland School of Law involved in the programme have engaged in major research. This spans the full range of international commercial law from the World Trade Organisation through competition law in the domestic, European and international contexts to the issues arising out of international
commercial arbitration.

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llminternationalcommerciallaw/

Your studies

The Sutherland School of Law and the Smurfit School of Business offer a wide range of modules for this Master’s programme. Of special interest to those undertaking this programme are modules such as: Corporate Governance; International Economic Law; International Commercial Arbitration; International Tax Law; International Aviation Law; and, Law of International Finance. Having completed six modules, students will complete the LLM by undertaking a supervised dissertation.

On completion of this programme, students will be able:
- to understand and think critically about various facets of Law;
- to apply their knowledge and understanding of Law to real and hypothetical factual situations; and,
- to conduct independent research and write coherent, well-structured papers.

Studying abroad

The School affords its students the opportunity to spend a semester abroad as part of the Comparative, International and European Law (CIEL) Graduate exchange programme with our partner Universities in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Students participating in the programme will have their dissertations jointly supervised by staff in UCD and in the institution which
they are visiting. Successful completion of the semester abroad will lead to the award of a Certificate in Comparative, International and European Law.

Your future

The deeper understanding and knowledge of International Commercial Law acquired through the programme is highly regarded by employers and has been the basis for many successful careers, both domestically and internationally. The legal skills acquired through the programme will be particularly useful if you intend to practise with the large Irish and international specialist corporate law firms, or want to work as an in-house legal adviser.

Features

The Sutherland School of Law offers a wide range of modules for the Masters programmes. Modules of especial interest to those undertaking this programme include:

- Corporate Governance which examines the legal and regulatory environment and the informational and market infrastructures which apply in Ireland and the wider EU to promote an understanding its importance to companies and their stakeholders.

- Insolvency Law which examines the legal principles relating to the insolvency of corporations and individuals in Ireland and other common law jurisdictions to develop an understanding of the legal mechanisms available for the distribution of the estates of insolvent debtors.

- EU Competition Law which offers a critical examination of how EU competition law governs particular actions of private market actors, considering the rationale behind this area of law and how it fits into the EU's economic order and philosophy.

- Regulatory Governance which offers insights into competing conceptions of regulatory governance and explanations both for emergence of and variety in regulatory regimes as well as normative arguments concerning arrangements for regulatory regimes.

CIEL

Any student admitted to an LLM programme in the Law School also can apply on a competitive basis to spend their second semester at one of our sister Law Schools:
- University of Antwerp
- Maastricht University
- The University of Mannhein
- Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
- Universite de Toulouse 1 – Capitole

Students must score 6.5 in IELTS or 90 in the internet TOEFL exams in the relevant language of instruction (English, French or German). Spaces are allocated on a competitive basis. Students who are accepted onto this programme graduate with an LLM and are awarded a certificate in International and Comparative Law (CIEL).

Careers

The LLM in International Commercial Law is highly regarded by employers and has been the basis for many successful careers both domestically and internationally. It is particularly useful for students wishing to practise with the large Irish and international specialist corporate law firms or wishing to work as an in-house legal adviser.

We have an excellent Careers Development Centre here at UCD, designed to help you with information regarding future employment or studies. UCD hold a number of graduate events throughout the year including a dedicated law fair at which at which many of the big Law firms will be in attendance. The School of Law has a dedicated careers advisor on it’s Academic staff, Dr. Oonagh Breen, and a staff member from the careers office will be in attendance at the School of law on a number of occasions throughout the academic year. To see the full range of services offered by the careers office go to http://www.ucd.ie/careers/

Find out how to apply here http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llminternationalcommerciallaw/apply,80078,en.html

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llminternationalcommerciallaw/

Scholarships

The University and UCD Sutherland School of Law have a list of scholarships that are open to Irish, EU and International applicants.
For further information please see http://www.ucd.ie/scholarships
International students may wish to visit: http://www.ucd.ie/international

Why you should choose UCD

In the state-of-the-art UCD Sutherland School of Law, graduate students engage in advanced study with internationally renowned specialists to develop the transformative potential of law.

The School is ranked by the authoritative QS World University Rankings as Ireland's number one law school and amongst the world's 100 leading law schools. Students benefit from the School’s strong links with university partners; businesses; NGOs; and, domestic, EU and international governments.
We place particular emphasis on the quality and breadth of our graduate programmes across Diploma, Masters and Doctoral levels. Our graduate degrees are available on a full-time or part-time basis, beginning in either January or September.
We also offer part-time Diploma programmes and single subject certificates with the possibility of securing CPD points and building study up to achieve diploma or masters awards.

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This MA programme is especially designed for those with an interdisciplinary background who wish to more fully comprehend core issues and approaches within International Relations post 9/11. Read more
This MA programme is especially designed for those with an interdisciplinary background who wish to more fully comprehend core issues and approaches within International Relations post 9/11.

At the dawn of a third millennium, the pace of integration among the world’s regions and populations is breathtaking. Powerful forces – the emergence of transnational economies, the lightning speed of global communications, and the movement of peoples, cultures and ideas into new settings – are reshaping notions of citizenship, society and community.

At the same time, however, older religious hatreds, sectarian violence and new fundamentalisms are recasting existing states and disintegrating individual, national and international notions of security. Such dynamics demand that we rethink why we are and where we are today, but also reconsider historical interpretations of past change within and among the world’s regions. To understand the global condition requires a thorough and sensitive understanding of diverse interests, ethnicities and cultures. The purpose of this new postgraduate award in International Relations (IR) is to foster within students a global perspective and encourage a multicultural awareness of contemporary problems.

Why study with us?

IR is a vital and dynamic field of intellectual inquiry that offers an interdisciplinary exploration of human interaction. It is not so much a single discipline; rather it is a study of a particular type of behaviour whose comprehension requires the insight and methods of a number of disciplines. Although your MA is set within a strong political and sociological framework, the course is enhanced through the support of Law, History, and American Studies.

IR provides an opportunity to engage with and adapt to changing international, national and regional realities post 9/11. The security implications of the events of 9/11, and the impact of global developments on everyday lives, are present in the public mind as never before. The Palestinian question, western intervention and civil war in Iraq, nuclear proliferation, international crime and terrorism are just some of the recurrent themes that have taken on a new urgency and demand our attention.

IR develops critical awareness, conceptual understanding, sound research methods, and originality in the application of knowledge. Your MA will provide you with an appropriate set of intellectual skills to enable more informed and effective participation in an ‘ever-changing’ global context. Current social, political and economic globalisation demonstrates the inexorable importance of the ‘international’ and the increased relevance of this knowledge dimension at both academic and practice levels.

Course content

International Relations is a vital and dynamic field of intellectual inquiry that offers an interdisciplinary exploration of human interaction. Students undertaking the course will come from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds and it is not assumed that all students will have similar abilities or skills. It is not our aim to encourage further specialisation along the line of a student’s first degree but rather to complement existing knowledge and build upon transferable capabilities. Overall this is a unique opportunity for graduates both with and without International Relations training to study at a very high level for a postgraduate degree with global relevance.

Our aim is to foster a set of intellectual skills to enable more informed and effective participation in an ‘ever-shrinking’ global society. This goal is to provide a rigorous and intellectually challenging foundation in approaches to the study and practice of international relations while developing an understanding and sensitivity to key issues in diverse areas of the modern world. The MA offers an exciting opportunity for graduates to develop their understanding of international affairs both theoretically and through their own or others’ experience.

Course modules (16/17)

-International Relations Theory: Great Debates, New Directions
-Major Organisations in the International Order
-Methodology and Research Design in International Relations
-The Peoples’ Republic of China: Foreign Policy Dilemmas
-European Integration
-America after 9/11
-The Politics of Latin American Development
-The International Politics of the Post-Soviet Space
-The Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
-Politics of International Communications
-Dissertation
-The International Relations of the Pacific Rim
-The Political Economy of East African Development
-Comparative Transnational Criminology
-European and International Human Rights
-National Security, Terrorism and The Rule of Law
-Political Economies of International Development
-The Politics of Aid

Methods of Learning

The Master’s award in International Relations is designed to provide a rounded education and broadly based qualification for UK graduates and equivalently qualified foreign students, particularly those who lack an international dimension through their previous study. It is awarded after completion of a mixture of taught courses and a programme of research. The MA lasts at least one year (if taken full time, two years part time), and is to be taken by persons with honours degrees (or equivalent achievement). Also on offer (and commensurate with this standard of education) are advanced short courses leading to Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas in IR.

In common with all universities, certain elements of the course are compulsory and other elements chosen. To be awarded the MA in International Relations each student must achieve 180 credits at Master’s level (here called CATS (Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme)). This includes 40 CATS of compulsory modules in International Theory, 20 CATS of compulsory methodology and research training, and a 60 CATS compulsory dissertation of between 15,000 and 20,000 words. Compulsory modules define the intellectual basis of IR as a multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary subject while providing a firm foundation in theoretical issues and debates. They also develop the cognitive skills for specialist study and the practical skills for research. You gain the remaining 60 CATS through a wide choice of designated modules. All modules build upon the research and teaching expertise of individual tutors, and cover a wide range of themes in diverse areas of the globe – not just North America and Western Europe but the Middle East, Latin America, China and the Pacific Rim among others. A key aim is to develop a sensitivity and awareness of varied geo-political settings while comprehending the impact of change upon states, societies and individuals. Students are taught to discuss international problems to a high standard while applying the ways of analysis adopted by IR scholars to a range of issues.

