Visit our website for more information on fees, scholarships, postgraduate loans and other funding options to study Management (International Management) at Swansea University - 'Welsh University of the Year 2017' (Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017).
We offer a MSc in Management (International Management) for students from any background who would like to work in business or management. The Management (International Management) programme has been specifically designed with a clear focus on management in an interconnected global community. This programme in Management (International Management) covers core management concepts such as international marketing, operations management, global strategy, finance and international human resource management. To help you get the best from your studies, the programme also includes an academic skills module that covers issues such as research methods, presentation skills, group dynamics and employability support.
- Generalist MSc Management - for you to create your own mix of specialist modules
- Marketing - focused on the challenges of global marketing activities
- Finance – for students interested in financial aspects of management
- Human Resource Management – focused on the challenges of leadership and managing a global work force
- Entrepreneurship – for students interested in the dynamics of starting their own business
- Operations and Supply Management – focused on the management of global operations and supply networks
- International Management – considers contemporary management practice in a global setting
- International Standards – focused on the role of internationals standards (such as ISO) in quality improvement
- Business Analytics – to equip students to work in the era of ‘big data’
- E-Business - investigates the challenges and opportunities of global information systems networks and e-commerce
- All modules on the Management (International Management) programme are taught by our world-class faculty who have a breadth of industrial and academic knowledge
- Swansea is joint 1st in Wales for international ranked research (REF 2014)
- 93% of Swansea students in employment six months after graduating
- High contact time – our modules come with a lecture (in class sizes capped at approximately 150 students) and seminar/tutorial (in class sizes capped at 30) every single week
- Fully refurbished facilities – we have invested half a million pounds in a recent refurbishment to our student facilities
- Scholarships available for outstanding students
- Swansea is 1st in Wales for world-leading impact - 60% at 4-star level (REF 2014)
The MSc Management (International Management) is designed for students who wish to focus specifically on the opportunities and challenges of business in an interconnected global marketplace. Students will undertake modules in global business and international management before undertaking a specialist management consulting style project on international business.
Modules on the Management (International Management) programme may include:
Managing Financial Resources
Human Resource Management
Global Business Environment: International Political Relations
We have an excellent track record of placing our graduates including those from the Management programme with major multinational companies and our graduate employment rate is 92%.
From the moment you arrive at the School of Management as a student on the Management programme we will work with you to help you build your skills and experience to enhance your career prospects. During your time with us you’ll have the chance to:
- Undertake a work placement or internship through the Swansea Paid Internship Network (SPIN) or ‘Week of Work’ initiative
- Work and network with employers from a range of national and multi-national companies through our visiting speaker programme
- In conjunction with the International Development Office, undertake an Internship in India, with a company such as GE, Thomson Reuters, 3M, Private Equity or Kanvic Consulting
- Boost your skills and meet employers during our biannual Employability Week
- Complete the Swansea Employability Award
- Participate in one of our student challenges and competitions, such as the Branding Challenge, and CIM student competition ‘The Pitch’
The School of Management at Swansea University is building on long-established foundations as one of the UK's top providers of Management, Accounting & Finance and Economic education.
The School of Management's vision is to make a difference to society and the economy locally and globally through excellence in research-led teaching that has resulted in the School being ranked 17th in the UK for research impact* and 26th in the UK for research excellence, all working towards continuing our trend of becoming one of the top business schools in Wales and the UK.
The School of Management comprises over 150 staff and more than 2000 students studying at the new £450million Bay Campus, with the School of Management building itself providing truly world-class facilities with an impressive communal Atrium, new teaching rooms, meeting room and IT equipment.
School of Management, alongside the Great Hall, also proudly offers high quality conferencing and event capacity all within half a mile of the M4 corridor, that has already attracted several high profile and key events during the short time that the Bay Campus has been open.
Through its enterprise and innovation activities of business engagement the School plans to focus on three global challenges: Health & Wellbeing, Digital Society and Sustainable Economies. The School of Management's aim is to deliver world-class education through collaboration, innovation and fresh thinking, and we pride ourselves on the outstanding student experience on offer here at the School of Management ensuring a rich learning environment, while also developing our staff in line with Swansea University's wider ambition to anchor and underpin everything we do with a core set of values.
