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Masters Degrees (International Law And Human Rights)

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International Human Rights Law LLM is a unique programme designed to enable students to progress to become human rights practitioners and specialists in this dynamic area of law. Read more

About the course

International Human Rights Law LLM is a unique programme designed to enable students to progress to become human rights practitioners and specialists in this dynamic area of law.

Students will critically engage with many of the human rights issues that feature strongly in public debate today, gaining comprehensive understanding of international human rights law and its interconnection with international criminal and comparative criminal law.

This course places particular emphasis on the radical transformations that international human rights law has experienced since the beginning of the 21st century, with the genesis of the International Criminal Court, the on-going process of the United Nations reform and the post 9/11 shift to a more securitarian approach to criminal process values, especially regarding the war against terror.

The course offers:

A detailed analysis of the theory, history and development of human rights, and an examination of the main regional mechanisms of human rights protection.

An overview of a variety of contemporary human rights topics, including the examination of major developments and recent tendencies in the field of international human rights protection.

Analysis of contemporary topics and challenges of international human rights protection including:
the emergence of the right to development and the so-called third- generation rights;
human rights advocacy and global governance though NGOs and non-State actors;
the crystallisation of group rights, minorities and indigenous peoples’ rights;
the challenges posed to international human rights law by international migration and the enhanced need of protection of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees;
women’s rights and the rights of the child, including protection against victims of human trafficking;
the crystallisation of general equality and the development of human rights advocacy for sexual and gay rights.

Brunel Law School has an excellent reputation in this field. The International Human Rights Law Review - a peer-reviewed international journal - is edited at Brunel Law School. The School is able to attract a number of leading guest speakers to support further debate and learning’s around the complexity of human rights, and provides students with a wider variety of perspectives particularly in the international context.

The programme is available full-time:
September (12 months)
January (15 months due to dissertation submission requirements)

And also part-time:
September (24 months)
January (27 months due to dissertation submission requirements)

The course is aimed at graduates from all over the world who are keen to develop an expertise in the evolving discipline and develop a career in international human rights law.

Aims

You will develop an expertise in the corpus and complexities of international human rights law.

You will acquire critical and analytical skills in the complex field of international human rights law.

You will be able to demonstrate through original research the application of knowledge, practical understanding and critical appreciation that can contribute to the discourse on international human rights law.

You will gain professional skills required to develop a career in international human rights law.

You will gain detailed knowledge of the European system of human rights protection in particular, both at a theoretical and practical level, including the ability to handle cases before the European Court of Human Rights.

Course Content

The LLM consists of both compulsory and optional modules, a typical selection can be found below. Modules can vary from year to year, but these offer a good idea of what we teach.

Compulsory modules:

Term I

European System of Human Rights Protection (15 credits) 1 or 2
Foundations of International Human Rights Law (15 credits) 1 or 2

Term II

Theory and Practice of International Human Rights (15 credits) 1
Regional Systems of Human Rights Protection: America, Africa, Asia (15 credits) 1

Optional modules:

Term I

International Human Rights and Islamic Law (15 credits) 2
Public International Law (15 credits) 1 or 2
International Humanitarian Law 2
Multiculturalism and Human Rights (15 credits) 2
International Criminal Law (15 credits) 2

Term II

International Environmental Law (15 credits) 2
Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility (15 credits) 2
World Trade Organisation (WTO) abd Human Rights Law (15 credits) 2
Human Rights of Women (15 credits) 2
Counter-terrorism and Human Rights (15 credits) 2

** The superscript 1 or 2 indicates which year of study each module will normally take place in for part-time students.

Assessment

The faculty places great emphasis on the creation of a unique learning experience. In addition to attending seminars and preparing coursework and exams, students will also learn by participating in research centre activities and research trips, contributing to newsletters, making oral presentations, attending law film screenings as well as participating in debating events and reading group sessions.

Assessment methods in this programme range from coursework, seen examinations and a dissertation (15,000 words) to oral presentations and assessment by contribution in seminars.