We hope all candidates might be encouraged and enthused to achieve the MA. Yet we also recognise that some students may prefer to study in ‘stages’ – funds or time permitting. This is why we provide a named Postgraduate Certificate and a named Postgraduate Diploma. A Postgraduate Diploma in International Relations is available if students successfully complete 120 CATS points but do not complete the 60 CATS dissertation. Alternatively, there is the opportunity to achieve a Postgraduate Certificate in International Relations by successfully gaining 60 CATS points including 40 CATS of IR theory but excluding 20 CATS of methodology/research and of course the 60 CATS dissertation module.

All of this gives you, the student, the added flexibility of opting in or out of awards as personal or financial circumstance change. It gives the added incentive of an identifiable and quantifiable award at each stage of study while consistently encouraging and widening your participation in postgraduate enterprise. This strategy also enables an individual to complete their study within a timescale suitable to their own specific needs. Multiple points of entry (February and September) over a one or two year cycle further facilitate this.

Schedule

At Master’s level study, we aim to encourage student-led debates and exchange of ideas. Modules will typically alternate fortnightly between classes on campus and online learning activities. Each module incorporates a variety of teaching methods in class, including workshops, student presentations and discussions of primary and secondary materials (such as film, images, documentary sources and online resources). Online learning activities include online seminars, discussion boards, podcasts and blogs.

Full-time students get six hours of timetabled contact per week, part-time students have three hours. This does not include individual tutorials or dissertation supervision.

Independent study and assessment time equate to approximately 18 hours per week full time or nine hours part time.

Assessments

Your MA in International Relations is assessed through a variety of types of coursework and the dissertation. Assessment items include essays, literature reviews, presentations and research reports. There are no examinations. All coursework reflects the high level of intellectual demands associated with a taught MA and has the aim of developing a range of oral and written skills. You need to be prepared to commit yourself to substantial reading and thought for successful completion of an MA. This time includes preparation for assignments, seminars and the dissertation element.

Although teaching strategies vary according to individual modules, considerable emphasis is placed upon student-based learning in order to foster effective critical participation and discussion as overall course objectives. This means lectures and tutor-led teaching provide overviews of major theories and themes but the seminar or workshop is where learning is consolidated, exemplified and used in more student-centred contexts.

Modules typically make use of current case study material, video teaching media as well as practical exercises and the more traditional lecture and seminar activities. Tutorials are very important in facilitating and directing the learning of cognitive skills on a personal basis – by working within the context of your individual needs, appropriate goals can be set, for example, in relation to essay preparation and feedback.

At each stage you are encouraged to plan and organise your own learning. This allows greater time to be spent on critical evaluation – so reinforcing and extending your learning experience. Mixed methods of teaching and learning are utilised in seminars to achieve aims and outcomes, including tutor input, structural discussions, small group work, presentations, guided reading of designated course material, and wider reading appropriate to Master’s level. Student-led presentations and small group work develop your transferable skills and enhance your capacity for critical reflection. The academic essay has a central function in every module in allowing you to engage with and reflect upon the key skills required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in IR. Coursework for all modules, but particularly in methods modules, allows students to acquire skills that they will then use in the dissertation.

Facilities and Special Features

-Strong staff expertise.
-Enthusiastic teaching team providing a supportive atmosphere for research.
-The core modules consider classic texts and the very latest thinking on international theory.
-Focus on the study of distinct global regions not just Europe, North America or the West.
-All students are assigned a personal tutor and will be encouraged to form study groups with colleagues.
-Guest speakers are a feature of this MA.
-Students will find the course team warm and approachable.

Careers

Previous students have used our MA in a variety of ways. It can be a bridge to further study – with several former students having gone on to do a PhD. As a prestigious qualification, it can enhance career opportunities in a wide range of occupations, for example, teachers have used the course to gain curriculum knowledge and career progression. Many students take the course purely because they have enjoyed History as a degree or as a personal interest and wish to pursue the subject further.

Progression to a taught postgraduate course is a path chosen by those wishing to further their careers, those intending to pursue further research and those who seek principally to satisfy their own intellectual interests. Successful completion will lead to the award of MA. This will complement a candidate’s existing qualifications. Additionally, it is envisaged that the programme’s breadth and depth will provide you with a suitable background for careers in public and private sectors where there is a need for international expertise.

The award of MA demonstrates an intellectual flexibility and high level of analytical, written and verbal skills. Increasingly, employers are looking for graduates with skills and knowledge which are not found (or perceived by employers to be found) among many recent graduates. This MA will give you, the graduate, a distinctive product in a highly competitive and expanding graduate employment market. Employers report that a person with a background in International Relations is more likely to find a career in the rapidly changing international environment than a person with another form of postgraduate qualification.

The MA IR thus aims to provide you with a suitable foundation for careers in both private and public sectors where there is a need for international sensitivity. Students wishing to engage in later doctoral research (where we have capacity) or in careers within voluntary organisations, civil and diplomatic service, international organisations, research posts or journalism will particularly benefit from it. We now have excellent links with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Members of European Parliament and representatives from the United Nations, as well as a number of pressure groups.

In sum, our core purpose is to nurture not only a robust intellectual flexibility but also the high levels of analytical, written and verbal skills attractive to employers from globally focused agencies and business. Our aim is to provide you with an excellent background and competitive edge for further study or a wide variety of careers in an ever-expanding job market.

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The LLM General programme affords you the opportunity to choose any combination of the graduate modules offered by the Sutherland School of Law. Read more
The LLM General programme affords you the opportunity to choose any combination of the graduate modules offered by the Sutherland School of Law. Members of staff in the Sutherland School of Law have engaged in major research across the areas of law reflected in the modules offered in the programme ranging from cross-border divorce law, the socio-economic rights of asylum seekers to the regulation of charities in Ireland.

Directed at well-qualified graduates in law and related disciplines, this programme promotes reflection on the different aspects of national, European and International Law, with strong opportunities for specialization in both public and private law dimensions.
Leading this analysis and discussion, the members of staff in the Sutherland School of Law have engaged in major research across the various areas of law. This is reflected in the modules offered in the programme ranging from cross-border divorce law, the socio-economic rights of asylum seekers, to the comparative regulation of charities and NGOs.

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmgeneral/

Your studies

The Sutherland School of Law offers a wide range of modules for the Master’s programmes. Of special interest to those undertaking this programme, are modules such as: Issues in Comparative Charity Law; Key Issues in Conflict of Laws; Comparative Constitutional Law; and, Regulation of Food Safety. Having completed six modules, you will complete the LLM by undertaking a supervised dissertation.

On completion of this programme, students will be able:
- to understand and think critically about various facets of Law;
- to apply their knowledge and understanding of Law to real and hypothetical factual situations; and,
- to conduct independent research and write coherent, well-structured papers.

Studying abroad

The School affords its students the opportunity to spend a semester abroad as part of the Comparative, International and European Law (CIEL) Graduate exchange programme with our partner Universities in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Students participating in the programme will have their dissertations jointly supervised by staff in UCD and in the institution which
they are visiting. Successful completion of the semester abroad will lead to the award of a Certificate in Comparative, International and European Law.

Your future

The deeper understanding and knowledge of law acquired through the programme is highly regarded by employers and has been the basis for many successful varied careers, both domestically and internationally. The legal skills acquired through the programme will be particularly useful, irrespective of the career you choose.

Features

The Sutherland School of Law offers a wide range of modules for the Masters programmes. Modules of especial interest to those undertaking this programme include:

- Economic Torts which adopts a comparative common law perspective to examine specific areas of the law of torts, such as the economic aspects to the law of torts, economic aspects of damages, commercial aspects of the law of torts and causation issues.

- Key Issues in Conflicts of Law is concerned with those laws governing legal disputes with a foreign element including jurisdiction and recognition of judgments under Brussels I and IIbis, the applicable law under Rome I & II and the use of public policy/ordre public.

- International Disaster Response Law assesses the history and emergence of international disaster response laws, rules and principles and responses to disaster relief outside of the immediate disaster area, with a particular focus on the international regime for protection of individuals.

- Regulation of Food Safety addresses how the differing interests and actors involved in the production and consumption of food interact to regulate the safety and quality of food and examines the current and future challenges in the regulation of food safety and quality.

CIEL

Any student admitted to an LLM programme in the Law School also can apply on a competitive basis to spend their second semester at one of our sister Law Schools:
- University of Antwerp
- Maastricht University
- The University of Mannhein
- Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
- Universite de Toulouse 1 – Capitole

Students must score 6.5 in IELTS or 90 in the internet TOEFL exams in the relevant language of instruction (English, French or German). Spaces are allocated on a competitive basis. Students who are accepted onto this programme graduate with an LLM and are awarded a certificate in International and Comparative Law (CIEL).

Careers

The LLM is highly regarded by employers and has been the basis for many successful careers both domestically and internationally.

We have an excellent Careers Development Centre here at UCD, designed to help you with information regarding future employment or studies. UCD hold a number of graduate events throughout the year including a dedicated law fair at which at which many of the big Law firms will be in attendance. The School of Law has a dedicated careers advisor on it’s Academic staff, Dr. Oonagh Breen, and a staff member from the careers office will be in attendance at the School of law on a number of occasions throughout the academic year. To see the full range of services offered by the careers office go to http://www.ucd.ie/careers/

Find out how to apply here http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmgeneral/apply,79280,en.html

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmgeneral/

Scholarships

The University and UCD Sutherland School of Law have a list of scholarships that are open to Irish, EU and International applicants.
For further information please see http://www.ucd.ie/scholarships
International students may wish to visit: http://www.ucd.ie/international

Why you should choose UCD

In the state-of-the-art UCD Sutherland School of Law, graduate students engage in advanced study with internationally renowned
specialists to develop the transformative potential of law.

