• Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Surrey Featured Masters Courses
  • Northumbria University Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Derby Online Learning Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Bristol Featured Masters Courses
  • Aberystwyth University Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Edinburgh Featured Masters Courses
  • Swansea University Featured Masters Courses
University of Nottingham in China Featured Masters Courses
University College London Featured Masters Courses
Durham University Featured Masters Courses
Imperial College London Featured Masters Courses
Newcastle University Featured Masters Courses
"investment" AND "analysi…×
0 miles

Masters Degrees (Investment Analysis)

We have 634 Masters Degrees (Investment Analysis)

  • "investment" AND "analysis" ×
  • clear all
Showing 1 to 15 of 634
Order by 
The MSc Investment Analysis is the UK’s longest-established postgraduate level course in the field of investment management education. Read more

Introduction

The MSc Investment Analysis is the UK’s longest-established postgraduate level course in the field of investment management education. It is one of the very few Master’s degrees in the UK to have CFA® Institute Program Partner status and one of a select group of partner institutions worldwide.

Accreditation

As a CFA® Institute Program Partner, at least 70% of the learning outcomes of all three levels of the CFA® Programme are covered and so the course is ideally suited to those who wish to become qualified as a CFA® Charter-Holder.

Key information

- Degree type: Postgraduate Certificate, Postgraduate Diploma, MSc
- Study methods: Full-time
- Duration: 12 months
- Start date: September
- Course Director: Dr Kevin Campbell

Course objectives

The syllabus has a distinctly international orientation that reflects the increasingly globalised nature of financial markets and the investment management profession.
Such is the international reputation of the course that students come from a wide variety of educational and professional backgrounds and cultures, providing a unique opportunity for the development of worldwide contacts. The Stirling MSc in Investment Analysis team has an unrivaled record in the UK CFA© Institute Research Challenge. Stirling has won the UK final of this competition and reached the final in seven out of eight years. As a Programme Partner we are also able to offer on a competitive basis CFA Scholarships for the CFA level 1 exam.

English language requirements

If English is not your first language you must have one of the following qualifications as evidence of your English language skills:
- IELTS: 6.0 with 5.5 minimum in each skill
- Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE): Grade C
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE): Grade C
- Pearson Test of English (Academic): 54 with 51 in each component
- IBT TOEFL: 80 with no subtest less than 17

For more information go to English language requirements https://www.stir.ac.uk/study-in-the-uk/entry-requirements/english/

If you don’t meet the required score you may be able to register for one of our pre-sessional English courses. To register you must hold a conditional offer for your course and have an IELTS score 0.5 or 1.0 below the required standard. View the range of pre-sessional courses http://www.intohigher.com/uk/en-gb/our-centres/into-university-of-stirling/studying/our-courses/course-list/pre-sessional-english.aspx .

Delivery and assessment

Students experience lectures, small group seminars, problem-solving classes, drop-in sessions, computer labs and group working during their studies. Successful completion of the taught modules leads to the award of a Postgraduate Diploma. The Master’s degree is awarded on satisfactory completion of a dissertation, following the Diploma examinations. Dissertation topics range over all areas of relevance to investment analysis and allow completion of a case study or research topic dissertation.
The top student on the course receives the Walter Scott Global Investment Management Prize.

Career opportunities

Where are our graduates now?
Stirling Management School is unique in having a dedicated Employability Manager and from the very beginning of the course your career is our focus.
MSc Investment Analysis graduates work around the world and the following are examples of the organisations they are employed by:
- Aegon Asset Management
- Alliance Trust
- Andersen
- Baillie Gifford
- Barclays Global Investors
- Citibank
- Ernst & Young
- Honeywell
- HSBC
- Investec Securities
- JP Morgan
- Russell Investments
- Silk Invest Ltd
- Standard Charted Bank

Graduates entering into employment in the recent years have secured positions such as:
- Financial Consultant, e-FSW (Greece)
- Relationship Adviser (Private Banking), Royal Bank of Scotland (UK)
- Quantitative Analyst, Silk Invest Ltd (UK)
- Investment Banking Analyst, Government Savings Bank (Thailand)

Alumni of Investment Analysis who graduated between five and ten years ago have advanced into positions such as:
- Partner, Corporate Services Bureau Limited (Zambia)
- Senior Broker (Retail Sales & Trading), National Securities (Greece)
- Portfolio Manager – High Yield, Fortis Investments (UK)
- Senior Analyst, Bank of Thailand Risk Analyst, RBS Insurance (UK)
- Investment Researcher, Jiajing Investment Company (China)

Our alumni are leading and shaping the strategy of global financial organisations:
- Managing Director, Citi – Global Banking (Hong Kong)
- Head of Asset Management, Allemby Hunt (UK)
- Fund Manager, MCB Investment Management (Mauritius)
- Chief Financial Officer, Nanyang Press Holding (Malaysia)
- Vice President, MCB Bank Ltd (Pakistan)
- Senior Equity Analyst, Atlantic Investment (USA)

Read less
This unique and challenging course has a focus on financial markets and is taught by faculty who are globally renowned for their teaching excellence and extensive industry experience. Read more
This unique and challenging course has a focus on financial markets and is taught by faculty who are globally renowned for their teaching excellence and extensive industry experience.

As a graduate, you’ll be well prepared to enter a profession specialising either in risk or investment analysis, to pass the Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP) Financial Risk Manager exams, or to pursue a qualification from the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment (CISI).

Accreditation

This MSc is an academic partner of two leading financial organisations in risk and investment management:
-Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP)
-Chartered Institute of Securities and Investments (CISI).

Our course covers most of the requirements for GARP’s professional FRM (Financial Risk Manager) certification. It also prepares you for essential components of CISI's Chartered Wealth Manager Qualification or its Diploma in Capital Markets.

You benefit from GARP scholarship opportunities and funded membership with CISI, giving you valuable access to careers events, employability training, on-campus presentations and exam booking (please note that you’ll be expected to pay for at least part of the exam sitting fees).

Our curriculum is also designed to cover 70% of the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) level 1 exam.

How will I study?

You’ll study core modules and options in the autumn and spring terms. In the summer term you undertake work on your projects.

You’ll be assessed by a combination of mid-term tests, coursework, and a formal examination after teaching has finished. The two summer term projects are assessed by a combination of presentations and written reports.