Special Features

Research Centres
The Law School benefits from active research centres which regularly host research seminars and workshops. Many of these have been on the topic of international human rights. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF2014) we were ranked 14th in the UK for REF Intensity in Law.

Extra-curricular Activities
The Law School offers students numerous opportunities to participate in extra-curricular activities, including a Reading Group, a Law Film society, mooting and debating societies and research workshops organized by the research centres based at the school. LLM students are expected to play a leading role organising and participating in these activities.

Research Skills
The Law School offers an elaborate scheme of research and writing skills sessions designed to facilitate students’ learning and to equip them with appropriate transferable skills.
Some of the modules in this programme also integrate skills training, for example on how to answer essay questions, make use of electronic legal databases and cite legal authorities.

Career Support
Students benefit from the university's award winning 'Professional Development Centre' which offers specialist workshops, interview skills, and one-to-one advice sessions to help prepare graduates for their chosen career.

Teaching Expertise
Brunel Law School has an excellent reputation in this field. The International Human Rights Law Review - a peer-reviewed international journal - is edited at Brunel Law School. The school is able to attract a number of leading guest speakers to support further debate and learnings around the complexity of human rights, and provides students with a wider variety of perspectives particularly in the international context.
This is a challenging programme that is at the forefront of thinking in International Human Rights Law. It is taught by leading academics with a wide range of expertise in human rights practice, policy, activism and governmental, international and non-governmental organisations. As a result, the programme is research-led, and some of the reading required for the programme is based on books published by our academics.

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Visit our website for more information on fees, scholarships, postgraduate loans and other funding options to study Human Rights at Swansea University - 'Welsh University of the Year 2017' (Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017). Read more

Visit our website for more information on fees, scholarships, postgraduate loans and other funding options to study Human Rights at Swansea University - 'Welsh University of the Year 2017' (Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017).

Environmental changes, ageing populations, the media and new technologies, asylum and migration, intergenerational justice, complex multilevel governance arrangements, the impact of trade and investment, poverty and inequalities, the rise of identity politics and the changing nature of the personal sphere are contemporary global challenges facing human rights calling into question the fundamental tenets of human rights law both in terms of its formulation and implementation through policy development and law-making.

Differentiated from existing LLMs, the LLM Human Rights explicitly focuses on these contemporary challenges and how best to respond to them though law, policy and practice. The Human Rights programme draws on the research strengths in the College of Law and Criminology, but also from other colleges, in its teaching; and, exploits strong relationships with external partners to integrate a distinctive applied focus to the Human Rights programme.

Key Features

Students pursuing the LLM Human Rights will benefit from a programme designed around high calibre research and impact in human rights. Human Rights students will also benefit from academics' strong relationships with external partners working in the field of human rights, giving the programme a distinctive approach centred on the implementation and application of human rights.

The focus on implementation and practice in human rights is complemented by a multidisciplinary approach. Human rights policy and practice often do not recognise disciplinary divides. The Human Rights programme allows students to experience teaching from other disciplines to enhance their knowledge and understanding of human rights as an integrated project (e.g. politics and international development).

Uniquely the Human Rights programme addresses diverse challenges in human rights faced by law and policy, and by practitioners at the global, regional, State and sub-State levels. The approach focuses on how these challenges might be effectively managed through law and policy. The Human Rights programme offers:

- The opportunity and choice to address a range of human rights topics and challenges across a number of thematic areas, with teaching by expert researchers in the field.

- A multidisciplinary approach reflecting the reality of human rights in practice.

- A practical and practice focused philosophy.

Modules

The LLM Human Rights is a modular programme, with students required to accumulate 180 credits to graduate. In appropriate circumstances a student may graduate with a merit or distinction. Each programme is divided into two parts:

Part I consists of 3 taught modules, each 20 credits. Students will be required to undertake 2 compulsory modules, these are: International Human Rights Law and Human Rights and Humanitarian Intervention. Students are also required to select 1 further optional 20 credit taught module from a range of available modules (see below for examples optional modules).

Part II gives students a choice of 3 optional modules, each 20 credits, from a range of available modules (see below for examples optional modules).