The School is ranked by the authoritative QS World University Rankings as Ireland's number one law school and amongst the world's 100 leading law schools. Students benefit from the School’s strong links with university partners; businesses; NGOs; and, domestic, EU and international governments.
We place particular emphasis on the quality and breadth of our graduate programmes across Diploma, Masters and Doctoral levels. Our graduate degrees are available on a full-time or part-time basis, beginning in either January or September.
We also offer part-time Diploma programmes and single subject certificates with the possibility of securing CPD points and building study up to achieve diploma or masters awards.

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Dual Master’s programme in which you develop an understanding and knowledge of comparative and international corporate, insolvency and European Law for a legal career with a strong international focus. Read more

Dual Master’s programme in which you develop an understanding and knowledge of comparative and international corporate, insolvency and European Law for a legal career with a strong international focus.

Since the start of the global financial crisis, there has been a surge in the number of companies that find themselves in financial difficulties. It has not only greatly increased the need for experts in insolvency law but has also profoundly changed this field of law. It has given insolvency law a much higher profile.

Insolvency is no longer a national issue. Due to globalisation, most companies have international contacts that have to be taken into account during a reorganisation or liquidation process. Given the new transnational scope of this field of law, the Faculty of Law at Radboud University and the Nottingham Law School have joined forces to offer students a unique Master’s programme that joins comparative and international insolvency and corporate law, thus meeting the demands and challenges of contemporary insolvency law.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/europeanlaw/insolvency

Two Master’s degrees in one year

This dual LL.M programme will give you the opportunity of attaining two Master’s degrees in law in one academic year while living both in the Netherlands and the UK, thus adding to your personal international experience as well as increasing your knowledge. The courses taught at both campuses are presented in English, and you’ll enjoy the benefits of being taught by experts from both law schools.

Graduates of the insolvency law specialisation can expect to find a wide variety of employment prospects. These include law firms, financial institutions, multinationals and listed companies as well as governmental institutions and NGOs.

Why do the dual Master’s in Insolvency Law?

- You will participate in a unique and intense Master’s programme specialising in insolvency law.

- You will be awarded two LL.M degrees in the space of just one academic year: the LL.M Corporate and Insolvency Law from Nottingham Law School, and the LL.M European and Insolvency Law from Radboud University.

- You will study at a British Law School that was rated ‘excellent' by the British Law Society, and a Dutch Law School that was rated number one in the Netherlands for student satisfaction.

- You will work together with two prestigious research centres in the field of insolvency law: The NLS Centre for Business and Insolvency Law at Nottingham Law School, and the Business & Law Research Centre at Radboud University.

- You will be taught in a stimulating, collegial setting with small groups by internationally recognised professors of law, all specialists in their specific fields.

- You will have a chance to live in both Nijmegen in the Netherlands and Nottingham in the United Kingdom. The programme starts in the Netherlands and after the Christmas break you move to the UK.

Challenging, broad and interesting

During a reorganisation or liquidation process all (legal) relationships of a company are in a high state of tension and every aspect of a company is under severe scrutiny. This is what makes insolvency law a particularly challenging field of law, and the Master’s specialisation so broad and interesting. Experts in insolvency also need to deal with other fields such as corporate law, commercial law, administrative law and labour law.

At Radboud University and Nottingham Trent University we take a holistic approach to insolvency law while at the same time providing a level of practical detail through real-world scenarios. This ensures that our graduates get the relevant in-depth knowledge that is highly sought-after by employers all over Europe.

Career prospects

This Master’s specialisation is primarily designed for students who wish to pursue an international legal career in the area of insolvency law. It offers a thorough and broad education in insolvency law that includes corporate law, commercial law, labour law, personal bankruptcy law and competition law. And because it’s part of the European Law programme at Radboud University, you will also gain a good understanding of the internal and external markets of the European Union and the position of Europe in the world.

Job positions

As far as job positions go, it is seldom that you will find job positions advertised for insolvency law experts. That is not to say that these experts aren't highly sought after, especially since the start of the economic crisis. However, insolvency law experts will usually be part of a banking or corporate litigation team.

Graduates of Insolvency Law can expect to find a wide variety of employment prospects. You could work for financial institutions, multinationals and listed companies as well as governmental institutions and NGOs. There is also a high demand within the legal profession and judiciary for lawyers with thorough knowledge of insolvency law.

Our approach to this field

Besides the required knowledge of theories in Corporate, European and Insolvency law, and of insolvency law reform and policy, this specialisation specifically focuses on two aspects within the field of insolvency law:

1. Comparing national laws

When a company is in need of a corporate rescue, it has the possibility to use the legal instruments of several jurisdictions, not just the one in which it is located. This is known as forum shopping or regulatory arbitrage. To optimally do this, you need very good insight as to what’s out there. During this Master’s we teach students the basics they need to know to be able to compare the legal possibilities of several (European) countries.

2. Understanding the international consequences

If a company in, for example, the Netherlands goes bankrupt, what effect does this have in other countries? This dual Master’s teaches you how you can oversee the possible international consequences of relevant actions.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/europeanlaw/insolvency

Radboud University Master's Open Day 10 March 2018



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The Master of Laws (LLM Law) course allows students to choose from a wide range of international and English law specialist subjects, including aspects of commercial and international trade law, intellectual property, and international human rights. Read more

About the course

The Master of Laws (LLM Law) course allows students to choose from a wide range of international and English law specialist subjects, including aspects of commercial and international trade law, intellectual property, and international human rights.

This enables graduates to fill the increasing demand for expertise in these areas and to produce their own 'bespoke' degree to suit their career needs.

Furthermore, because many of the modules have an international dimension, the LLM law course has proven to be of great interest to overseas candidates.

The programme is available full-time:
September (12 months)
January (15 months, due to dissertation submission requirements)

And also part-time:
September (24 months)
January (27 months, due to dissertation submission requirements)

Aims

Students receive a thorough grounding in the legal concepts and principles operating in the areas of law chosen.

They are given the opportunity to gain an understanding of areas of social and criminal justice policy where relevant and are introduced
to areas of controversy in their selected areas of law and socio-legal studies.

The Brunel Law School’s Masters of Law programme is designed to flexible enabling students to either broaden their proficiency in a range of areas or gain in-depth specialist knowledge of a particular subject of interest.

Course Content

The LLM consists of both compulsory and optional modules, a typical selection can be found below. Modules can vary from year to year, but these offer a good idea of what we teach.

Compulsory modules:

Dissertation

Optional modules:

EU Competition Law
International Criminal Law
International Criminal Justice
Corporate Law I
Corporate Law II
International Human Rights and Islamic Law
Theory of International Financial Regulation
World Trade Organisation (WTO) Law
Privacy and Data Protection
Principles of International Commercial Arbitration
Philosophical Foundations of IP
Media Law and Regulation
Internet Law I -Substantive Legal Issues
Public International Law
European System of Human Rights Protection
Foundations of International Human Rights Law
International Humanitarian Law
Multiculturalism and Human Rights
Patent Law and Practice
Trade Marks and Allied Rights
International Trade Law
International Environmental Law
Comparative Criminal Justice
Comparative Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights
Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility
World Trade Organisation (WTO) and Human Rights Law
Theory and Practice of International Human Rights
Practice of International Financial Regulation
Internet Law II - Resolving Internet-related Legal Issues and Disputes
Practice of International Commercial Arbitration
Human Rights of Women
Regional Systems of Human Rights Protection: Americas, Africa, Asia
Copyright, Design and Allied Rights
Managing Intellectual Property
International Intellectual Property Law
EU Intellectual Property Law

Teaching

The classes are taught to groups of approximately 30 students. Tutors use a variety of teaching methods to deliver their modules. Lectures provide a structure for the module and give an overview of the subject matter. They will introduce students to new topics relevant to their modules.

Some classes will take the form of a lecture, others will be taught seminar style. Some may use a mixture of teaching methods (eg lecture, research, case law and problem methods), in order to promote a personalised learning that considers the individual student’s interests, needs and abilities. We believe that it is part of student experience to be exposed to different teaching styles.

There will be 16 hours of teaching per 15 credit module, spread out over one of the teaching terms.

Assessment

The faculty places great emphasis on the creation of a unique learning experience. In addition to attending seminars and preparing coursework and exams, students will also learn by:

- participating in research centre activities and research trips
- contributing to newsletters
- making oral presentations
- attending law film screenings
- participating in debating events and reading group sessions.

Assessment methods in this programme range from coursework, seen examinations and a dissertation (15,000 words) to oral presentations and assessment by contribution in seminars.

Special Features

Flexible Start Times and Learning Options
Programme is available in full-time and part-time mode, with start dates in September and January. Students gain greater flexibility with this programme because Brunel Law School offer smaller 15 credit modules, which provides students a range of options to both tailor study and provide additional flexibility in study arrangements.

Research and Research Centres
Brunel Law School benefits from very active research centres, which have hosted a large number of research seminars and workshops in the last few years. Many of these events focus on a wide range of issues and they tackle the latest debates in the industry with a number of highly respected guests. Brunel Law School believes that an active research community is important in providing postgraduate with the latest thinking, and it is important to us that all our staff are included in our Research Assessment’s (RAE).  In the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF2014) we were ranked 14th in the UK for REF Intensity in Law.

Extra-Curricular Activities
Brunel Law School offers students numerous opportunities to participate in extra-curricular activities, including a Reading Group, a Law Film society, mooting and debating societies and research workshops organised by the research centres based at the School. LLM students are expected to play a leading role organising and participating in these activities.

Research Skills
Brunel Law School offers an elaborate scheme of research and writing skills sessions designed to facilitate students’ learning and to equip them with appropriate transferable skills. Some of the modules in this programme also integrate skills training, for example on how to answer essay questions, make use of electronic legal databases and cite legal authorities.