School of Management aspires to be known globally as a centre for educational excellence, working in partnership with other Swansea University departments and organisations to create joint programmes that reflect the skillsets required by an evolving workplace.
*THE Research Excellence Framework 2014: Institutions ranked by subject
Institute for International Management
The Institute for International Management is a new Institute for 2018 entry and aims to become the leading centre for training and research into the successful management of international organisations across different national contexts.
Students within the Institute for International Management will experience inspiring teaching from academics who are leaders of research within their area of study.
For more information, see our programme page for International Management MSc.
By undertaking this programme, you will gain an in-depth understanding of the different national and cultural contexts in which firms operate, whilst developing and enhancing your analytical and research skills.
The Institute for International Management maintains an interest in the comparative analysis of countries’ institutional setups and how diverse national contexts affect economic activity around the world, especially in multinational corporations. The programme covers a wide range of topics to enable you to gain a broad, analytical and integrative understanding of business and international management. You will develop your knowledge of emerging markets and global strategy in order to apply this to the complex field of international management, both systematically and creatively, to improve business practice.
Your personal development
As an MSc International Management student, you will benefit from inspiring guest lectures delivered by successful entrepreneurs and business leaders across a range of industries.
Enterprise Through the Curriculum is an intrinsic element of every master’s programme at Loughborough University London and has been carefully designed to give students the best possible chance of securing their dream role. From employability profiling to live group projects set by a business or organisation, and from site visits to organisation-based dissertation opportunities, Loughborough University London is the first of its kind to develop a suite of activities and support that is positioned as the underpinning of every student’s experience.
Future career prospects
The Institute for International Management is committed to helping you develop the skills and attributes you need to progress successfully into a global management and relations position. We will prepare you for employment in a very wide range of careers, including consultancy as a functional specialist or general management in the private or public sector.
Speak to a programme specialist
If you'd like to know more about this programme, you can request an email or telephone call from an academic responsible for the teaching of this programme.
Scholarships for 2018 entry
Our ambition is to inspire high achieving students from all backgrounds, to benefit from our outstanding teaching and cutting edge research facilities.
Inspiring Success Scholarship
The Inspiring Success Scholarship offers 100% off the full cost of tuition fees for selected unemployed and underemployed graduates, who obtained GCSE or A-level (or equivalent) qualifications from Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Newham or Waltham Forest.
East London Community Scholarship
The East London Community Scholarship offers 50% off the full cost of tuition fees for students who obtained GCSE or A-level (or equivalent) qualifications from Barking and Dagenham, Greenwich, Hackney, Newham, Tower Hamlets or Waltham Forest.
The Excellence scholarship automatically awards high-achieving students 20% off the full cost of our master’s tuition fees, regardless of their full-time programme or nationality. To be eligible for this scholarship, students must have an upper-second class degree or equivalent qualification recognised by Loughborough University.
The Alumni Bursary automatically awards graduates of Loughborough University 10% off the full cost of our master's tuition fees, regardless of their full-time programme or nationality.
Further details about the full range of scholarships we offer are available on our website.
The MSc International Management is a catalyst degree programme – designed to boost you in a career in business and management by providing you with all the skills, knowledge and insight necessary to succeed anywhere in the world. Whilst it is ideal for those already with a business degree, the programme is particularly relevant for those from non-business related backgrounds looking to add incisive business education to their undergraduate degree.
The programme focuses on your career in business and management. From day one, you will be encouraged to think strategically about your vocation - with our three-day Careers Camp in Induction Week specifically designed to help you to think about your aspirations. With a dedicated careers support team, careers coaches and career-focused events, corporate speakers and links with the business world, we are best-placed to launch your successful professional career.
Accredited by the Chartered Management Institute, every successful graduate on the programme will automatically receive a second professional qualification – the Diploma in Strategic Management and Leadership. Alongside your University Masters degree, this means that you will stand out from the competition when it comes to employability, as well as gaining entry to exclusive CMI networking events and access to the CMI’s employability and library resources.
Throughout your time with us you will be working with students from all over the globe - learning first-hand how different cultures can approach the same challenge from different perspectives, with each bringing their own unique expertise to the issue. This international experience will enhance your personal learning and, in time, your peers will form part of your future network, enabling you to secure contacts across the globe.