Students of LLM in Human Rights are also required to undertake a dissertation, which contributes 60 credits.

The following are examples of modules offered to Human Rights students (modules available for selection will be dependent on contingencies, e.g. whether a module leader is in study leave).

Human Rights and Environment, Climate Change and Sustainability

Trade, Investment and Human Rights

Human Rights and the Media

Human Rights and Family Law

Human Rights and Identities

Accountability for Human Rights Implementation

Impact Assessment and Human Rights

Children’s Human Rights

Human Rights and Poverty

Human Rights, Migration and Human Trafficking

Human Rights and Criminal Justice

Human Rights and Terrorism on-line

Human Rights and Medical Law

Human Rights and Employment

Extra-curricular Activities

Throughout their studies Human Rights students are provided with the opportunity to take part in a number of extra-curricular activities to enhance their practical understanding of human rights. These include:

Guest lectures by expert practitioners in human rights.

Workplace learning through voluntary work and/or placement.

Involvement in collaborative research projects with research partners.

Engagement with the College’s projects focussed on practical implementation and impact from research (e.g. Cyberterrorism Project, Wales Observatory, Centre for Environment, and the Sex Work Consortium).

Careers and Employability

The LLM Human Rights will open the door to a range of careers, including:

- Human rights institutions: increasingly international and regional human rights institutions are seeking to support, monitor and influence State policy and social arrangements. Potential graduate destinations include: the United Nations and the Council of Europe as well as other regional institutions.

- The public sector, including government at all levels. Potential graduate destinations include: civil service, regional, national and sub-national government, local authorities and other public bodies, and, political and policy advice work.

- The private sector: human rights are increasingly the concern of the private sector in the realm of socially responsible capitalism. Potential graduate destinations include: global business (including institutions such as the World Bank); the business sector (from large scale business such as the banking sector, to smaller concerns seeking to appeal to the ethical consumer).

- The NGO sector: non-governmental agencies are well-established stakeholders in human rights. Potential graduate destinations include: international NGOS (e.g. UNICEF); regional or local level NGOS.

- Research and academia: research on human rights is a well-established concern for academia.

The LLM Human Rights enhances student employability as:

- The Human Rights programme ranges across a broad spectrum of human rights topics relevant to law, policy and practice and encourages a practical approach in these areas.

- Students will have the opportunity to engage with projects providing opportunity for hands-on experience of human rights research as well as dissemination to support practical application.

- The Human Rights programme offers a range of work place learning opportunities.

- Entrepreneurial skills will be developed by encouraging students to contribute ideas to project work and project activities.



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On this programme you will acquire specialised and in-depth knowledge and understanding of international human rights law, political theory of rights and international relations relating to human rights. Read more
On this programme you will acquire specialised and in-depth knowledge and understanding of international human rights law, political theory of rights and international relations relating to human rights. The programme is interdisciplinary thus building on the strengths in this area of the Sutherland School of Law and the School of Politics and International Relations. Members of staff in the Sutherland School of Law have engaged in major research in this area spanning the full range of international human rights law from asylum law and practice, the EU and fundamental rights to the law of privacy in Ireland.

The LLM in International Human rights differs from existing degrees in Ireland by having a distinct interdisciplinary nature flowing from the co-ordination between the School of Law and the School of politics and International relations (SpIre).

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmininternationalhumanrights/

Your studies

On this programme you will acquire a specialised and in-depth knowledge and understanding of international human rights law, political theory of rights and international relations relating to human rights in a single course.
Your core modules will include International Human Rights Law and the Politics of Human Rights. You will also choose from modules such as: International Security; Politics of Development; Discrimination Law; and, Media and Regulation. You will complete a supervised dissertation and will also have international exchange opportunities during the programme. On completion of your studies, you will:
- be able to understand and think critically about the intersections between law, politics and international relations in the study of human rights;
- be able to apply this knowledge and understanding to real and hypothetical situations;
- be able to conduct independent research and write coherent, well-structured papers;
- have identified doctrinal and practical trends in legal practise and their impact; and,
- have an increased ability to identify and analyse problems from a legal perspective.