The Graduate School
Brunel Graduate School offers postgraduates additional features for study and the opportunity to meet fellow postgraduate students from across the University, so you will have the opportunity to meet others studying for their master of laws degrees and socialise with fellow postgraduate students.

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Are you ready to take your career in the world of commercial law to the next level?. The Master of Commercial Law is for those working in roles that require a sound grasp of commercial law issues. Read more
Are you ready to take your career in the world of commercial law to the next level?

The Master of Commercial Law is for those working in roles that require a sound grasp of commercial law issues. The course focuses on areas that include corporate and competition law, banking and finance law, and tax law and allows students to choose from an extensive range of domestic and international commercial law units. Our offering of units is designed to cater to a variety of career aspirations and interests. In this course, you will investigate contemporary law issues, practice and scholarship, and evaluate complex issues relevant to the field from theoretical, international and interdisciplinary perspectives.

The Master of Commercial Law provides a formal course of training for non-lawyers working in law-related fields (e.g. accountants, company administrators, management personnel, and related business areas). It provides students with the opportunity to obtain a specialist qualification in commercial law and provides a springboard from which to launch or further your career in this complex and evolving professional area.

We are one of the most prestigious law schools in Australia, and this course is offered at our Monash University Law Chambers, in the heart of the legal district of Melbourne.

The course offers a choice from a broad range of commercial law areas, or you can select from across the range of Masters law elective units. With units covering areas such as international trade law, competition law, corporate and white collar crime and corporate finance—to name a few, you will gain thorough theoretical and practical grounding in commercial law and practice. You will also develop the advanced professional skills and specialist knowledge required for work in this dynamic field.

We provide the flexibility to choose a program of study to suit your interests, skills and professional goals. Full-time or part-time study options allow you to continue to work, as well as meet personal commitments.

The course enhances your capacity to undertake independent research, and includes options for a pathway to doctoral studies.

Visit the website http://www.study.monash/courses/find-a-course/2016/commercial-law-l6001?domestic=true

Course Structure

The course is structured in two parts. Part A: Commercial law knowledge and Part B Extending specialist knowledge electives and research.

PART A: Commercial law knowledge
The studies enable you to develop specialised knowledge and advanced skills in areas of commercial law that suit your interests, skills and career goals.

PART B: Extending specialist knowledge electives and research
These studies will provide you with in-depth knowledge of a wide range of areas commercial law or you can select from across the range of Masters law elective units. You will focus on sources of information relevant to commercial law and the application of research methods and specialist discipline knowledge and skills necessary to support law-related work in those closely interrelated fields. Depending on your interests and motivation, you can choose a program of study in which you plan and execute a major research-based project with a high level of personal autonomy and accountability.

For more information visit the faculty website - http://www.study.monash/media/links/faculty-websites/law

Faculty of Law

- Who we are

Monash Law is one of the largest and most prestigious law schools in Australia. We have a broad teaching base, strong international links and offer our students a variety of experiential learning opportunities. We are proud to offer a range of Undergraduate, Masters and Research degrees and provide legal education and training to over 3500 undergraduate and postgraduate students at any one time.

- Study with us

Studying a Law degree with Monash, your qualification will be internationally recognised as one of the world's best. We have a long established reputation as one of Australia's leading law schools and are a member of the prestigious Group of Eight universities, recognised globally for excellence in research, teaching and scholarship.

When you commence your Law degree with us, you commence your study of Law from day one. You can gain tangible, real legal experience in our two Clinical Legal Education Centres or undertake an international law program in Italy and Malaysia. Whatever your choice, a Law degree from Monash equips you with practical and transferable skills that you can take to your future career.

Find out how to apply here - http://www.study.monash/courses/find-a-course/2016/commercial-law-l6001?domestic=true#making-the-application

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Take your passion for law to the next level with advanced study and research. Be at the centre of debate, analysis and dialogue about law and legal policy issues in New Zealand. Read more

Take your passion for law to the next level with advanced study and research. Be at the centre of debate, analysis and dialogue about law and legal policy issues in New Zealand.

Full time or part time, your study will be relevant, accessible and intellectually rewarding—research an area of law that interests you or tailor a course of study that suits your career goals.

Programmes

Master of Laws by coursework

You'll take one core course—Advanced Legal Study LAWS 581 worth 10 points—and make up the rest of your 120 points from a choice of other 500-level LAWS courses. Up to 40 points can be replaced by equivalent courses from another faculty or another university.

500-level LAWS courses differ from year to year and are either taught in block format, intensive format or seminars. Look at the course timetable to see when the intensive and block courses are offered. The seminar courses are mainly led by you and the other students who will prepare papers in advance.

Internship

International students can also choose to do a 20-point one-trimester internship. You'll work with a community, government or private sector organisation under the joint supervision of a Faculty member and an outside professional. Assessment is based on the work you produce, a journal and your performance at fortnightly seminars.

Master of Laws by dissertation and coursework

You'll take LAWS 581 Advanced Legal Study (10 points), a further 20 points from the Master of Laws course-selection and LAWS 592, a 90-point dissertation of 35,000 words.

Dissertation supervision

The Faculty can provide dissertation supervision on a wide range of subjects. Explore the full list of the Faculty's research areas to help you decide on your own research topic.

Master of Laws by thesis

The Master of Laws by thesis requires you to complete a 120-point 50,000 word thesis on an area of law that interests you. You'll also do the course Advanced Legal Study LAWS 581 at no extra cost.

Thesis supervision

The Faculty can provide thesis supervision on a wide range of subjects. Explore the full list of the Faculty's research areas to help you decide on your own research topic.

Master of Laws by research portfolio

This is a more flexible combination of coursework and research on an approved topic. You'll take the 10-point Advanced Legal Study LAWS 581 and the 90-point Research Portfolio LAWS 593.

The research portfolio consists of two courses that include two research papers of 12,000 words each on related topics. You'll also complete a 2,500-word linking paper to establish and justify your research, as well as a further 20 points from Master of Laws courses.

Flexible study

Designed to be flexible, the Master of Laws offers courses that are taught in different formats. Some courses meet weekly, others are taught in a more compact format.

Block courses are taught in a concentrated manner over a one-to-two week period, and intensive courses are broken into chunks of eight to twelve hours. They are often taught over two-to-three consecutive evenings or in Friday afternoon and Saturday sessions, with a break of two-to-three weeks between sessions.

Workload and duration

The Master of Laws can be completed in one year of full-time study, or in up to three years part time.

If you are studying full time, you can expect a workload of 40–45 hours a week for much of the year. Part-time students doing two courses per trimester will need to do around 20–23 hours of work a week. Make sure you take this into account if you are working.

You can estimate your workload by adding up the number of points you'll be doing. One point is roughly equal to 10–12 hours work.

Research and supervision

No matter how you choose to study for your Master of Laws there will be an element of research required. Take advantage of exciting research opportunities at New Zealand's leading centre of academic legal research

And if you're planning on doing a Master's by thesis, or a PhD, you'll have the opportunity to be supervised in wide range of subject areas by New Zealand's best legal scholars.



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Master's specialisation in Business Law. Read more

Master's specialisation in Business Law

How can a company move or expand abroad? How can a company protect itself against a hostile takeover from a firm abroad? How does EU legislation influence the national business laws of member states? With the increasing level of globalisation there is a growing demand for legal experts who understand the impact of EU legislation on business entities. At Radboud University you’ll not just gain a thorough understanding of EU legislation, but also of the legal practices of enterprises that do business in and with EU member states.

You’ll investigate aspects of European and comparative company law, such as corporate restructuring, corporate mobility, formation and financing of companies, European business forms, employee involvement, corporate governance and takeover regulations. You’ll also learn to analyse both primary and secondary EU legislation, as well as the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU and the legislation of relevant jurisdictions. By the end of the programme you’ll understand the interaction of European and national law on businesses.

See the website: http://www.ru.nl/masters/europeanlaw/businesslaw

Why study Business Law at Radboud University?

- You’ll gain both a broad knowledge of the internal and external markets of the European Union and the position of Europe in the world as well as specialised knowledge in the field of Business Law.

- You’ll study at a Dutch Law School that was rated number one in the Netherlands for student satisfaction.

- The Faculty of Law in Nijmegen was the first in the Netherlands to start a European Law programme. It has built an international reputation in the field of European law, immigration law and private law and is part of a large network that includes more than fifty universities in Europe, the United States, Asia and Australia.

- You’ll work together with the prestigious Business & Law Research Centre. This centre combines academic excellence with the practical expertise of major companies and law firms. The centre has been accredited by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

- You’ll be taught in a stimulating, collegiate setting with small groups by internationally recognised professors of law, all specialists in their specific fields.

- The international mix of students gives the classes and project work a multicultural touch. This will give you the extra benefit of gaining multicultural communication skills as well as a multitude of cultural perspectives in this field. By the time you receive your Master's diploma, you’ll have gained excellent skills to work in the Netherlands or in any other country.

- This programme is not just geared at students from EU countries. All nations in the world trade with the EU which has rules and regulations that have to be complied with. Law students from all over the world will therefore benefit from this Master’s specialisation.

Career prospects

This Master’s specialisation is primarily designed for students who wish to pursue an international legal career in the area of corporate law. It offers a thorough and broad education in company law that includes competition law, commercial law, labour law and insolvency law. And because it’s part of the European Law programme at Radboud University, you’ll also gain a good understanding of the internal and external markets of the European Union and the position of Europe in the world.