Scholarships

Our aim is to ensure that every student who wants to study with us is able to despite financial barriers, so that we continue to attract talented and unique individuals.

Chancellor's International Scholarship (2017)
-25 scholarships of a 50% tuition fee waiver
-Application deadline: 1 May 2017

ESRC 1+3 and +3 Scholarships (2017)
-A number of ESRC-funded standalone PhD and PhD with Masters scholarships across the social sciences.
-Application deadline: 30 January 2017

HESPAL Scholarship (Higher Education Scholarships Scheme for the Palestinian Territories) (2017)
-Two full fee waivers in conjuction with maintenance support from the British Council
-Application deadline: 1 January 2017

USA Friends Scholarships (2017)
-A scholarship of an amount equivalent to $10,000 for nationals or residents of the USA on a one year taught Masters degree course.
-Application deadline: 3 April 2017

Careers

Increased employment in risk management is set to continue as recent regulation changes put increased focus on improving risk management standards.

There is a strong demand for investment analysis – not only from pension funds and large corporations – as private equity continues to grow in the current global economic environment.

On successful completion of this MSc you are qualified to apply for graduate training positions as:
-A quantitative risk analyst
-A quantitative investment analyst
-An asset manager in a bank, corporation, hedge fund or insurance company

Read less
MSc Investment Analysis provides you with the knowledge, understanding and the skills required for a career in the financial sector, banking or investment management. Read more
MSc Investment Analysis provides you with the knowledge, understanding and the skills required for a career in the financial sector, banking or investment management. There is a strong focus throughout on the practical application of finance within a trading or corporate setting. Your studies will culminate in a financial analyst evaluation of a UK listed company for your final project.

Subject guide and module

You will study equity, debt and derivative markets in domestic and international sectors, discovering how to undertake security valuation and portfolio management as well as learning about the key techniques used by financial traders.

In addition, you will be encouraged to complete the Reuters Certification – an industry recognised professional qualification. During the summer term you will also have the opportunity of attending preparation and revision classes for the CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst®) Level one programme.

Core Modules :
-Valuation of Investments (A)
-Valuation of Investments (B)
-Quantitative Methods for Finance
-Trading Techniques
-Security Analysis
-Investment Management
-Business Finance
-International Finance
-Professional Development Programme
-Ethics in Academic Practice

The programme then concludes with a dissertation project

In addition to your Aston degree, you will have the opportunity to participate in our international study exchange programme. Studying with one of our partner institutions, the programme will enhance your international experience and communication skills, preparing you for a career in the international business environment.

Learning, teaching and assessment

The taught modules are assessed predominantly through examinations complemented by a substantial piece of research leading to the valuation project.

Career opportunities

This programme provides you with the knowledge, understanding and skills needed for a career in the financial, insurance and corporate sectors. Recent graduate positions include:
-Auditor – PricewaterhouseCoopers (Italy)
-Financial Analyst – Deutsche Bank (UK)
-Investment Manager – Bank of China (China)
-Mergers & Acquisitions Analyst – Ernst&Young (Russia)
-Risk Capital Manager – Kazikorn Bank (Thailand)

Personal development

You will acquire skills in the following areas: giving presentations; team working; report writing; negotiation and IT skills. On successful completion of the programme you are expected to:
-Demonstrate an understanding of valuation techniques used in financial markets
-Understand how to trade financial securities
-Understand strategic decision-making within a financial context
-Be able to employ risk management techniques
-Use financial statements to analyse financial performance
-Understand the international influences of finance

Read less
This is an applied programme which provides students with knowledge and skills to work in investment roles. Read more
This is an applied programme which provides students with knowledge and skills to work in investment roles.

Studying Investments raises some interesting issues, such as why people trade so much, whether the best investment strategy is simply to track the stock market index, how risk should be measured and how assets should be priced.

This degree is aimed at candidates who wish to work within investment management, investment banking and related careers. The programme focuses on both the trading and portfolio management sides of finance.

It has a substantial focus on investment within core modules, including Portfolio Management, Financial Trading and Global Investment Analysis. These draw on the cutting edge research expertise of our faculty.

Core study areas include financial reporting and company performance, methods for financial data analysis, principles of finance, financial markets and institutions, business communication for finance, derivatives and risk management, financial statements and business valuation, portfolio management, corporate governance and responsibility, financial trading and global investment analysis.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/business-economics/finance-investment/

Programme modules

Semester 1:
Compulsory Modules
- Financial Reporting and Company Performance
- Methods for Financial Data Analysis
- Principles of Finance
- Financial Markets and Institutions

Semester 2:
Compulsory Modules
- Business Communication for Finance
- Derivatives and Risk Management
- Financial Statements and Business Valuation
- Portfolio Management

Optional Modules:
- Business Economics
- Corporate Finance
- Global Financial Markets and the Financial Crisis
- International Financial Management

Summer:
Compulsory Modules
- Corporate Governance and Responsibility
- Financial Trading
- Global Investment Analysis

The School reserves the right to vary the list of optional modules

Assessment

Modules are assessed by a combination of examinations and assignments.

Careers and further study

Loughborough Finance Graduates are highly sought after and work in a wide range of Finance roles. This includes roles with many of the major global banks (including HSBC, Morgan Stanley, JP Morgan Chase, UBS, Standard Chartered), large businesses (including DHL, Scottish and Southern Energy, Virgin), as well as the Big Four Accounting firms.

Many graduates begin their careers as an Analyst, Associate or Management Trainee, with the best reaching Senior Manager, Assistant Vice President or Director level positions within 10 years.

MSc Finance & Investment graduates will be especially well suited for careers in Investment Banking and Asset Management. Example initial job titles include: Portfolio Analyst, Investment Banker, Financial Market Trader, Equity Researcher, Asset Management Trainee and Financial Risk Analyst.

Why choose business and economics at Loughborough?

Loughborough’s School of Business and Economics is a thriving forward-looking centre of education that aims to provide an exceptional learning experience.

Consistently ranked as a Top-10 UK business school by national league tables, our graduates are highly employable and enjoy starting salaries well above the national average.