Studying abroad

The School affords its students the opportunity to spend a semester abroad as part of the Comparative, International and European Law (CIEL) Graduate exchange programme with our partner Universities in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Students participating in the programme will have their dissertations jointly supervised by staff in UCD and in the institution which
they are visiting. Successful completion of the semester abroad will lead to the award of a Certificate in Comparative, International and European Law.

Your future

The programme qualifies you to work in the field of human rights, either domestically or internationally, as a practising lawyer, legal-adviser, policymaker, advocate, researcher, or academic. Career opportunities exist in intergovernmental organisations (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, Organisation for Cooperation and Security in Europe), government departments, international and domestic non-governmental organisations, law firms, and Universities.

Features

The Sutherland School of Law offers a wide range of modules for the Masters programmes. Reflecting its interdisciplinary nature, there are core modules that must be taken in both Law and Politics. The core law modules are

- International Human Rights considers the theoretical underpinnings and development of contemporary international human rights law, critically examines the institutional architecture developed by the UN system and regional systems to implement human rights norms as well as national methods of implementation of human rights law.

- Law of the ECHR offers a critical examination of key aspects of the operation and substantive law of the ECHR focussing on its incorporation into domestic law and an in-depth analysis and evaluation of the Court's jurisprudence for a number of substantive rights.

- Other Law modules of especial interest to those undertaking this programme include:

- Comparative Constitutional Law discusses a number of constitutional issues from a comparative perspective including the influence of the ECHR and its jurisprudence on constitutional structures and systems.

- Media Regulation discusses the regulatory environment in which the media operates, and encourages a critical analysis of the implications which the current system has for media freedom, journalistic ethics and practices, democracy and governance

CIEL

Any student admitted to an LLM programme in the Law School also can apply on a competitive basis to spend their second semester at one of our sister Law Schools:
- University of Antwerp
- Maastricht University
- The University of Mannhein
- Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona
- Universite de Toulouse 1 – Capitole

Students must score 6.5 in IELTS or 90 in the internet TOEFL exams in the relevant language of instruction (English, French or German). Spaces are allocated on a competitive basis. Students who are accepted onto this programme graduate with an LLM and are awarded a certificate in International and Comparative Law (CIEL).

Careers

This programme will equip graduates with the knowledge, skills and capacity to work in the field of human rights, either domestically or internationally, as practising lawyers, legal-advisers, policy-makers, advocates, researchers or academics. Career opportunities in the field of human rights can arise in a variety of different contexts. These include, but are not limited to, intergovernmental organisations (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, Organisation for Cooperation and Security in Europe), government departments, international and domestic non-governmental organisations, law firms and Universities.

We have an excellent Careers Development Centre here at UCD, designed to help you with information regarding future employment or studies. UCD hold a number of graduate events throughout the year including a dedicated law fair at which at which many of the big Law firms will be in attendance. The School of Law has a dedicated careers advisor on it’s Academic staff, Dr. Oonagh Breen, and a staff member from the careers office will be in attendance at the School of law on a number of occasions throughout the academic year. To see the full range of services offered by the careers office go to http://www.ucd.ie/careers/

Find out how to apply here http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmininternationalhumanrights/apply,80081,en.html

See the website http://www.ucd.ie/law/graduateprogrammes/llmininternationalhumanrights/

Scholarships

The University and UCD Sutherland School of Law have a list of scholarships that are open to Irish, EU and International applicants.
For further information please see http://www.ucd.ie/scholarships
International students may wish to visit: http://www.ucd.ie/international

Why you should choose UCD

In the state-of-the-art UCD Sutherland School of Law, graduate students engage in advanced study with internationally renowned
specialists to develop the transformative potential of law.

The School is ranked by the authoritative QS World University Rankings as Ireland's number one law school and amongst the world's 100 leading law schools. Students benefit from the School’s strong links with university partners; businesses; NGOs; and, domestic, EU and international governments.
We place particular emphasis on the quality and breadth of our graduate programmes across Diploma, Masters and Doctoral levels. Our graduate degrees are available on a full-time or part-time basis, beginning in either January or September.
We also offer part-time Diploma programmes and single subject certificates with the possibility of securing CPD points and building study up to achieve diploma or masters awards.