Job positions

Graduates of Business Law can expect a wide variety of employment prospects. The vast knowledge of EU businesses and the European decision-process makes that graduates of this specialisation are well equipped for a job in law, lobbying or consulting firms anywhere in the world. You could also work for financial institutions, multinationals and listed companies as well as for governmental institutions and NGOs. Graduates can also strive for one of the few law positions within the European Commission as this Master’s will definitely gain a sound basis needed to acquire the necessary professional competences.

Our approach to this field

Master's specialisation in Business Law

At Radboud University, we strive for clear practical relevance of academic theory.

1. All of our lecturers are also in some form law practitioners. We can therefore not only teach our students the black letter law, but also add our own professional experiences, indicating the strengths and challenges of certain laws or legal instruments.

2. Guest speakers are regularly invited to share their experiences, enlightening students with real-world scenarios and providing tips about how to deal with cases that don’t follow the norm.

3. In our research we are engaged in collaborative ventures with leading law firms, banks and multinational companies. Therefore, we are informed of the issues that practitioners deal with in their regular work. We respond to their questions by developing research that is relevant for the legal and business industry.

4. In the Master’s programme in European Law we focus on the law as it stands, meeting the professional responsibility by justifying decisions in legal terms, by referencing legal rules, principles, and precedent. However, we still continue formulating both criticism and alternatives to the law as it stands.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/europeanlaw/businesslaw

Radboud University Master's Open Day 10 March 2018



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The Specialist LLM course in Public International Law provides a critical understanding of the principles within which public international law operates, raising issues of treaty interpretation and enforcement across a range of sub-disciplines. Read more
The Specialist LLM course in Public International Law provides a critical understanding of the principles within which public international law operates, raising issues of treaty interpretation and enforcement across a range of sub-disciplines.

Who is it for?

This course will be of interest to individuals who seek a deeper understanding of the many dimensions of public international law from both a theoretical and practical perspective. As this course has an international dimension it will appeal to students from around the world and at all stages of their legal education and professional experience.

Objectives

The Specialist LLM in Public International Law concentrates on the development of a thorough and critical understanding of Public International Law, the law governing the interaction of states. The last decade or so has seen tremendous challenges for International Law including matters relating to armed conflict, commercial relations and human rights. This course gives you the opportunity to trace and evaluate some of these practical and theoretical developments guided by leading academics and expert practitioners.

City's LLM in Public International Law takes a contemporary approach to the study of international law. You may choose from an extensive list of electives including the law of treaties, human rights, economic law, law of the sea and others.
All electives adopt a curriculum that is cutting edge in its theoretical approach and a skill-based methodology to enable you to develop your knowledge and skills in the subject in the best manner possible.

Placements

Each year a small number of internships become available and you will be provided with information about such opportunities and how to apply during the year of your study.

Academic facilities

As a City Law School student you will benefit from everything the institution has to offer including the Learning Success department and Lawbore, an online resource designed to help you find the information you need for the course modules. All course modules have online depositories through Moodle.

As part of the University of London you can also become a member of Senate House Library for free with your student ID card.

You will benefit from City, University of London’s extensive library of hard copy and electronic resources, including its comprehensive database of domestic and international caselaw, legislation, treaties and legal periodicals. There are two law-specific libraries – one at the Gray’s Inn campus and one at our Northampton square campus - with individual study spaces and dedicated rooms for group work.

Additionally, we are a short walk away from the British Library and the Law Library of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.

Teaching and learning

This course is taught by leading academics as well as visiting practitioners including barristers and solicitors who work in private practice and in legal departments of major companies.

Assessment

All modules are structured as 10-weekly two-hour seminars which comprise both lectures as well as interactive tutorials. All modules are supported by our online learning platform - Moodle. Assessment is by way of coursework which comprises 100% of the final mark in each module. Each module carries the same weight in terms of the overall qualification.

You will be allocated a dedicated supervisor for your dissertation who will help you develop a specific topic and provide support in terms of resources, content and structure.

Modules

As with all LLM specialisms at City, University of London, you may take either five modules and a shorter dissertation (10,000 words) or four modules and a longer dissertation (20,000 words). All modules are of the same duration and are taught per term (September – December or January – April) rather than the whole academic year. If you take four modules you will take two per term in each term and if you take five modules you will have three in one term and two in the other. Dissertations are written during the summer term when there are no classes.

In order to obtain this specialism, you must choose at least three modules from within this specialism and write their dissertation on a subject within the specialism.
-10,000 word Supervised Dissertation (30 credits)
OR
-20,000 word Supervised Dissertation (60 credits)

Specialism modules - choose from the following 30 credit modules:
-Air and Space Law
-Comparative Constitutional Law
-International Law of the Sea
-Public International Law
-Law of Treaties
-International Human Rights in Law and Practice
-International Investment Law
-Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in International Law
-International Dispute Settlement
-International Responsibility of States and International Organisations
-Law of International Organisations
-International Law and the Global Economy
-International Criminal Law: the Practitioner Perspective
-International Criminal Law: Crimes and Institutions
-Law and War
-World Trade Law

For your remaining modules you can choose from more than 50 modules covering a diverse range of subjects.

Career prospects

As a graduate of this specialist LLM in Public International Law you will be well placed to pursue careers in this area of law in private practice, in house in a legal practice, policy and government, non-governmental organisations, and a wide range of non-legal careers in the field of publc international law.

The City Law School has a vibrant Pro Bono programme including our award-winning commercial law clinic for tech start-ups Start-Ed. Students who complete the LLM may wish to continue their academic studies by enrolling in a PhD offered by The City Law School. Master and research students are encouraged to play an active role in our activities, which include a series of seminars organised by the International Law and Affairs Group at the City Law School.

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In a world facing unique economic, environmental and social challenges of a scale not seen before, promoting sustainable development has become a pressing priority. Read more

Why this course?

In a world facing unique economic, environmental and social challenges of a scale not seen before, promoting sustainable development has become a pressing priority.

The course will give you a solid grounding in the structures, rules and principles of aspects of public international law that impact on sustainable development.

This programme is designed specifically for graduates who want to work in the international development sector in management, planning or policy-related areas.

The course has a flexible structure. You’ll have the opportunity to pursue your own interests and tailor your degree to your chosen career path. You can select elective classes from other Masters Programmes in Law as well as related programmes across the University.

It is not necessary that you hold a law degree before embarking on this course of study however law content in your previous course may be useful.

See the website https://www.strath.ac.uk/courses/postgraduatetaught/internationallawsustainabledevelopment/

You’ll study

This programme is available full-time and part-time with three potential exit points. You can choose to study for a:
- Postgraduate Certificate (PgCert)
- Postgraduate Diploma (PgDip)
- Master’s degree (LLM)

Core classes:
- Research Methods (compulsory for LLM)
- The World Trading System: Law & Policy
- International Environmental Law

Elective classes
Choices may include:
- Comparative Law of Obligations
- Business & Human Rights
- Comparative Company Law & Regulation
- Competition Law & Policy in the EU
- Legal Process & the Law of Contract & Other Obligations (for non-lawyers)
- UK & EU Environmental Law
- Intellectual Property
- Global Water Policy
- International Trade Theory, Policy and Institutions
- Fundamentals of Environmental Forensics
- Energy Resources and Policy

Please note that the classes offered may change from year to year.

A limited number of students will be given the opportunity to choose elective classes from the optional modules offered in the LLM in Climate Change Law and Policy. This allows those students to combines sustainable development law and policy with climate change. The programme is delivered off campus on an intensive three-day basis in January. For further information, please contact the Law School.

- Field dissertation
A unique aspect of this programme is the opportunity for you to undertake a field dissertation within a governmental or non-governmental organisation with an international focus. It can be either in the UK, or more likely, overseas.
This opportunity is offered on a competitive basis. It lasts for up to 12 weeks between July and September. Work completed for the placement will focus on a specific area of law and will form the subject of your dissertation.
Previous students have undertaken placements in countries including Sri Lanka, Tanzania, South Africa, India and Kenya. Examples of projects which our students have undertaken include:
- assessing the extent to which Indian environmental and energy laws promote the development of micro-renewables
- an analysis of whether Tanzanian land law discriminates against women and what reforms would be needed to address the discrimination
- an exploration of the low take-up of Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] in Sub-Saharan Africa and how the situation could be improved
- an assessment of environmental justice in Nigeria and South Africa

The project/field work is organised and supported by Challenges Worldwide. Challenges Worldwide is an innovative, award-winning, social enterprise working in international development.

The University of Strathclyde provides comprehensive travel and health insurance for all participants in the Field Dissertation. We also pay for the costs of your placement. Students are responsible for the costs of flights, visas, and accommodation and living expenses while overseas. Such costs have tended to be in the region of £1,500 to £2,500 per student.

Facilities

Our library has a wide range of law reports, legislation, serials and monographs. It also has duplicate sets of key law report series, houses extensive collections in government publications and other related areas.

You will have access to a wide range of electronic information sources which can be accessed from home, including all the major legal databases.

The Law School is home to Scotland’s first Law Clinic. It provides a ‘real life’ learning experience for students and an invaluable service to members of the public who do not qualify for legal aid, and cannot otherwise afford legal advice.

Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law & Governance

You're encouraged to engage with the activities of the centre. These include guest lectures and international conferences. The Strathclyde Centre for Environmental Law and Governance is a centre of excellence in environmental law and governance and boasts a vibrant research community.

You'll also have the opportunity to participate in the organisation of the annual postgraduate Colloquium on Environmental Law and Governance. This has a session devoted to the presentations of highly qualified LLM students.

English language requirements

If your first language is not English, documentary evidence of an appropriate level of competency of written and spoken English must be provided. The minimum standards [at the date of writing] are an IELTS minimum overall band score of 6.5 (with no individual test score below 6.0). Tests are valid for two years.