The rich variety of postgraduate programmes we offer ranges from taught masters, MBA and doctoral programmes, to short courses and executive education, with subjects spanning Management, Marketing, Finance and Economics, Work Psychology, Business Analytics, International Crisis Management and Information Management. New for 2016, we are also launching two exciting new programmes in Human Resource Management. All of this contributes to a lively and supportive learning environment within the School.

- Internationally Accredited
The School of Business and Economics is one of less than 1% of business schools in the world to have achieved accreditation from all three major international accrediting bodies: The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International), EQUIS accreditation from the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) and the Association of MBAs (AMBA).

- Career Prospects
Our graduates are in great demand. Over 94% of our postgraduate students were in work and/or further study six months after graduating.* As such, you will be equipped with skills and knowledge that will serve you well in your career or enable you to pursue further study and research.

*Source: DLHE

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/business-economics/finance-investment/

Read less
Global capital and money markets are rapidly evolving and critical expertise is highly sought after. If you’re interested in a professional career in finance and investment, this Masters will equip you to apply your problem-solving skills to the financial markets. Read more

Global capital and money markets are rapidly evolving and critical expertise is highly sought after. If you’re interested in a professional career in finance and investment, this Masters will equip you to apply your problem-solving skills to the financial markets.

You’ll be introduced to advanced concepts and practices in essential topics including international investment, financial modelling, corporate finance and security investment analysis.

Thanks to our excellent links with industry, commerce and professional bodies, you’ll gain a practical understanding of how essential financial theory is applied in practice. Case study exercises and simulations test your knowledge in real business scenarios, connecting you with the latest challenges and issues in the financial markets.

You’ll learn from leading academics with research and consultancy expertise to gain a qualification valued worldwide in the finance and investment industry.

Academic excellence

As a student, you will be able to access the knowledge of our advanced specialist research units, which also have strong links with leading institutions in the US, Europe and Asia. These include the Centre for Advanced Study in Finance (CASIF), the Institute of Banking and Investment (IBI) and the Credit Management Research Centre (CMRC). This research makes an important contribution to your learning on the MSc Finance and Investment; you will benefit from a curriculum that is informed by the latest knowledge and critical thinking.

You will also benefit from our strong relationships with the finance, credit and accounting professions. This provides a connection to the latest practitioner and policy developments, giving you a masters degree that is relevant to the contemporary environment.

Course content

Throughout the course we support you to develop the professional skills that will be critical for a successful career in the financial services.

You’ll build knowledge of key topics in finance and investment such as financial modelling, corporate finance, security investment analysis and international business finance. You’ll apply this knowledge of financial theory to solve real problems and explore international investment in depth.

Your choice of optional modules will allow you to gain specialist knowledge in areas that suit your career plans. You’ll be expected to take at least one of Corporate Governance or Behavioural Finance, but you could also study accounting, financial derivatives, forensic finance and more.

The programme will improve your understanding of research methods in finance, during a dedicated module led by experts currently involved in cutting-edge research. You’ll apply this knowledge to design and carry out your own research dissertation on a related topic of your choice, developing your ability to tackle the most pressing challenges currently facing the industry.

Course structure

Compulsory modules

You’ll take eight compulsory modules including your dissertation.

  • Security Investment Analysis 15 credits
  • Corporate Finance 15 credits
  • Applied Finance 15 credits
  • Financial Modelling and Analysis 15 credits
  • International Investment 15 credits
  • Accounting and Finance Dissertation 45 credits
  • Critical Skills for the Finance Professional 15 credits

Optional modules

You’ll also take two optional modules, one of which must be either Behavioural Finance or International Business Finance.

  • Portfolio Risk Management 15 credits
  • International Business Finance 15 credits
  • Forensic Accounting and Finance 15 credits
  • Behavioural Finance 15 credits
  • Financial Derivatives 15 credits
  • Corporate Governance 15 credits
  • Discrete Time Finance 15 credits

For more information on typical modules, read Finance and Investment MSc in the course catalogue

Learning and teaching

We use a variety of teaching and learning methods to help you make the most of your studies. These will include lectures, seminars, workshops, online learning and tutorials. Independent study is also vital for this course allowing you to prepare for taught classes and sharpen your own research and critical skills.

In addition to the assessed modules and research dissertation, you benefit from professional training activities and employability workshops. Thanks to our links with major companies across the business world, you can also gain a practical understanding of key issues.

For example, students have developed their knowledge of financial markets through a one-week trading simulation delivered in partnership with Amplify Trading. Read more about professional development activities for finance students.

Assessment

Assessment methods emphasise not just knowledge, but essential skills development too. They include formal exams, group projects, reports, computer simulation exercises, essays and written assignments, group and individual presentations and reflective logs.

Career opportunities

As a graduate of this course you will be able to demonstrate in-depth knowledge of core finance and investment principles, and the numerical and analytical skills to succeed in this rapidly changing complex environment.

Graduates have a broad appeal to employers in the worldwide finance sector. Many have gone on to careers such as traders, risk managers, portfolio managers and security analysts.

Our unique combination of business and mathematics modules enables you to perform successfully in a business environment by making the best use of your analytical and programming skills.

Careers support

We help you to achieve your career ambitions by providing professional development support and training as part of the course. You benefit from the support of a Professional Development Tutor, who will work with you to develop the important professional skills that employers value.

We’re committed to offering a wide range of development and training opportunities. Recent activities have included field trips, CV building and interview sessions, professional risk management workshops and commercial awareness networking events.

Read more about our careers and professional development support.

The University of Leeds Careers Centre also provides a range of help and advice to help you plan your career and make well-informed decisions along the way, even after you graduate.



Read less
This course is aimed at graduates who are looking to pursue careers in investment analysis, stock broking, securities trading, fund management, banking and investment banking in financial institutions. Read more

Why take this course?

This course is aimed at graduates who are looking to pursue careers in investment analysis, stock broking, securities trading, fund management, banking and investment banking in financial institutions. It is also suitable for those who are aiming for careers in corporate financial management in large non-financial companies. The curriculum covers the three key areas of finance: investments, corporate finance, and financial markets and institutions, with a focus on financial investments.

What will I experience?

Students are taught by academically qualified and enthusiastic staff with research and consultancy experience and links to industry. Access to extensive financial databases including Bloomberg, DataStream and Bank Scope is available along with excellent library facilities and with 24-hour internet access to leading databases.