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The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas. Read more
The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.

This specialisation allows international law and international relations to inform each other. It covers the general methods, scope and theories of international law, international humanitarian law and international relations. It provides a detailed understanding of the role, potential and limitations of public international law in international affairs. Its interdisciplinary approach is particularly suited to those involved with, or hoping to work for, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, foreign affairs departments and international law firms.

Students studying International Law with International Relations are encouraged to participate in the activities of the Centre for Critical International Law (CeCIL) at Kent. These include workshops, trips to international courts and tribunals, and guest lecture series.

Students taking this specialisation can choose to spend one term at our Canterbury campus and one at our Brussels centre (returning to their primary location to complete the dissertation) under our split-site option for this programme. The split site option is charged at a different rate. Please see under Fees below for more information.

Studying for a Master's in Law (LLM) at Kent means having the certainty of gaining an LLM in a specialist area of Law. The Kent LLM gives you the freedom to leave your choice of specialism open until after you arrive, your specialism being determined by the modules you choose.

Think Kent: International Law with International Relations

There is no universally agreed precise legal, technical or political definition of either the boundaries separating airspace from outer space or of the term ‘outer space’ itself. Yet two separate legal regimes exist for the regulation of these two environments. In this lecture, Dr Gbenga Oduntan, Senior Lecturer in International Commercial Law at the University of Kent, critiques the leading theories that have been postulated to solve this problem, and proposes an original solution regarding the spatial demarcation boundary point issue in air and space law.

About Kent Law School

Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.

In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.

Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field. You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff.

National ratings

In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by Kent Law School was ranked 8th in the UK for research intensity. We were also ranked 7th for research power and in the top 20 for research output, research quality and research impact.

An impressive 99% of our research was judged to be of international quality and the School’s environment was judged to be conducive to supporting the development of world-leading research.

Course structure

You can tailor your studies to your particular needs and interests to obtain an LLM or Diploma in a single specialisation, in two specialisations jointly, or by choosing a broad range of modules in different areas of law to obtain a general LLM or Diploma in Law.

Your choice of specialisation will be shaped by the modules you take and your dissertation topic. The double specialisation International Law with International Relations is slightly different to the other LLM Specialisations offered at the Kent Law School. International Relations is a ‘minor’ stream which is only available when combined with the International Law ‘major’ stream. For the award of a degree titled ‘Master of Laws in International Law with International Relations’ you should study at least three modules from the International Law stream together with your dissertation. You must then choose two modules from the International Relations ‘minor’ stream. The remaining module can be chosen from any of the other law modules offered on the LLM.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of this specialisation stream. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation and student demand. Most specialisation streams will require you to study a combination of subject specialisation modules and modules from other specialisation streams so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

LW814 Public International Law

LW844 Legal Aspects of Contemporary International Problems

LW906 International Environmental Law – Legal Foundations

LW843 International Human Rights Law

LW846 International Criminal Law

LW884 International Environmental Law – Substantive Legal Aspects

LW886 Transnational Criminal Law

LW922 Labour Rights in a Global Economy

LW925 Cultural Heritage Law

Assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules normally are assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15-20,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to provide:

1. LLM: The opportunity to develop (a) expert knowledge and a sophisticated understanding of particular areas of law; (b) advanced research, writing and oral communication skills of general value to postgraduate employment.
PGDip: The opportunity to develop (a) expert knowledge and a sophisticated understanding of particular areas of law; (b) written and oral communication skills of general value to postgraduate employment.

2. LLM: A sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and influential ideas, theories, assumptions and paradigms of particular areas of law.
PGDip: A sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and influential ideas, theories, assumptions and paradigms of the subjects studied.

3. LLM & PGDip: A degree of specialisation in areas of law and policy chosen from the LLM option streams available and an opportunity for students to engage with academic work at the frontiers of scholarship.

4. LLM & PGDip: A critical awareness of the operation of law and policy, particularly in contexts that are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution.