We’re committed to ensuring all of our students gain a truly international perspective while studying with us. With that in mind we offer students on our 12 month programme the opportunity to spend a semester abroad at one of our partner institutions:
Whatever options you choose, we will ensure you will leave the programme with a new found confidence and expertise in international management that will enable you to build a successful and sustainable career for the future.
International students should be aware that they will require a separate visa to enable them to study at a partner institution in another country.
Our MSc International Management (IM) has been ranked in the latest Financial Times (FT) rankings.
The programme entered the FT Masters in Management league table at 80th in the world.
Read the full FT.com Masters in Management rankings 2016.
The double degree option enables you to gain a second Masters qualification by studying for a year with one of our prestigious partner universities. For more information on this and other postgraduate study abroad opportunities, visit the Business School’s Study Abroad webpages at http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/programmes/postgraduate/studyabroad/.
You can study the programme over either nine months or 12 months.
comprises 12 taught modules, seven of which are compulsory modules, and five of which are selected from optional modules.
Comprises ten taught modules, seven of which are compulsory modules, and three of which are selected from a list of optional modules. Students also undertake a dissertation.
During the programme you will study modules (including the dissertation if completing the 12 month variant) totalling 180 credits. Please note that programme structures may be subject to change. Descriptions of the individual modules are given in full on the Business School postgraduate module list http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/programmes/postgraduate/modules/ .
Recent examples of compulsory modules are as follows;
Some recent examples are as follows;
This degree programme prepares you for a variety of management roles across a range of sectors and types of organisation. Whether you plan to develop your career in the private or public sector, a multinational or SME, this programme enables you to gain a rich understanding of the current management challenges and trends facing business leaders in the world today.
Whether you plan to move into a specific function (like HR or Operations), or your goal is General Management or consultancy, the
MSc in International Management provides a great launch pad for your future success.
Graduates from this programme have secured roles with a wide variety of organisations including BNP Paribas, Citigroup, Deloitte (India), Singapore Airlines, HSBC, Goldman Sachs, IBM (China), Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, Pinjin Asset Management, AXA Insurance (China), Johnson & Johnson (Russia), Apple (China) and Baker Tilly.
Our Careers & Employability team will help you identify your career path and support your route to a fulfilling global career.
The MSc in International Management includes a compulsory, three-day, intensive Careers Camp run in Exeter. During this camp, you will familiarise yourself with the programme, get to know your fellow class mates and begin thinking about your future career. The camp takes place in the second half of Induction Week and consists of taught components, group activities and private reflection time, facilitated by dedicated academic and careers staff, as well as external, team-building specialists.
On the MSc International Management (Human Resource Management) course you will develop an understanding of a range of global businesses, their operations, and the cultural differences you will meet in the practice of international management. You will study the various business functions, such as marketing, finance and strategy, taking into account global environmental factors (economic, political and social) in which international organisations operate. You will also develop a specialism in key areas of Human Resource Management; the business function which many would argue is the most important in the sense that it delivers to the organisation the human resource without which nothing would be achieved.
One of the big differences on this course is the focus on acquiring the skills you will need to work in international organisations. You will learn about a range of international organisations and develop your general management skills and intercultural management skills. You will develop your specific Human Resources Management skills in this same international context. You will gain practical experience by working on a live consultancy project for a commercial or not-for-profit organisation and have the opportunity to take part in field trips to study organisations in other countries.
With this master's degree, graduates go on to successful international careers with a range of commercial and not-for-profit organisations around the world.
On the MSc International Management (Human Resource Management) course you will study the compulsory modules listed below, and then choose between completing a dissertation or work-based research project.
Capstone Module Choice
You will choose one of the following capstone modules that best suits your academic interests or professional development requirements.
This course is dual accredited by CMI – a CMI accreditation means you have the option to graduate with your degree and gain a professional CMI qualification (Level 7 in Strategic Management and Leadership) and there’s no extra study involved. This accreditation is not only a hallmark of excellence, but also provides you with benefits. For example, student members can access online content, networking events, company visits, online seminars and mentoring.
A CMI Induction event will be held so you can find out about the CMI qualification and membership and choose whether you would like to qualify and join. If you do choose to gain the CMI qualification you will need to pay a non-refundable fee for the CMI level 7 qualification in Strategic Management & Leadership, which is currently £265 and includes one-year membership of the CMI.