On successful completion of your Bloomberg training you will be awarded the Bloomberg Certificate, an essential qualification for all city professionals.

What opportunities might it lead to?

Our graduates have gained employment in a wide range of roles and industrial sectors. These include investment analysis, banking and investment banking in financial institutions as well as in accountancy and general management.

The University of Portsmouth is recognised as a centre of excellence for finance teaching by the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment (CISI). You will be eligible for student membership and this provides access to a range of networking and career opportunities. During the programme you will be prepared for CISI's Integrity Matters and Corporate Finance Technical Foundation examinations. Successfully completing these examinations allows you to achieve an industry-recognised professional qualification alongside your degree.

Module Details

Financial Econometrics

Econometrics is a core tool used in the study of finance. The aim of this unit is to give you a strong practical understanding of the econometric tools you will be using throughout your study of finance. The teaching philosophy is to take an applied approach, to provide you with a strong intuitive understanding of the most important statistical techniques, and how to apply them successfully to a wide variety of practical situations in finance using the main statistical packages, such as Eviews and SPSS. Many of the econometric techniques covered are used and applied in other units in the course, to help you gain a good practical understanding of how to apply them in the practice of financial management.

Derivatives: Options, Futures and Swaps Markets

In this unit you will study the main derivatives securities and markets, options, forwards, futures and swaps. The emphasis is on the study of derivatives pricing models and how these are applied in speculation, hedging, arbitrage and price discovery in financial investments as well as in the measurement and management of financial risks. In finance some models work better than others. The pricing models and techniques developed in derivatives work so well that all professionals working in derivatives markets use these models and techniques all the time, every day. In this unit you will acquire a high degree of theoretical understanding and practical competence in using and applying these techniques.

Corporate Finance and Business Valuation

In this unit you will study the primary financial decisions of the firm, working capital management, advanced capital budgeting techniques, the strategic analysis of capital investment decisions, capital structure theories, and the financing and dividend decisions. Theories will be appraised in the context of empirical research to facilitate critical understanding of the issues. In the second half of this unit you will move on to the advanced study of business valuation. The main focus is on providing a strong practical understanding, and on the application of the key professional techniques used in firm valuation, mergers and acquisitions, initial public offerings and private equity transactions.

Portfolio Theory and Behavioural Finance

In the first half of this unit we look at stock markets and bond markets from the rational perspective. Here you will study the standard material of ‘modern portfolio theory’. In the second half of the unit we move on to behavioural finance, looking at the emotional, cognitive, institutional, and agency theory factors that impact upon financial markets. Topics include stock market booms and busts, financial crises, systematically irrational market behaviours, and the investment strategies that have been devised to exploit them. The unit has a strong practical philosophy. The theory, empirical research and analysis of real data that you will study are designed to help you to become a better investor.

Research Methods and Dissertation

This is a scheme of independent research. We offer comprehensive training through lectures and workshops throughout the year to develop skills commensurate with standards of good research practice. You will be assigned a Dissertation supervisor who will provide feedback, guidance and support on an individual basis.

Programme Assessment

Teaching methods include lectures, seminars, computer-based workshops, invited speakers and live case studies. Student participation is encouraged and classes are challenging but informal and friendly, which promotes discussion and debate. The course tutors are available to support your studies and you will also have a personal tutor to provide help and guidance for any problems that you might have.

You are assessed in a variety of ways to reflect the individual topics. Our approaches to learning, assessment and feedback are varied and constructive, to help you build the personal management and employability skills that are essential for a fulfilling career.

Student Destinations

This course is designed to provide you with powerful analytical tools and methods to understand the complexities of modern financial markets. These skills are in high demand and you’ll be strongly placed to enter industry in the finance and industrial sectors. Previous graduates have gone on to secure roles in accountancy and general management as well as investment analysis, banking and investment banking in financial institutions. Alternatively, this course is also beneficial if you are aiming for careers in corporate financial management in large non-financial companies.

Roles our graduates have taken on include:

Commercial Finance Analyst
Bid Pricing Executive
Finance Internship
Graduate Econometrician
Hedge Fund Manager

Read less
This degree programme prepares students for entry into the fast growing and exciting investment industry. It provides a practical knowledge of portfolio management and quantitative finance, together with an applied set of courses looking at industry structure and trends. Read more

This degree programme prepares students for entry into the fast growing and exciting investment industry. It provides a practical knowledge of portfolio management and quantitative finance, together with an applied set of courses looking at industry structure and trends. Students benefit from professional guest speakers drawn from the heart of the global investment industry in the City of London, only a short distance away.

During the course you will develop expertise in a range of specialised areas such as trading strategies, portfolio and fund management, alternative and responsible investments, ethics in investment management and risk management, among others. You will also have the opportunity to apply this knowledge in practice through the use of simulations, case studies and take part in the portfolio management challenge designed for MSc Investment Management students. 

Integral to the academic course is the parallel study of the Chartered Financial Analyst® (CFA® ) programme, level 1. The two programmes support and reinforce the other, ensuring that graduates acquire both the academic and professional knowledge and qualifications required to succeed in the investment management industry. 

The tuition for this programme includes the candidate’s registration in the June CFA Level I exam that is written just after the end of the academic year. The tuition also includes substantial CFA teaching outside of the academic teaching.

The ICMA Centre is a CFA University Affiliate; this is in recognition that this degree covers at least 70% of the CFA Program Candidate Body of Knowledge, the CFA Institute Ethical and Professional Standards, and other requirements.

Highlights

  • Study for one of the most recognised master’s courses within the asset management sector and one of the few in the UK affiliated with the CFA Institute
  • Enhance your career prospects by studying CFA level 1 as part of the programme
  • Focus on highly specialised topics such as portfolio management, advanced financial analysis and other investment management related modules
  • Benefit from professional exam exemptions from the Chartered Institute of Securities and Investment (CISI)
  • Experience a practice-centred teaching approach that includes distinguished guest speakers and bespoke simulations

Course structure

October – December: Part 1 Autumn Term

January: Part 1 Exams

January-April: Part 2 Spring Term

May – June: Part 2 Exams

June – August (12 month programme only): Part 3

August/Sep (12 month programme only): Part 3 Coursework deadlines

Course content

Part 1 compulsory modules

Part 2 compulsory modules

Part 2 optional modules

Students on the 9-month (12-month) programme can select 50 (30) credits from the following modules:

Part 3 optional modules

Students on the 12-months programme should take 20 credits from the following:

Learning options

Full-time: 9 months Full-time: 12 months

Students will be resident and undertake full-time study in the UK. Under both, the 9 and 12-month programmes students take compulsory and/or elective modules in Part 2.