5. LLM: The skills to undertake supervised research on an agreed topic in their specialisation and to encourage the production of original, evaluative analysis that meets high standards of scholarship.

6. LLM & PGDip: Critical, analytical and problem-solving skills that can be applied to a wide range of contexts.

7. LLM & PGDip: The skills of academic legal research and writing.

8. LLM: A sophisticated grounding in research methods.

Careers

Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School’s Employability Blog.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: over 94% of our postgraduate students who graduated in 2013 found a job or further study opportunity within six months.

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog - http://blogs.kent.ac.uk/klsemployability/postgraduates/llm-internships/

Learn more about Kent

Visit us - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/visit/openday/pgevents.html

International Students - https://www.kent.ac.uk/internationalstudent/

Why study at Kent? - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/why/

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Programme description. This general LLM programme is the ideal choice for students wishing to expose themselves to diverse areas of advanced legal scholarship. Read more

Programme description

This general LLM programme is the ideal choice for students wishing to expose themselves to diverse areas of advanced legal scholarship.

Edinburgh Law School offers a very wide range of specialist courses, many taught by internationally recognised experts in their fields.

At present, key areas of research and teaching include:

international law

commercial and corporate law

criminal law

international economic law

international banking and finance

medical ethics

criminology

intellectual property

information technology law

European law

private law

comparative law

human rights

public law.

This allows students on the general LLM to take courses which make up a diverse and challenging curriculum and through which they will be able to develop a broad expertise in cutting-edge legal scholarship.

Programme structure

To ensure a programme of general interest there are no mandatory courses, however you may only select a certain number of credits (60 per semester) from particular fields. This is indicated in the course options list below. Please note that courses in bold are mandatory courses for other programmes and therefore may have waiting lists in operation.

Commercial Law

Choose a maximum of 40 credits:

Company Law (40 credits, full year course)

Contract Law in Europe (40 credits, full year course)

The Law of International Trade (40 credits, full year course)

Corporation Law and Economics (20 credits, semester 1)

International Commercial Arbitration (20 credits, semester 1)

Principles of Corporate Finance Law (20 credits, semester 1)

The Law of Secured Finance (20 credits, semester 1)

Comparative Corporate Governance (20 credits, semester 2)

Corporate Social Responsibility and the Law (20 credits, semester 2)

European Labour Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Insolvency Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Principles of Insurance Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Criminal Law and Evidence

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

General Principles of Criminal Law (20 credits, semester 1)

Current Issues in Criminal Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Sexual Offending and the Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Criminology

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

Criminological Research Methods (40 credits, full year course)

Theoretical Criminology (20 credits, semester 1)

Criminal Justice and Penal Process (20 credits, semester 1)

Global Crime and Insecurity (20 credits, semester 1)

Cybercrime (20 credits, semester 2)

Mental Health and Crime (20 credits, semester 2)

Responding to Global Crime and Insecurity (20 credits, semester 2)

Surveillance and Security (20 credits, semester 2)

EU Law

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

EU Competition Law (40 credits, full year course)

EU Constitutional Law (20 credits, semester 1)

EU Fundamental Rights Law (20 credits, semester 2)

IP, Media and Technology Law

Choose a maximum of 40 credits:

Intellectual Property Law 1: Copyright and Related Rights (20 credits, semester 1)

International Intellectual Property System (20 credits, semester 1)

The Legal Challenges of Information Technologies (20 credits, semester 1)

Robotics and the Law (20 credits, semester 1)

Contemporary Issues in the Law and Policy of e-Commerce, the Digital Economy and International Information Governance (20 credits, semester 2)

Data Protection and Information Privacy (20 credits, semester 2)

Information: Control and Power (20 credits, semester 2)

Intellectual Property - Law and Society (20 credits, semester 2)

International and European Media Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Law and New Technologies: Artificial Intelligence, Risk and the Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Law of E-Commerce (20 credits, semester 2)

Managing Intellectual Property (20 credits, semester 2)

International Law

Choose a maximum of 40 credits:

Fundamental Issues in International Law (40 credits, full year course)