The University's English Language Teaching department offers pre-entry and pre-sessional courses for new international students from April each year. Full fee paying students are entitled to one month of the pre-sessional English course free of charge.

Pre-Masters Preparation Course

The Pre-Masters Programme is a preparation course for international students (non EU/UK) who do not meet the entry requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Strathclyde. The Pre-Masters programme provides progression to a number of degree options.
To find out more about the courses and opportunities on offer visit isc.strath.ac.uk or call today on +44 (0) 1273 339333 and discuss your education future. You can also complete the online application form, or to ask a question please fill in the enquiry form and talk to one of our multi-lingual Student Enrolment Advisers today.

Learning & teaching

As a general rule, classes taught within the Law School will normally be taught over a ten-week teaching period with one two-hour seminar per week.
However in some cases, classes will be offered intensively over a shorter time period because of the availability of staff teaching them.

Assessment

A variety of assessment methods and weightings are used on Law School Masters programmes. The classes developed specifically for this programme generally follow this format:
- two 4,000-word essays or one final examination together with a 4,000-word essay
Each component of assessment is generally worth 50% of the final mark of a module. To pass each module, you need an average overall score of 50% across all assessments as well as a minimum score of 40% in each individual component of assessment.

Careers

Increasingly, lawyers and other related professionals are operating in environments that demand an understanding of sustainable development, and its relationship with other rights and norms.

Studying on this programme will equip you with the knowledge, understanding and analytical skills relevant to working or planning a career with an international focus.

Students on this programme and the LLM in International Economic Law have gone on to take up varied positions including:
- Analyst in the Private Wealth division of a multinational bank
- Policy Officer with the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency
- Logistical Coordinator with Oxfam America
- Legal counsel for an energy utility company based in Switzerland
- Responsible Investment Analyst for a leading global provider of research into corporate environmental, social and governance performance
- Project Associate for an international non-profit organization working to advance global public health
- Senior manager at Ofgem
- Lecturer at a technical college in Bahrain

Find information on Scholarships here http://www.strath.ac.uk/search/scholarships/index.jsp

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The LLM programme is a single subject law programme that may be taken over a period of one year (full-time), or part-time over a period of two, three or four years. Read more
The LLM programme is a single subject law programme that may be taken over a period of one year (full-time), or part-time over a period of two, three or four years. Every student will be required to take modules equivalent to four full units. The assessment of one of the chosen full units (which must be from your chosen specialism) will be by means of a 15,000 word dissertation.

The dissertation must be linked to a module offered at SOAS itself, and attendance on the module will be treated as being part of the process of supervision. With permission of the LLM tutor, students will be entitled to select one complementary subject or the equivalent from comparable Master’s module at SOAS including appropriate language modules.

A complementary subject may be chosen in substitution for either a full or a half-subject. Examinations for all taught modules will be held in May/June of each year and the dissertation will be due for submission during September of the final year of registration. The assessment for each module may vary according to the extent to which the research component of each module is to be stressed.

It is expected that all students will graduate with an LLM in law. It is possible, however, for students wishing to graduate with a ‘specialist’ degree, to do so by way of opting to take three or more modules from the relevant subject groupings below. In each case, the student must undertake a dissertation in that subject grouping.

Visit the website http://www.soas.ac.uk/law/programmes/llm/llmlawdevgov/

Duration: One calendar year (full-time)
Two, three or for years (part-time, daytime only)
We recommend that part-time students have between two-and-a-half and three days a week free to pursue their course of study.

Structure

Every student will be required to take modules equivalent to four (4.0) full units. Students who wish to graduate with a specialised LLM are required to take at least three (3.0) of the four (4.0) units within their chosen specialism, including the dissertation. The assessment of one of the chosen full units (within the LLM specialism) will be by means of a 15,000 word dissertation. The fourth unit can be chosen from either the general Law Postgraduate Modules or the following modules associated with the Law, Development and Governance specialisation:

Please note: Not all modules listed will be available every year. Please see the individual module page for information.

Full Module Units (1.0):
- Comparative Commercial Law - 15PLAC175 (1 Unit)
- Human Rights in the Developing World - 15PLAC111 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Copyright Law: Copyright in the global village - 15PLAC115 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Corporate Law - 15PLAC116 (1 Unit)
- International Commercial and Investment Arbitration - 15PLAC153 (1 Unit)
- International Environmental Law - 15PLAC118 (1 Unit)
- International Labour Law and Equality Rights - 15PLAC169 (1 Unit)
- Justice, Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Post Conflict Societies - 15PLAC123 (1 Unit)
- Law and International Inequality: Critical legal analysis of political economy from colonialism to globalisation - 15PLAC131 (1 Unit)
- Law and Natural Resources - 15PLAC126 (1 Unit)
- Law, Institutions and Political Economy of Transition - 15PLAC134 (1 Unit)
- Multinational Enterprises and the Law- 15PLAC140 (1 Unit)
- Water Law and Development: Conflicts, Governance and Justice - 15PLAC177 (1 Unit)

Half Module Units (0.5):
- Colonialism, Empire and International Law - 15PLAH025 (0.5 Unit)
- EU Law in Global Context - 15PLAH051 (0.5 Unit)
- Foundations of International Law - 15PLAH021 (0.5 Unit)
- International Refugee and Migration Law - 15PLAH057 (0.5 Unit)
- Law and Human Rights in China - 15PLAH054 (0.5 Unit)
- Law and Postcolonial Theory - 15PLAH050 (0.5 Unit)
- Law and Society in Southeast Asia - 15PLAH049 (0.5 Unit)
- Migration, Gender and the Law in South East Asia and Beyond - 15PLAH023 (0.5 Unit)

Dissertation (1.0):
The dissertation module unit forms part of the required three (3.0) units within the chosen LLM specialism. Please see the dissertation module units below. You will need to attend the teaching on the module and then submit a dissertation in place of the module method of assessment.

- Comparative Commercial Law - 15PLAD175 (1 Unit)
- Human Rights in the Developing World - 15PLAD111 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Copyright Law: Copyright in the global village - 15PLAD115 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Corporate Law - 15PLAD116 (1 Unit)
- International Commercial and Investment Arbitration - 15PLAD153 (1 Unit)
- International Environmental Law - 15PLAD118 (1 Unit)
- International Labour Law and Equality Rights - 15PLAD169 (1 Unit)
- Justice, Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Post Conflict Societies - 15PLAD123 (1 Unit)
- Law and International Inequality: Critical legal analysis of political economy from colonialism to globalisation - 15PLAD131 (1 Unit)
- Law and Natural Resources - 15PLAD126 (1 Unit)
- Law, Institutions and Political Economy of Transition - 15PLAD134 (1 Unit)
- Multinational Enterprises and the Law- 15PLAD140 (1 Unit)
- Water Law and Development: Conflicts, Governance and Justice - 15PLAD177 (1 Unit)

Faculty of Law and Social Sciences (L&SS)

Welcome to the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences at SOAS. The faculty is the largest in the School in terms of student and staff numbers and consists of the departments of Development Studies, Economics, Financial and Management Studies, Politics and International Studies and the School of Law, as well as the Asia-Pacific Centre for Social Sciences, the Centre for Gender Studies, the Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy, the Centre of Taiwan Studies and a number of department-specific centres. All five departments offer undergraduate programmes, and all but Finance and International Management offer joint undergraduate degrees which can be combined with other disciplines from across the School. Each department also offers a range of masters-level programmes with a regional or disciplinary specialism, as well as a postgraduate research programme. The range of course options and combinations is one of the most distinctive characteristics of studying at SOAS and all students are given the option of studying an Asian or African language, either as part of or on top of their degree.

Staff in the faculty come from all over the world and combine regional knowledge with disciplinary specialisms. Teaching draws heavily on academic staff’s individual research which allows the faculty to maintain a large portfolio of courses, often exploring cutting-edge issues. Many faculty members have played a significant part in public debates and policy-making in relation to Asia and Africa. Academics in the faculty are regularly consulted by governments, public bodies and multilateral organisations including the United Nations and the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, European Commission, DFID and other country-specific organisations and NGOs.

Find out how to apply here - http://www.soas.ac.uk/admissions/pg/howtoapply/

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Studying an LLM Master of Laws offers unrivalled academic stimulation, the opportunity to deepen your understanding of the law and specialise your knowledge in a particular area, and improved career prospects at the highest level whether that be in practice or academia. Read more

Studying an LLM Master of Laws offers unrivalled academic stimulation, the opportunity to deepen your understanding of the law and specialise your knowledge in a particular area, and improved career prospects at the highest level whether that be in practice or academia.

The Exeter LLM is a substantive, rigorous, and genuinely flexible programme of postgraduate study designed for the most ambitious and capable students. Delivered by some of the biggest names in legal research, our LLM allows you to create a bespoke programme of learning addressing your specific academic and professional needs, readying you to fulfil your career ambitions or for doctoral study.

Our faculty is able to teach and supervise an extensive range of international subjects, with particular specialities inspired by our renowned research in the areas of Commercial Law, Public Law, Human Rights Law, and Family Law.

Specialist Pathways

Students can obtain a specialised LLM. Specialisms include International Commercial Law, European Law, Maritime Law, Intellectual Property Law, Insurance Law, International Human Rights Law, and International Law, Conflict and Security.