The 12 month option involves taking an elective 20 credit module between July and August, which would also mean a 20 credit reduction in the number of taught modules taken in the spring term.

Careers

After completion, our graduates are qualified to work in a variety of investment functions, including as portfolio managers, hedge fund managers and traders, within a diverse range of organisations such as investment banks, regulators, fund management firms and consultants.

The wide recognition of the programme contributes to the majority of our graduates securing employment offers within 6 months of graduation. 

Professional accreditation

CFA Level 1

Studied alongside the degree.

CISI Diploma

The ICMA Centre is a Chartered Institute of Securities and Investment (CISI) 

Centre of Excellence. Centres of Excellence are a select group of UK universities, recognised by the CISI as offering leadership in academic education on financial markets. Students who are on a financially-related masters course recognised by the CISI are eligible for exemptions and membership. 

ICMA Centre students who register and successfully complete two CISI Diploma in Capital Markets modules (Securities and Bonds & Fixed Interest Markets) are eligible for an exemption from the third module (Financial Markets).

ICMA Fixed Income Certificate

To obtain the requisite knowledge to pass the rigorous FIC exam, students are required to take the ICMA Centre Fixed Income Cash and Derivatives Markets module at Part 2. In order to receive the FIC certificate, students will need to register and pass the FIC exam through ICMA.



Read less
The theoretical application of mathematics to the world of finance allows you to make good, informed decisions in the face of uncertainty. Read more

The theoretical application of mathematics to the world of finance allows you to make good, informed decisions in the face of uncertainty. With the growth and progression of business across the globe, the need for those who can understand quantitative financial methods are becoming increasingly lucrative, sought-after individuals. For those with a strong mathematical background, and a wish to pursue a finance career, this programme is the ideal introduction to this exciting and expanding field.To understand, apply and develop these sophisticated methods requires a good understanding of both advanced mathematics and advanced financial theory. By combining the financial expertise in the University of Exeter Business School with our internationally respected Mathematics department, this comprehensive MSc programme will prepare you for careers in areas that require expert skills in mathematical and financial modelling, computational analysis and business management.

You will gain essential, complementary skills in multiple areas of study such as probability and stochastic analysis, option pricing, risk analysis and extremes, computational methods using MATLAB/C++, financial management and investment analysis. In addition, you will branch into a specialist area of study as you conduct a substantial project in a field of your choosing. The project will allow you to develop your research, computational and modelling skills with support from staff who have extensive experience working in multiple financial services and insurance industries.

Careers

The programme prepares you for a career in financial modelling within financial institutions themselves and within other sectors. It builds upon the success of Exeter’s well-established range of Masters programmes in Finance and related areas, many of whose graduates now hold senior positions in areas such as corporate financial strategy, financial planning, treasury and risk management and international portfolio management.

With the strong links between the College and the Met Office, the course also prepares you for career opportunities within reinsurance and credit risk management, especially in the development of financial models that rely on weather/climate systems.

Programme structure

The taught element of the programme takes place between October and May and is arranged into two 12-week teaching semesters.

Compulsory modules

Recent examples of compulsory modules are as follows; Methods for Stochastics and Finance; Analysis and Computation for Finance; Mathematical Theory of Option Pricing; Fundamentals of Financial Management; Research Methodology; Advanced Mathematics Project.

Optional modules

Some recent examples are as follows; Topics in Financial Economics; Investment Analysis 1; Banking and Financial Services; Derivatives Pricing; Domestic and International Portfolio Management; Investment Analysis II; Financial Modelling; Advanced Corporate Finance; Alternative Investments; Quantitative and Research Techniques; Advanced Econometrics; Dynamical Systems and Chaos; Pattern Recognition; Introduction to C++; Level 3 Mathematics Modules.



Read less
The MSc Finance and Management provides a good foundation in finance together with an overview of management functions within an organisation. Read more

The MSc Finance and Management provides a good foundation in finance together with an overview of management functions within an organisation. It is an ideal qualification for anyone wanting to start or progress their career in the finance function of an organisation and then move into general management later. It is relevant to working in small businesses where the ability to control finances is essential, within the finance function of large business organisations, and also in public sector organisations.

The programme offers a choice of the full range of options in both finance and management, so it is possible to tailor this programme to match your career goals.

You can study the programme in an intensive nine-month format, or over 12 months. With both formats you will gain a firm foundation in financial management, investment decisions and research skills in finance, as well as an introduction to the main ideas and functions of international business and marketing. If studying over nine months you will then study corporate finance, strategy, plus four additional options in the second term. With the 12 month format you can study the Investment Analysis Dissertation (45 credits) plus three optional modules or the Management Dissertation (30 credits) with five optional modules.

In addition, intensive computing training covering Datastream, Thomson Reuters, Bloomberg, BvD Orbis and Zephyr and other financial databases and software systems including STATA and VBA, is incorporated into relevant modules.

Study abroad and gain a second Masters qualification

The double degree option enables you to gain a second Masters qualification by studying for a year with one of our prestigious partner universities. For more information on this and other postgraduate study abroad opportunities, visit the Business School’s Study Abroad webpages at http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/programmes/postgraduate/studyabroad/.

Programme structure

During the programme you will study modules (including the dissertation in the 12 month variant) totalling 180 credits. Please note that programme structures may be subject to change. Descriptions of the individual modules are given in full on the Business School postgraduate module list http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/programmes/postgraduate/modules/ .

Compulsory modules

Recent examples of compulsory modules are as follows;

  • Advanced Corporate Finance;
  • Financial Instruments;
  • Fundamentals of Financial Management;
  • Investment Analysis;
  • Strategy;
  • Managing Operations;
  • Marketing Strategy;
  • Principles of International Business.