International Criminal Law (40 credits, full year course)

International Environmental Law (40 credits, full year course)

WTO Law (40 credits, full year course)

History and Theory of International Law (20 credits, semester 1)

International Climate Change Law (20 credits, semester 1)

International Human Rights Law (20 credits, semester 1)

International Investment Law (20 credits, semester 1)

International Law of the Sea (20 credits, semester 1)

Advanced Issues in International Economic Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Diplomatic Law (20 credits, semester 2)

EU Climate Change and Energy Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Inter-State Conflict and Humanitarian Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Legal History and Legal Theory

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

Traditions of Legal Inquiry (20 credits, semester 1)

Reasoning with Precedent (20 credits, semester 1)

Law and the Enlightenment (20 credits, semester 2)

The Anatomy of Public Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Medical Law

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

Fundamental Issues in Medical Jurisprudence (20 credits, semester 1)

Risk and Regulation: Health and the Environment (20 credits, semester 1)

Contemporary Issues in Medical Jurisprudence (20 credits, semester 2)

Life Sciences, Society and Law (10 credits, semester 2)

Medical Negligence (10 credits, semester 2)

Private Law

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

Comparative Property Law (20 credits, semester 1)

Delict and Tort (20 credits, semester 1)

Principles of International Tax Law (20 credits, semester 1)

Comparative and International Trust Law (20 credits, semester 2)

EUCOTAX Wintercourse (20 credits, semester 2)

Family Law in Comparative Perspectives (20 credits, semester 2)

International Private Law: Jurisdiction and Enforcement of Judgments (20 credits, semester 2)

Principles of European Tax Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Public Law

Choose a maximum of 60 credits:

Human Rights and Conflict Resolution (20 credits, semester 2)

Human Rights Law in Europe (20 credits, semester 2)

The Anatomy of Public Law (20 credits, semester 2)

Learning outcomes

By the end of this programme, you should have acquired a more sophisticated understanding of your chosen subjects, including the diverse functions of law in contemporary society, differing approaches to the subject and a greater familiarity with research materials and methods.



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The unique Specialist LLM in International Human Rights at The City Law School allows students to explore how international law intervenes to protect human rights. Read more
The unique Specialist LLM in International Human Rights at The City Law School allows students to explore how international law intervenes to protect human rights.

Who is it for?

The Specialism in International Human Rights Law is designed for students from all backgrounds who have an interest in the intersection between human rights and international law. It will enable students with this to develop a career in human rights law or to embark on policy-oriented careers in government and non-governmental organizations at the domestic and international level.

Objectives

The Specialist LLM in International Human Rights draws from the expertise of The City Law School's team of experienced human rights scholars. It gives you an opportunity to examine intellectually the subject from various angles - minority protection, human rights at times of war, the prosecution of international criminals, to name a few.

This masters degree helps you appreciate and understand how international law intervenes to protect human rights and where the gaps are in international law.

The Specialist LLM in International Human Rights provides the opportunity to study some of the most significant issues in international human rights protection facing the world today. You will have guidance and expert academic support to examine a number of important issues in international human rights protection law, including how the law of war and armed conflict protects the civilian, how minority protection is being regulated by international law, the remedies available in international criminal law, and the extent to which the rights of indigenous people are safeguarded by international law.

Placements

Each year a small number of internships become available and you will be provided with information about such opportunities and how to apply during the year of your study.

Academic facilities

As a City Law School student you will benefit from everything the institution has to offer including the Learning Success department and Lawbore, an online resource designed to help you find the information you need for the course modules. All course modules have online depositories through Moodle.

As part of the University of London you can also become a member of Senate House Library for free with your student ID card.

You will benefit from City, University of London’s extensive library of hard copy and electronic resources, including its comprehensive database of domestic and international caselaw, legislation, treaties and legal periodicals. There are two law-specific libraries – one at the Gray’s Inn campus and one at our Northampton square campus - with individual study spaces and dedicated rooms for group work.

Additionally, we are a short walk away from the British Library and the Law Library of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.

Teaching and learning

This course is taught by leading academics as well as visiting practitioners including barristers and solicitors who work in private practice and in legal departments of major companies.