Much of the teaching on the course takes the form of interactive workshops, but there are also lectures from staff and visiting speakers. Lectures, discussions, role-play exercises and seminars are linked with selected case studies and assessments to strengthen your practical analysis and decision-making skills. You will have the opportunity to develop your skills in working as part of a team through structured group assignments.
Teaching staff at the Business School are researchers and/or from an industry background with an in-depth practical experience of business and management issues. Visiting speakers from business, industry, consultancies and research bodies provide further input.
Each module is assessed using a range of different methods including examinations, assignments, individual or group reports and group presentations. This range of assessments will help you to develop the analytical and presentational that employers within different organisations look for.
At Headington we have developed outstanding facilities. Our John Henry Brookes Building is the most significant project in the history of Oxford Brookes University. Set at the heart of our Headington campus, it has been designed for the future of higher education and has transformed the experiences of our students and the entire University community. Find out more about the John Henry Brookes Building.
We're investing over £30m to create modern teaching and learning facilities and creating a new home at Headington for the Business School.
Our library provides specialist business resources (both hard copy and via online access) to UK and overseas companies' annual reports, statistics on all aspects of business and management, a wide range of constantly updated key texts, and postgraduate MA, MBA, MSc and PhD theses.
On this course you can choose to participate in a International Business in Practice Study Trip module trip to Boston, USA, and International Management in Practice study trip to Budapest, Hungary.
International Management in Practice: Study Trip
You can go to Budapest to experience a hands-on week, learning about the processes within international management. Students meet with leaders of global firms and international organisations, receive presentations from global academic experts, and tour facilities. This module is included in your programme fees, but you are responsible for paying for all travel and accommodation costs and some meals. This is a 10-credit module, which will be formally assessed.
International Business in Practice Study Trip
The purpose of this study trip is to give postgraduate students a hands-on, intensive experience with the ideas and practices of global business. The programme will include presentations from local management executives and experts. Students will have direct interaction with management executives and practices through site visits to major corporations and agencies.
This study trip is voluntary and all costs associated with the trip will need to be funded by you. It is not linked to university assessments in any way. If you successfully complete this module you will have the following non-credit bearing module recorded on your transcript: P58335 International Business in Practice: Study Trip.
Field trips are optional and incur a cost.
Today, the majority of firms operate internationally, whether that entails limited regional exporting or extensive sales or supply chain operations in foreign markets. Is the ability to manage complex international operations, while focusing on the well-being of all stakeholders, core to your ambitions and interests? Then the Master’s programme in International Management at Utrecht University School of Economics (U.S.E.) is for you.
Based on Utrecht University’s research expertise, this multidisciplinary Master’s gives you a deep theoretical understanding of the complex interactions at play in international business. While this programme is very practically oriented it teaches you to draw on a firm basis in the theory of economics and business in order to deliver excellent results for an organisation.
In the Master International Management you will focus on:
Read more about the study programme.
The MSc in International Management provides you with:
Upon completion of the MSc in International Management you are thoroughly prepared to work in a global corporate environment in which you manage such complex issues as global marketing and finance, supply chain management, cross cultural management, and foreign market entry strategies. Your academic-level economic research skills, experience in business analysis and consulting skills strengthen your profile further. Upon graduation you will be well prepared for a range of different (international) career opportunities in consulting, business strategy and development, corporate venture management and start-ups. Read more about possible career prospects.
The MSc Business with International Management has been developed for recent graduates in non-business disciplines who are looking to add a business dimension to their undergraduate specialism. This programme will build both your general business knowledge and understanding, as well as developing the personal skills needed for the wide variety of managerial-level roles available in today’s international business environment.
This course is part of Newcastle Business School, part of a select group of business schools worldwide, following accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) in business and accounting – the first in Europe to gain the double accreditation. Founded in 1916, AACSB International is the longest serving global accrediting body for business schools that offer undergraduate, Masters, and doctoral degrees in business and accounting.