International Commercial Law

The LLM in International Commercial Law provides a wide range of options. Students may focus on banking and financial law, corporate law or general commercial law. Exeter’s strong links with the legal profession’s top global firms and employers make this LLM a particularly attractive one for students who are looking to go into private practice or to work in banks or financial institutions. This LLM is also an ideal preparation for a career in international business as it covers areas of expertise required to succeed in senior positions in international trading companies. Internships in Europe and further afield, are often advertised to participants in this course, especially those with hard-to-find linguistic or other skills. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/commercial

European Law

This specialism is designed to give students the opportunity to study the constitutional issues which arise from the concept of the European Union, including law making and the relationship between the EU and Member States.

We provide modules which examine the substantive law of the EU and the way in which that law has been implemented in English law. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/european

Maritime Law

The LLM in Maritime Law is designed specifically for students who wish to study shipping and international trade law in detail.

The modules are particularly suited to students who intend to pursue careers in chartering, trade and marine insurance (including Protection and Indemnity Clubs).

English law is widely adopted in other jurisdictions, so a study of English law is particularly important. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/maritime

Intellectual Property Law

The LLM in Intellectual Property allows students to study in depth the substantive areas of law which make up intellectual property such as competition law, copyright, trade mark law, patents and consumer protection.

Much of the law is derived from EU measures, and the modules are taught from both a domestic and EU perspective. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/property

International Human Rights Law

This specialism has been specifically developed to allow you to construct a programme appropriate to private practice or public employment in the field of international human rights law.

http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/humanrights

Insurance Law

Insurance is a key part of commercial law and practice but it is only researched and taught at a few universities. This pathway will allow you to construct a programme that will equip you with the knowledge, skills and practical tools needed to gain a thorough understanding of insurance law, practice and regulation.

The programme is designed for those with a special interest in the wide field of insurance law. While the precise modules available may vary from year to year, typical examples modules for the pathway might include general principles of insurance, consumer insurance, marine insurance, reinsurance, EU motor insurance and financial regulations. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/insurance

International Law, Conflict and Security

Designed with the needs of practitioners in mind, the programme will equip you with a comprehensive understanding of international conflict and security law, including the rules relating to the conduct of hostilities, peacetime military deployments, cyber operations and post-conflict governance. Consistent with its hands-on approach, the LLM will develop your professional and personal skills, including through a simulated command post exercise that will test your knowledge and aptitude in a practical setting. http://www.exeter.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/law/masteroflaws/internationalconflictsecurity



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The LLM programme is a single subject law programme that may be taken over a period of one year (full-time), or part-time over a period of two, three or four years. Read more
The LLM programme is a single subject law programme that may be taken over a period of one year (full-time), or part-time over a period of two, three or four years. Every student will be required to take modules equivalent to four full units. The assessment of one of the chosen full units (which must be from your chosen specialism) will be by means of a 15,000 word dissertation.

The dissertation must be linked to a module offered at SOAS itself, and attendance on the module will be treated as being part of the process of supervision. With permission of the LLM tutor, students will be entitled to select one complementary subject or the equivalent from comparable Master’s module at SOAS including appropriate language modules. A complementary subject may be chosen in substitution for either a full or a half-subject.

Examinations for all taught modules will be held in May/June of each year and the dissertation will be due for submission by during September of the final year of registration. The assessment for each module may vary according to the extent to which the research component of each module is to be stressed. It is expected that all students will graduate with an LLM in law.

It is possible, however, for students wishing to graduate with a ‘specialist’ degree, to do so by way of opting to take three or more modules from the relevant subject groupings below. In each case, the student must undertake a dissertation in that subject grouping.

Visit the website http://www.soas.ac.uk/law/programmes/llm/llmlawcultsoc/

Structure

Every student will be required to take modules equivalent to four (4.0) full units. Students who wish to graduate with a specialised LLM are required to take at least three (3.0) of the four (4.0) units within their chosen specialism, including the dissertation. The assessment of one of the chosen full units (within the LLM specialism) will be by means of a 15,000 word dissertation. The fourth unit can be chosen from either the general Law Postgraduate Modules or the following modules associated with the Law, Culture and Society specialisation:

Please note: Not all modules listed will be available every year. Please see the individual module page for information.

Full Module Units (1.0):
- Critical Jurisprudence in Islamic Law and Society - 15PLAC176 (1 Unit)
- Feminist Legal Theory - 15PLAC155 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Copyright Law: Copyright in the global village - 15PLAC115 (1 Unit)
- International Labour Law and Equality Rights - 15PLAC169 (1 Unit)
- Islamic Law - 15PLAC121 (1 Unit)
- Law and Society in South Asia - 15PLAC129 (1 Unit)
- Law and in the Middle East and North Africa - 15PLAC130 (1 Unit)
- Law, Institutions and Political Economy of Transition - 15PLAC134 (1 Unit)
- Modern Chinese Law and Institutions - 15PLAC139 (1 Unit)

Half Module Units (0.5):
- Chinese Constitutionalism - 15PLAH043 (0.5 Unit)
- Comparative Constitutional Law - 15PLAH046 (0.5 Unit)
- Foundations of Comparative Law - 15PLAH031 (0.5 Unit)
- Foundations of International Law - 15PLAH021 (0.5 Unit)
- Gender, Armed Conflict and International Law - 15PGNH005 (0.5 Unit)
- Law & Critique - 15PLAH053 (0.5 Unit)
- Law and Postcolonial Theory - 15PLAH050 (0.5 Unit)
- Law and Society in Southeast Asia - 15PLAH049 (0.5 Unit)
- Migration, Gender and the Law in South East Asia and Beyond - 15PLAH023 (0.5 Unit)
- Religion & Comparative Constitutionalism - 15PLAH052 (0.5 Unit)

Examples of non-Law module options:
- Childhood, Politics and Law - 15PPOH037 (0.5 Unit)

Dissertation (1.0):
The dissertation module unit forms part of the required three (3.0) units within the chosen LLM specialism. Please see the dissertation module units below. You will need to attend the teaching on the module and then submit a dissertation in place of the module method of assessment.

- Critical Jurisprudence in Islamic Law and Society - 15PLAD176 (1 Unit)
- Feminist Legal Theory - 15PLAD155 (1 Unit)
- International and Comparative Copyright Law: Copyright in the global village - 15PLAD115 (1 Unit)
- International Labour Law and Equality Rights - 15PLAD169 (1 Unit)
- Islamic Law - 15PLAD121 (1 Unit)
- Law and Society in South Asia - 15PLAD129 (1 Unit)
- Law and in the Middle East and North Africa - 15PLAD130 (1 Unit)
- Law, Institutions and Political Economy of Transition - 15PLAD134 (1 Unit)
- Modern Chinese Law and Institutions - 15PLAD139 (1 Unit)

Duration: One calendar year (full-time)
Two, three or four years (part-time, daytime only)
We recommend that part-time students have between two-and-a-half and three days a week free to pursue their course of study.

Faculty of Law and Social Sciences (L&SS)

Welcome to the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences at SOAS. The faculty is the largest in the School in terms of student and staff numbers and consists of the departments of Development Studies, Economics, Financial and Management Studies, Politics and International Studies and the School of Law, as well as the Asia-Pacific Centre for Social Sciences, the Centre for Gender Studies, the Centre for International Studies and Diplomacy, the Centre of Taiwan Studies and a number of department-specific centres. All five departments offer undergraduate programmes, and all but Finance and International Management offer joint undergraduate degrees which can be combined with other disciplines from across the School. Each department also offers a range of masters-level programmes with a regional or disciplinary specialism, as well as a postgraduate research programme. The range of course options and combinations is one of the most distinctive characteristics of studying at SOAS and all students are given the option of studying an Asian or African language, either as part of or on top of their degree.

Staff in the faculty come from all over the world and combine regional knowledge with disciplinary specialisms. Teaching draws heavily on academic staff’s individual research which allows the faculty to maintain a large portfolio of courses, often exploring cutting-edge issues. Many faculty members have played a significant part in public debates and policy-making in relation to Asia and Africa. Academics in the faculty are regularly consulted by governments, public bodies and multilateral organisations including the United Nations and the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, European Commission, DFID and other country-specific organisations and NGOs.

Find out how to apply here - http://www.soas.ac.uk/admissions/pg/howtoapply/

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The programme. Our English-taught LL.M. programme in European Law is primarily designed for students who wish to develop their understanding and knowledge of European Union law with the intent of pursuing a legal career with a strong international dimension. Read more

The programme

Our English-taught LL.M. programme in European Law is primarily designed for students who wish to develop their understanding and knowledge of European Union law with the intent of pursuing a legal career with a strong international dimension. This Master's offers you a thorough education in European law, including competition law, immigration law, external relations law, judicial protection, human rights law and public international law. During this course, you gain knowledge of both the internal and external markets of the European Union and the position of Europe in the world. Thus, you receive a sound basis for an international legal career as a European law expert.

This programme is not just aimed at students from EU member states. All nations in the world trade and interact with the EU, which has rules and regulations that have to be complied with. Law students from all over the world will therefore benefit from this Master’s programme. You’ll obtain a sound basis for an international legal career as a European law expert.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/europeanlaw

Specialisations in the Master's in European Law

The Master's programme at Radboud University is unique in that it not only provides a thorough understanding of European law in general, but also offers further specialisation. After completing the compulsory courses you can specialise in one of four tracks:

International and European Law Advanced

This track offers a generalist approach with an emphasis on the concepts of European Union law. It gives you the opportunity to acquire an advanced understanding of the core issues of EU law. By participating in the European Law Moot Court students can practice their legal skills at a high level.

Human Rights and Migration Law

Within this track, we combine human rights and immigration law courses, two areas that are among the most important in the European Union today. LL.M. students benefit from the outstanding knowledge and experience of the Centre for Migration Law.