Optional modules

Some recent examples are as follows;

  • Banking and Financial Services;
  • Derivatives Pricing;
  • Domestic and International Portfolio Management;
  • Entrepreneurship: New Venture Development;
  • International Financial Management;
  • International Financial Management;
  • Investment Analysis;
  • International Human Resource Management;
  • Strategic Innovation Management;
  • Topics in Financial Economics;
  • Financial Modelling;
  • Corporate Finance and Governance;
  • Mergers, Management Buyouts and Other Corporate Reorganizations;
  • Alternative Investments.


Read less
World-ranked. for Masters in Finance by the Financial Times, this degree is widely regarded as one of the leading applied finance programmes in Europe. Read more

World-ranked for Masters in Finance by the Financial Times, this degree is widely regarded as one of the leading applied finance programmes in Europe. It has been specially designed with the support of industry practitioners to equip you with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in the challenging field of international securities and investment banking. It enables our graduates to acquire the practical skills and knowledge sought by employers in the sector through a unique combination of interactive, technically advanced teaching and hands-on training.

It is our longest established programme with over 2,000 alumni around the world. It is also the most flexible finance programme with a choice of over 20 elective modules, providing a broad expertise to equip those who have yet to settle on a specialism, and who look to a wider choice of potential career paths. You will benefit from exposure to advanced analysis tools and resources valued by the financial markets that aim to enhance your practical skills and market awareness. As part of the programme, you will gain an in-depth understanding of the operations of financial markets, securities trading, corporate transactions, valuation, investment strategies and quantitative techniques.

Highlights

  • Ranked in the No. 7 in the UK and No.33 in the world for Masters in Finance
  • 90% of students are employed within 3 months of graduation
  • Experience world-class student facilities and a practice-centred delivery approach
  • Benefit from professional exam exemptions from the Chartered Institute of Securities and Investment (CISI)
  • Work Placement & Project module available for students studying the 12-month course

Course structure

October – December: Part 1 Autumn Term

January: Part 1 Exams

January-April: Part 2 Spring Term

May – June: Part 2 Exams

June – August (12 month programme only): Part 3

August/Sep (12 month programme only): Part 3 Coursework deadlines

Course content

Part 1 compulsory modules

Part 2 optional modules

Students on the 9-month (12-month) programme can select 100 (80) credits from the following modules:

Part 3 optional modules

Students on the 12-months programme should take 20 credits from the following:

Learning options

Full-time: 9 months Full-time: 12 months

Students will be resident and undertake full-time study in the UK. Under both, the 9 and 12-month programmes students take compulsory and/or elective modules in Part 2.

The 12 month option involves taking an elective 20 credit module between July and August, which would also mean a 20 credit reduction in the number of taught modules taken in the spring term.

Careers

Those who graduate in ISIB will leave us well equipped to pursue a wide range of careers in financial services. Many join investment banks to train as financial markets professionals in trading, sales and research, whilst others specialise in complex derivative products and others join brokers and commodity bankers. In addition, many graduates follow other career paths including consultancy, accountancy, operations, IT, and higher education and doctoral research.

Professional Accreditation

CISI Diploma

The ICMA Centre is a Chartered Institute of Securities and Investment (CISI) Centre of Excellence. Centres of Excellence are a select group of UK universities, recognised by the CISI as offering leadership in academic education on financial markets. Students who are on a financially-related masters course recognised by the CISI are eligible for exemptions and membership. 

ICMA Centre students who register and successfully complete two CISI Diploma in Capital Markets modules (Securities and Bonds & Fixed Interest Markets) are eligible for an exemption from the third module (Financial Markets).

ICMA Fixed Income Certificate

To obtain the requisite knowledge to pass the rigorous FIC exam, students are required to take the ICMA Centre Fixed Income Cash and Derivatives Markets module at Part 2. In order to receive the FIC certificate, students will need to register and pass the FIC exam through ICMA.



Read less
Our Master's will set your career path by helping you prepare for professional qualifications within the investment sector. Read more

Our Master's will set your career path by helping you prepare for professional qualifications within the investment sector. It also covers the key theoretical areas of finance and investment analysis.

This degree has a strong focus on developing the analytical skills needed in the finance industry. You will be taught by academics who have recent experience as practitioners in the field as well as relevant research expertise.

You will study financial markets and products, investment management, financial analysis and valuation, and financial econometrics. You will also carry out a research project focusing on data analysis of financial markets.

International student cohort

Our Master's finance suite of programmes has a typical intake of over 80 students with over 30 nationalities. This provides you with an excellent opportunity to exchange viewpoints on global financial impacts with peers from around the world.

Greenwich is one of the top two most globally diverse universities in the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand, by Hotcourses Diversity Index.

We have also been named as one of the "most international" universities on the planet by Times Higher Education magazine.

Accreditation

Our degree will enhance your employability skills through its professional recognition: the MSc Finance and Investment has been accepted into the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) Institute University Recognition Program. The CFA Institute exams are considered the gold standard for measuring competency and integrity in investment professionals.

Rankings

Our accounting and finance subjects at the University of Greenwich are ranked:

  • Top 3 in London for student satisfaction in the Complete University Guide 2017
  • Top 3 in London for course satisfaction in the Guardian University Guide 2016. 

Outcomes

This degree aims to:

  • Develop your understanding and knowledge of financial theory and portfolio management, along with practical knowledge of the investment industry
  • Improve your reflective, critical and evaluative thinking and judgement. You will be exposed to contemporary issues in the field through teaching that is strongly supported by research and professional practice
  • Develop your ability to analyse, synthesise and evaluate key theoretical concepts and practical applications in finance and investment.

Full time

Year 1

Students are required to study the following compulsory courses.

Part time

Year 1

Students are required to study the following compulsory courses.

Students are required to choose 30 credits from this list of options.

Year 2

Students are required to study the following compulsory courses.

Students are required to choose 60 credits from this list of options.

Assessment

Students are assessed through:

  • Examinations
  • Assignments and
  • A research project.

Professional recognition

MSc Finance and Investment has been accepted into the CFA Institute University Recognition Program. This status is granted to institutions whose degree program incorporate at least 70% of the CFA Program Candidate Body of Knowledge (CBOK), which provide students with a solid grounding in the CBOK and positions them well to sit for the CFA exams.

Careers

Graduates can pursue careers in investment and financial analysis such as investment management, corporate finance, financial management or consulting. Graduates who go on to gain the CFA Institute's Chartered Financial Analyst status will be in great demand in many areas of business and finance.