-Specialise in International Management in the second semester
-Prepare yourself for a vast range of management opportunities
-Flexible start dates in January, May and September
-Developed for non-business graduates
-This course is part of Newcastle Business School, part of a select group of business schools worldwide, following accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) in business and accounting – the first in Europe to gain the double accreditation
-Also available as MSc Business with International Management with Advanced Practice
-Upon completion of your programme, you will be eligible for our Professional Pathway programmes which will enable you to further develop your skills, delivered by QA, one of the UK’s largest providers of IT and project management training
The MSc Business with International Management is designed around a set of modules that are common to all the ‘MSc Business with’ programmes. These modules cover general business functions, strategic management and organisational analysis. These will develop your strategic awareness, leadership potential and understanding of the theory and practice of international business. In the second semester you will be given the opportunity to specialise in International Management.
In the final semester you will complete your research and write your dissertation. Every student has a personal research supervisor and will be required to submit an assessed research proposal prior to embarking on the dissertation itself.
Your teaching and learning for the MSc Business with International Management takes place in seminars, lectures, tutorials and workshops. In addition, you will be expected to engage in independent study involving directed and self-directed learning.
Assessments for this course are based on a mix of assignments, presentations, exams, and group work.
You will be assigned your own Guidance Tutor who will provide academic and pastoral support and be your first point of contact if you have questions or problems.
Graduates on the programme have joined a wide range of businesses, including graduate training schemes. A significant number of graduates have gone back to work for a family business or even started up their own businesses.
Upon successfully completing your course, you may undertake further professional development and training through Professional Pathways programmes. This additional training is offered to our graduates for free, from our partner QA, and provides you with an excellent opportunity to undertake professional training at the end of your Masters from one of the UK’s leading corporate training providers, further enhancing your professional development and employability skills. Find out more about Professional Pathways and your eligibility. Find out more about the Pathways available and your eligibility - http://london.northumbria.ac.uk/why-northumbria/careers-and-employability/
You will study a range of topics across an intellectually stimulating set of modules designed to provide you with a thorough understanding of business whilst developing your global business perspective. Modules you can expect include Developing Global Management Competencies I and Global and Transnational Business. You will also complete a Masters Dissertation, giving you the opportunity to investigate an area of particular interest and demonstrate academic excellence.
Please visit the course page for more information on module content.
The 15-month full-time MBA International Management program prepares graduates for working in a complex multicultural world. The program targets international candidates with a non-business degree but offers enough depth for business degree holders seeking to further refine and strengthen their education. Students may select two of four elective courses, an international focus (Germany and Europe, Latin America, or China) as well as an international or practical immersion in Term 3, choosing from the following three options:
• Internship + 1 International Week or
• Study abroad.
This approach allows students to enhance knowledge regarding a specific country or organization before demonstrating their acquired skills with their Master Thesis.
Munich Business School, is recognized by U-Multirank 2017 as Germany’s best private university of applied sciences in “Business Studies”, received by Trendence Graduate Barometer 2017 excellent grades for internationality and practical relevance and among others, ranked by Trendence Employability Ranking 2016 as 1st amongst all private universities of applied sciences, including all academic subjects across Germany.
The MBA International Management (MBA IM) is divided into three terms over a period of 15 months. Each term covers topics from the three major modules Business & Management Knowledge, Executive & Leadership Skills, and International Business Environment. This effective modular structure is the basis for a challenging and compact MBA program, which allows its completion in less than one and a half years – thus minimizing the time our students spend putting their professional careers on hold.
MBA students receive in-class instruction on business topics and executive skills during Terms 1 and 2. In addition, they can choose two of four elective courses. Choices are: Management in Emerging Markets or Digital Business Transformation in the Fall term as well as Social Entrepreneurship or Global Supply Chain Management in the Spring term. Furthermore, they choose one of three International Focuses: Germany and Europe, Latin America, or China. In Term 3, students can opt for an International Immersion studying one semester abroad. Alternatively, they can also choose a Practical Immersion (Internship) combined with an international week. Depending on their practical business experience, students may be eligible to waive the practical or international immersion in Term 3. This so-called Fast Track reduces the overall study time to a total of twelve months.
The Master Thesis at the end of the program demonstrates the students‘ profound understanding of current business topics and the ability to apply specific scientific methods to a real-world business situation. The topic will be chosen in collaboration with a company. Therefore, the knowledge and research presented in the thesis are valuable for both the student and their company.
Internationality and practical relevance are two of the core values of The Munich MBA.