Business Law

This track offers you the chance to become an expert in the area of European business law. You benefit from the knowledge of the renowned Business and Law Research Centre. This centre combines academic excellence with the practical expertise of major companies and law firms.

Insolvency Law

This dual LL.M programme is designed for students who wish to develop their understanding and knowledge of Corporate, Insolvency and European law for a legal career with a strong European and international focus.

European Law and Global Affairs

This specialisation offers a unique multidisciplinary programme combining the study of European law and political science. It focuses on the main challenges facing the EU in the 21st century, and looks at the various legal rules and policy options that may be developed in response.

Why study European Law at Radboud University?

- Many of our lecturers are also law practitioners. We can therefore not only teach our students the black letter law, but also add our own professional experiences, indicating the strengths and challenges of certain laws or legal instruments.

- You’ll study at a Dutch Law School that is rated number one in the Netherlands for student satisfaction.

- The Faculty of Law in Nijmegen was the first in the Netherlands to start a European Law programme. It has built an international reputation in the field of European law, immigration law and private law and is part of a large network that includes more than fifty universities in Europe, the United States, Asia and Australia.

- The international mix of students gives the classes and project work a multicultural touch. This will give you the extra benefit of gaining multicultural communication skills as well as a multitude of legal and cultural perspectives in this field. By the time you receive your Master's diploma, you’ll have gained excellent skills to work in the Netherlands or in any other country.

- You’ll have the option of doing an internship, although this will require a bit more work. However, an internship will deepen you knowledge of academic skills and will help you start building a network for your future career.

Quality label

This programme was recently rated number one in the Netherlands in the Keuzegids Masters 2015 (Guide to Master's programmes).

Change perspective

At Radboud University you will not only learn what the law entails, but also why it has come to be this way. And if a different approach might be possible. In this way you will come to a profound understanding of the law. A theoretic study is combined with practical insights to provide a good mix. Many teachers still practice law in one form or another and enrich their lectures with real-life cases. This will broaden your horizon and enhance your perspective as a lawyer.

Radboud University Master's Open Day 10 March 2018



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Change the world with the Master of Environmental Studies program. The Master of Environmental Studies (MES) program at the University of Pennsylvania helps you translate your passion for the environment into a fulfilling career. Read more
Change the world with the Master of Environmental Studies program
The Master of Environmental Studies (MES) program at the University of Pennsylvania helps you translate your passion for the environment into a fulfilling career. The program offers you a rigorous academic grounding in environmental science and exceptional opportunities to conduct research in the field. In addition, you gain the professional networks and individualized professional development you need to excel in your work, whether as a researcher, policy advocate, teacher or business executive.

The Master of Environmental Studies program provides an innovative, interdisciplinary approach to the study of the environment. Built with flexibility in mind, you can choose from a variety of concentrations or create your own path to suit your interests, experience and goals, all with the guidance of our world-class faculty and built upon the foundation of Ivy League science courses. You will gain the breadth of knowledge necessary to address complex issues in the environment, while also developing the depth of expertise required to become a successful environmental professional.

Where theory meets practice
Our students don’t wait until they leave the program to start making a difference. The heart of the Master of Environmental Studies program is the passion of our students and faculty to create change in the world, from helping to conserve endangered species to implementing energy-efficient policies at the local and national levels. Many of our distinguished professors also influence professional practice outside the University, bringing their experience and broad networks from the worlds of policy, business and consulting into the classroom.

From the beginning of the program, your education occurs both in the classroom and in the field. Our faculty and staff work one-on-one with you to connect you with relevant, engaging internships and fieldwork opportunities that give you hands-on experience in the field of your choice.

Designed for practicing and aspiring environmental professionals
The Master of Environmental Studies program is designed to encourage your ongoing professional contributions and career development while you earn your degree. Many of our students find meaningful ways to blend their academic and current professional experiences throughout the program, by partnering with faculty to design projects and research experiences that tackle real-world challenges from their workplace.

We provide you with a rigorous, elite educational experience that you can access part time and in the evenings while you continue to work. Full-time students can earn the 12-course degree in two years, while part-time students finish in between two and four years, depending on their course load each semester.

Connect with us today
The Penn Master of Environmental Studies program is built upon the strong personal connections between students, teachers and program staff. We welcome you to give us a call with any questions you may have, or meet with us in person on campus.

Courses and Curriculum

Tailor your curriculum to your interests
The Master of Environmental Studies program provides you with the knowledge base you need to understand complex environmental issues — and allows you the flexibility to develop unique expertise and professional experience in the field of your choice. Penn’s degree is exceptional among environmental studies programs for the breadth of options it offers. With the help of a dedicated academic advisor, you create a curriculum suited precisely to your interests.

At the beginning of your studies, you will be assigned an academic advisor to help you through the course selection process. Together, you’ll determine which skills you hope to develop and which academic and internship experiences match your goals. Not only will you sample a broad range of courses in your first year to aid you in narrowing your focus, but we also provide resources — such as professional development retreats, alumni talks and more — to help you find the path that’s best for you.

As a Master of Environmental Studies student, you’ll complete 12 course units (c.u.)* that reflect our balance between core learning and individual exploration. Your course of study includes the following elements (you can read about each curricular element in further depth below):

The Proseminar: Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies (1 c.u)
Research Methods course (1 c.u.)
Foundation courses (4 c.u.)
Professional concentration courses (5 c.u.)
Capstone project (1 c.u.)
The Proseminar: Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies (1 c.u.)

This course reviews the key sciences fundamental to an interdisciplinary study of the environment: biology, geology, chemistry and physics. It takes a systems approach to the environment with a look at the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere and the intersection of humans with each. This required course also acquaints students with issues, debates and current opinions in the study of the environment. Different styles of writing, from white papers to blogs, will be assigned throughout the semester.

Research Methods course (1 c.u.)
Designing research is a key building block of the Master of Environmental Studies program. The research methods course prepares students to ask, and confidently answer, the innovative questions they will pose in their capstone projects. The requirement can be fulfilled by taking a methodology course that provides students with the data gathering and analysis skills they’ll use to begin their research projects.

Foundation courses (4 c.u.)
At both the local and international scale, issues such as climate change, diminishing natural resources, water access, energy security, low-level toxins and habitat destruction all require not only the best science available, but the ability to integrate this knowledge to make decisions even when considerable uncertainties exist.

Environmental challenges are complex, and their solutions never come from just one sector of society. We believe that in order to become a leading problem-solver in the environmental arena, you need to be able to draw connections between many disciplines.

Foundation courses help broaden your knowledge in areas outside of your chosen concentration, and complement your chosen field. For example, if you are studying sustainability, your foundation course credits are an opportunity to learn about environmental law and policy, or become versed in business, which will be necessary while working in the sustainability sector. Foundation courses allow you to speak the language of many different sectors, and offer the opportunity to discover unexpected synergies and resonances in fields beyond your own. Your academic advisor will consult with you as you choose your courses from areas such as:

Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Biology
Environmental Geology
Environmental Law
Environmental Policy
Environmental Business
Professional concentration courses (5 c.u.)
While foundation courses give you a broad understanding of environmental issues, your professional concentration courses let you develop the expertise you need to pursue a career in your chosen field.

Concentration courses may be taken in any of the 12 graduate Schools at the University (School of Engineering and Applied Science, Graduate School of Education, School of Design, School of Social Policy & Practice, The Wharton School of Business, Penn Law, etc.). Your advisor will help you select courses that best fit your goals and skills gaps.

You may choose from the following concentrations:

Environmental Advocacy & Education
Environmental Biology
Environmental Policy
Environmental Sustainability
Resource Management
Urban Environment
If your professional aspirations are not reflected in one of the above concentrations, you can develop an Individualized concentration in conjunction with your faculty advisor and with the approval of the Faculty Advisory Committee.

Capstone project (1 c.u.)

The capstone project is a distinguishing feature of the Master of Environmental Studies program, blending academic and professional experiences and serving as the culmination of your work in the program. You will design a project drawing from your learning in and outside the classroom to demonstrate mastery of your concentration area.

During your first year, your academic advisor will help you choose a topic for your capstone project. Once you’ve done so, you’ll seek out two readers for your capstone. These can be faculty members or professionals in a relevant field. The readers serve as advisors and mentors, and our students frequently find their first jobs after graduation as a result of the connections they make during the capstone process.

The capstone projects themselves vary widely, from research papers to videos, business plans, photojournals and websites. However, all projects demonstrate students’ ability to:

Define a research question
Design a protocol to address this question
Acquire the data necessary to clarify, if not resolve, the question
Critically assess the quality of the data acquired
Draw defensible conclusions from those data
Communicate this process and conclusions to professional colleagues with clarity and precision
Time frame

Master of Environmental Studies students may enroll on either a part-time or full-time basis. Your time to graduation will vary depending on how many classes you take each semester and whether you take summer classes. Full-time students can complete the program in two years, taking three or four classes per semester. Part-time students typically complete their work in four years, taking one or two classes per semester. Individuals working full time are advised to take no more than two courses per term.

Transferring graduate credits

Incoming students may petition to transfer up to two graduate-level credits from classes completed prior to their admission at Penn. Students seeking transfer credit should fill out a form after they matriculate into the program, along with an official transcript, to the Program Director before the end of their first semester at Penn. A transfer credit form is available on the program’s Blackboard site, which is accessible to current students only. Transfer credit is evaluated on a case-by-case basis by the faculty advisory committee.

*Academic credit is defined by the University of Pennsylvania as a course unit (c.u.). Generally, a 1 c.u. course at Penn is equivalent to a three or four semester hour course elsewhere. In general, the average course offered at Penn is listed as being worth 1 c.u.; courses that include a lecture and a lab are often worth 1.5 c.u.

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