Employability

We have developed strong relations with companies in the financial centres in London, including in the City, Canary Wharf, and Fenchurch Street. This offers you networking, mentoring and internship opportunities, making it a perfect location to develop your career. 

You can also reach out to top employers through our dedicated Business School Employability Office (BSEO). Our team focuses on developing your employment skills through CV support, interview skills workshops and guidance through mentors to progress in the industry. This includes the opportunity to network with employers and recruiters at career fairs.

The BSEO team was shortlisted for the Times Higher Education Leadership and Management Awards; which shows their dedication to actively support career development.

Extracurricular activities

We encourage you to join societies such as the Trading and Investment Society and take part in student competitions like the UK Trading Challenge. We are proud that our team of first year Greenwich students won the competition, beating teams from many other universities.



Read less
Based within minutes of London’s financial heartland, the University of Liverpool in London is perfectly situated for students considering its new MSc Finance and Investment programme. Read more
Based within minutes of London’s financial heartland, the University of Liverpool in London is perfectly situated for students considering its new MSc Finance and Investment programme. The MSc syllabus draws extensively from the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) programme curriculum and you will be supported to sit the CFA Level I examination alongside your MSc programme studies. The CFA qualification is a globally recognised, postgraduate designation that provides a strong foundation of investment analysis and portfolio management skills along with the practical knowledge required in the modern investment industry. Successful candidates will therefore graduate with an MSc from a Russell Group institution and have passed Level I of the CFA qualification. Our approach of embedding much of this globally recognised qualification into our MSc programme will strengthen your employability throughout the financial services sector.

With a rigorous focus on both theory and application, you will benefit from leading edge insight and global perspective from City practitioners, building on firm foundations in quantitative skills, corporate finance, financial analysis, portfolio management, financial instruments and other critical areas.

The programme aims to provide you with a solid understanding of the interaction of finance, financial markets and securities and investment analysis. On graduation you will have a good understanding of contemporary financial principles and know how these apply to financial intermediation, savings and investment. You will also be trained in financial market applications of these theories and concepts in addition to learning how to use state-of-the-art industry analytics in your studies.

The programme is designed to provide both academic knowledge and practical skills, allowing successful candidates to find employment in the financial services industry or a regulatory body related to financial markets.


Programme Structure

Semester 1

Corporate Finance (20 credits)
Financial Reporting and Analysis (20 credits)
Quantitative Methods and Economics (20 credits)

Semester 2

Derivatives and Alternative Investments (20 credits)
Equity and Fixed Income Markets (20 credits)
Portfolio Management and Ethics (20 credits)

Semester 3

Research Project (Dissertation) (60 credits)

Read less
Established in 1973, the MSc Finance and Investment was the very first Master’s degree in finance in the UK. Over the past 40 years, the programme has gained an international reputation for providing excellent training for graduates who are interested in following a career in investment analysis or portfolio management. Read more

Established in 1973, the MSc Finance and Investment was the very first Master’s degree in finance in the UK. Over the past 40 years, the programme has gained an international reputation for providing excellent training for graduates who are interested in following a career in investment analysis or portfolio management. The programme provides a broad knowledge in finance, combined with practical application, to help graduates develop the confidence and ability for a challenging career in finance.

The programme has been accredited by the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment (CISI) since 2008 and has been awarded CISI Centre of Excellence status. Students on this programme have the opportunity to pursue a professional qualification from the CISI alongside their Masters degree, with the full support of the Business School.

You can study the MSc Finance and Investment programme over either nine months or 12 months.

The 9-month programme comprises 12 taught modules, five of which are compulsory modules that are taken in term one, and seven of which are selected from optional modules, and are taken during terms two and three.

The 12-month programme comprises nine taught modules, six of which are compulsory modules that are taken during terms one and two, and three of which are selected from 11 optional modules, and are taken during terms two and three. Students also undertake a dissertation in term three.

In addition, you will be provided with the opportunity to attend non-assessed intensive training courses covering financial databases such as Bloomberg, ThomsonOne, FAME, EIKON, Datastream, etc.

QTEM Programme

The QTEM Programme aims to prepare students with excellent quantitative and analytical skills to support their future careers as decision makers leading the global business environment. Students accepted onto the QTEM Programme will spend an additional semester studying at one of the prestigious academic partners in the QTEM Network. This additional semester is combined with a 2 month internship. Upon completion of these elements, students will be awarded a QTEM Certificate, which demonstrates their skills in analytical and quantitative techniques to support decision-making in an international context.

For more information on this and other postgraduate study abroad opportunities, visit http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/study/pgstudyabroad/

Study abroad and gain a second Masters qualification

The double degree option enables you to gain a second Masters qualification by studying for a year with one of our prestigious partner universities. For more information on this and other postgraduate study abroad opportunities, visit the Business School’s Study Abroad webpages at http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/study/pgstudyabroad/

Programme structure

During the programme you will study modules (including the dissertation in the 12 month variant) totalling 180 credits. Please note that programme structures may be subject to change. Descriptions of the individual modules are given in full on the Business School postgraduate module list http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/programmes/postgraduate/modules/ .

Compulsory modules

Recent examples of compulsory modules are as follows;

  • Financial Instruments;
  • Financial Modelling;
  • Fundamentals of Financial Management;
  • Investment Analysis;
  • Investment Research Methods.

Optional modules

Some recent examples are as follows;

  • Advanced Corporate Finance;
  • Banking and Financial Services;
  • Derivatives Pricing;
  • Domestic and International Portfolio Management;
  • International Financial Management;
  • Topics in Financial Economics ;
  • Corporate Finance and Governance;
  • Mergers, Management Buyouts and Other Corporate Reorganizations;
  • Alternative Investments.


Read less
This programme aims to. -Provide students with an intellectually challenging programme of study leading to an awareness of issues, themes and applications within the field of finance and investment management and associated subject fields, such as economics/international economics. Read more
This programme aims to:
-Provide students with an intellectually challenging programme of study leading to an awareness of issues, themes and applications within the field of finance and investment management and associated subject fields, such as economics/international economics
-Provide students with a programme of study which develops the academic skills and theoretical and empirical underpinnings appropriate to the study of finance, economics and investment management at Masters level
-Provide students with the knowledge and skills to identify suitable tools for the investigation of issues in areas such as investment analysis, fund/asset management, economics analysis and financial reporting
-Provide students with the necessary IT analytical skills which reinforce the theoretical and empirical underpinning of the programme. The students will learn quantitative methodology, to carry out quantitative analyses of relevant financial and economic problems

Why choose this course?