International immersion: Students can extend their international experience by studying abroad at one of our over 60 partner universities worldwide.
Practical immersion: Students may either complete an nternship and in addition, they will spend an international week at a selected partner university.
When carefully selecting the candidates for our MBA International Management program, we pay very close attention to putting together a diverse yet cohesive group of students. Be it through their academic backgrounds, their personal experiences or their professional paths – we want to create the best possible opportunities for our MBA students in terms of networking potential and mutual enrichment. Here are some numbers of the MBA International Management class:
Average age: 30 years
International / German: 75% / 25%
Average Work Experience: 8 years
Female / Male: 75% / 25%
Academic Background: Engineering/IT - 25%, Business - 25%, other - 50%
Munich Business School offers a limited number of partial scholarships to outstanding candidates applying for The Munich MBA (up to 25% off the first two semester tuition rates). Selection criteria for the MBS Best Scholarship for outstanding candidates include the following: outstanding educational achievements, professional background, high GMAT scores, international work experience, foreign language skills, social engagement, candidates’ performance throughout the selection process. Since the number of scholarships is limited, early application increases students’ chances.
The MBA International Management program is – like all study programs at Munich Business School – internationally accredited by FIBAA (Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation). As Bavaria‘s first and so far only private university, MBS has received unlimited state accreditation by the Bavarian State Ministry and institutional accreditation by the German Council of Science and Humanities (Wissenschaftsrat).
Our accredited Management MSc programme will prepare you for a wide range of careers in management. Our International Management MSc is designed to develop your knowledge in global and multi-cultural management.
This specialism also includes an extended period of international study at one of our international partner institutions in Europe or the USA. You also have the option of enhancing your existing language skills by studying in French, German or Italian through our European partners.
Case studies, live client projects, company visits and the option of paid work experience help prepare you for management by putting the latest academic thinking and business strategies into practice. You will learn about the major functions of management and their integration.
This course is part of our Management MSc programme. All students complete the same core modules covering the major functions of management until the end of term two, at which point you will be able to tailor the course to your individual strengths and career aspirations through option modules, the option of an additional semester to study abroad, a specialism in one of five areas or a continuation of a more generalist route with our Management MSc.
An innovative alternative to an MBA, this one-year, full-time course is designed for graduates of any subject with or without work experience. Case studies, live client projects, company visits and the option of paid work experience help prepare you for management by putting the latest academic thinking and business strategies into practice.
Teaching takes place over three terms, form late September to early June, with breaks after assessments in mid-December to early January and late March to mid-April.
Class attendance averages 14 to 18 hours a week, plus time for group work and independent study, with variations as you progress through the course. There are some special intensive workshops on topics such as leadership, management and research, and a one-week tutor-led international study visit to companies in another European country.
Your final project will take place over the summer after teaching finishes. Your optional work-experience based final project may continue for up to one-year past the end of teaching.
Core management modules will give you practical knowledge in each key management subject. From term 3 you will be able to tailor your course through a choice of specialisms and option modules. The five specialisms currently offered are Entrepreneurship, Human Resource Management, Innovation, Public Service Management and International Management.
Core Modules (Terms 1 and 2)
Mandatory specialism module (Term 3)
Option modules (choice of one)
Choose from over 20 options including:
Completion of your final project takes place throughout the summer after teaching finishes. During the second autumn term, you will complete modules at your host institution and also have an international project report assessed by the University of Brighton. You submit your project in October or November and receive your MSc award in January.
International management and leadership are at the heart of this course. You will work in small, multinational teams to develop international capabilities and build your global network.
Your tutor-led study visit to a European partner organisation will give you an international perspective to your study. Previous students have visited and heard from leaders at Xerox, Mercedes Benz, Carrefour and the European Parliament.
his course will help you to work more effectively as a manager and pursue opportunities in training, recruitment and other areas of HR. It will also prove valuable if you are interested in pursuing work as a business negotiator, consultant, commercial interpreter, lecturer or researcher.
If you want to pursue a career in academia, the research skills training and experience you acquire on the course may be used to develop a proposal for a subsequent research degree or for published papers.
The school also has an industrial placements office that can offer you help in seeking work experience. Those who succeed in obtaining a work placement or internship may undertake a work placement report as the basis of their final project.