Enhance your career prospects with this unique Master's which will develop the analytical and evaluative skills essential for success within the field of finance and investment management.

The programme provides a coherent and intellectual learning experience, and supports the development of your critical understanding of the subject, allowing you to employ the tools of analysis used within that subject area.

Future career paths could include financial analyst, investment manager, securities’ analyst and portfolio manager. Alternatively, this programme offers a sound platform and preparation for doctoral research in the areas of accounting, finance and economics.

Additionally the programme echoes the Chartered Financial Analyst ® (CFA®) examinations, level one and level two, providing students with the opportunity to sit that body’s examinations on completion.

Careers

The programme will not only appeal to those who wish to pursue a professional qualification relevant to corporate analysis and financial intermediation, but also those wishing to enter the field of accounting, banking, economics and finance and corporate regulation.

Specific careers that may be appropriate include those of financial analyst, investment manager, securities’ analyst and portfolio manager.

It also facilitates the transition to a doctoral degree.

Structure

Core Modules
-Asset Valuation
-Dissertation: MSc Finance and Investment Management
-Financial Data Analysis
-Financial Economics 1
-Financial Economics 2
-Financial Markets (FIM)
-Financial Statement Analysis 1
-Financial Statement Analysis 2
-Quantitative Analysis
-Research Methods: MSc Finance and Investment Management

Read less
Focusing on international finance, this course has particular emphasis on multinational corporate finance and international banking. Read more

Why take this course?

Focusing on international finance, this course has particular emphasis on multinational corporate finance and international banking. It is particularly suited to graduates looking to pursue careers in corporate finance in large financial and non-financial companies, corporate financial services in banking and investment banking, and central banking. On this course you will gain in-depth knowledge of corporate finance, financial markets and institutions, financial investments, and international banking.

What will I experience?

You will be taught by academically qualified and enthusiastic staff with research and consultancy experience and links to industry.

Access to extensive financial databases including Bloomberg, DataStream and Bank Scope is available along with excellent library facilities and with 24-hour internet access to leading databases.

On successful completion of your Bloomberg training you will be awarded the Bloomberg Certificate, an essential qualification for all city professionals.

What opportunities might it lead to?

Our graduates in finance and financial economics have gained employment in a wide range of roles and industrial sectors, including investment analysis, securities trading, banking and investment banking, accountancy and financial management.

The University of Portsmouth is recognised as a centre of excellence for finance teaching by the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment (CISI). You will be eligible for student membership and this provides access to a range of networking and career opportunities. During the programme you will be prepared for CISI's Integrity Matters and Corporate Finance Technical Foundation examinations. Successfully completing these examinations allows you to achieve an industry-recognised professional qualification alongside your degree.

Module Details

You will study the following four units and complete your studies with a dissertation:

Financial Econometrics:

Econometrics is a core tool used in the study of finance. This unit gives you a strong practical understanding of the econometric tools you will be using throughout your study of finance. The teaching philosophy of this unit is to take an applied approach, to provide you with a strong intuitive understanding of a range of econometric techniques and their applications to a wide variety of problem-solving situations in finance. You will gain extensive experience with econometric and statistical packages such as Eviews and SPSS. Your work in this unit is supported by lectures, tutorials and workshops. Many of the econometric techniques covered in this unit are used and applied in other units in the course, to help you gain a good understanding of how to apply them successfully to the theory and practice of financial management.

Multinational Corporate Financial Management:

In this unit you will study international finance from the corporate perspective. The first half of the unit focuses on the primary financial decisions of the firm, working capital management, advanced capital budgeting techniques, the strategic analysis of capital investment decisions, capital structure theories, and the financing and dividend decisions. Corporate financial management in a multinational context introduces many new problems, challenges and opportunities. In the second half of the unit the focus will be on corporate financial management from the global and international perspective. Topics you will study include the measurement and management of currency and interest rate risks, taxation, regulatory and political risks, mergers and acquisitions, and the international capital investment, financing and dividend decisions.

International Money and Capital Markets:

This unit covers international finance from the securities and markets perspective, and complements the unit on Multinational Corporate Financial Management. You will study the currency and Eurocurrency markets, the international equity, fixed income and derivatives markets, financial institutions, financial regulation, and the models used to price the financial securities trading in these markets. The topics in the International Money and Capital Markets unit are developed with a strong emphasis on their applications to multinational corporate financial management.

International Banking:

In this unit you will study commercial and investment banking at national, international and global levels. Topics covered include, money and the banking system, banking structures and regulations, risk management in banking, scale and scope economies and the measurement of competition in banking, determinants of bank crashes and failures, global banking and regulation, global financial markets and instruments, and derivatives related financial crises.

Research Methods and Dissertation:

This is a scheme of independent research. We offer comprehensive training via lectures and workshops throughout the year to develop skills commensurate with standards of good research practice. You will be assigned a Dissertation supervisor who will provide feedback, guidance and support on an individual basis.

Programme Assessment

Teaching methods include lectures, seminars, computer-based workshops, invited speakers and live case studies. Student participation is encouraged and classes are challenging but informal and friendly, which promotes discussion and debate. The course tutors are available to support your studies and you will also have a personal tutor to provide help and guidance.

You are assessed in a variety of ways to reflect the individual topics. Our approaches to learning, assessment and feedback are varied and constructive, to help you build the personal management and employability skills that are essential for a fulfilling career.

Student Destinations

This course will provide you with powerful analytical tools and methods to understand the complexities of modern financial markets. These skills are in high demand and you’ll be strongly placed to enter industry in the finance and industrial sectors. Previous graduates have gone on to secure roles in accountancy and general management as well as investment analysis, banking and investment banking in financial institutions. Alternatively, this course is also beneficial if you are aiming for careers in corporate financial management in large non-financial companies.

Roles our graduates have taken on include:

Commercial Finance Analyst
Bid Pricing Executive
Finance Internship
Graduate Econometrician
Hedge Fund Manager

Read less

Show 10 15 30 per page



Cookie Policy    X