All modules are structured as ten weekly two-hour seminars which comprise both lectures as well as interactive tutorials. All modules are supported by our online learning platform - Moodle. Assessment is by way of coursework which comprises 100% of the final mark in each module. Each module carries the same weight in terms of the overall qualification.

You will be allocated a dedicated supervisor for your dissertation who will help you develop a specific topic and provide support in terms of resources, content and structure.

Modules

As with all LLM specialisms at City, University of London, you may take either five modules and a shorter dissertation (10,000 words) or four modules and a longer dissertation (20,000 words). All modules are of the same duration and are taught per term (September – December or January – April) rather than the whole academic year. If you take four modules you will take two per term in each term and if you take five modules will have three in one term and two in the other. Dissertations are written during the summer term when there are no classes.

In order to obtain this specialism, you must choose at least three modules from within this specialism and write your dissertation on a subject within the specialism.

Specialism modules - choose from the following 30-credit modules:
-Comparative Constitutional Law
-Public International Law
-International Criminal Law: the Practitioner Perspective
-International Criminal Law: Crimes and Institutions
-International Human Rights in Law and Practice
-International Law and the Global Economy
-International Law and the Use of Force
-Law and War
-Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in International Law

For your remaining modules you can choose from more than 50 modules covering a diverse range of subjects.

Career prospects

As a graduate of this specialist LLM in International Human Rights, you will be well placed to pursue careers in this area of law in private practice, in-house in a law firm, policy and government, non-governmental organisations and a wide range of non-legal careers in the human rights field.

The City Law School has a vibrant Pro Bono programme including our award-winning commercial law clinic for tech start-ups Start-Ed.

Students who complete the LLM may wish to continue their academic studies by enrolling in a PhD offered by The City Law School.

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This advanced course in human rights taught by international experts offers a unique and distinctive focus on the theories and practice of rights, producing a vibrant environment for exploring this significant area of law and policy. Read more

This advanced course in human rights taught by international experts offers a unique and distinctive focus on the theories and practice of rights, producing a vibrant environment for exploring this significant area of law and policy.

This programme will give you advanced knowledge, greater understanding and critical insights into current systems of human rights legal protection and human rights debates.

You’ll explore different domestic, regional and international human rights legal systems to analyse how rights have been legalised, developed and enforced through the theory and practice of human rights.

You’ll investigate the law relating to the protection of life and human dignity, freedom from torture and other ill treatment, freedom of expression, and human rights with regard to media organisations, terrorism, health care, the family and disabled people.

You’ll benefit from the expertise of leading academics in a stimulating research environment. Our research groups include:

Course content

The compulsory modules studied will give you the opportunity to:

  • examine the concept of rights in political philosophy
  • explore global and local human rights concerns
  • investigate the impact of international human rights
  • analyse the relevance of international human rights to domestic law.

Compulsory modules will also enable you to hone your legal research and writing skills, which you’ll be able to demonstrate in your dissertation – an independent piece of research on your chosen topic.

If you study with us, you’ll also benefit from our academic skills programme. This 10-week programme runs alongside your taught academic programme, and is specifically designed to meet the needs of home and international students in the School of Law. It allows you to refine and develop the academic and transferable skills to excel during your taught postgraduate programmes, as well as prepare for professional roles after graduation.

The wide-ranging list of optional modules means that you can explore a diverse range of related subjects of interest to you.

If you’re a part-time student, you’ll take three compulsory modules and choose one or two optional modules in your first year. You’ll then take the compulsory dissertation module and one or two optional modules in your second year to complete your programme.

Course structure

Compulsory modules

  • European Human Rights 15 credits
  • Postgraduate Legal Research Skills 15 credits
  • International Human Rights 30 credits
  • Dissertation 60 credits

Optional modules

  • International Human Rights and Disabled People 15 credits
  • EU Discrimination Law 15 credits
  • Cyberlaw: Regulation of Cyberspace 15 credits
  • Globalisation and Crime 15 credits
  • World Trade Organisation Law 15 credits
  • Global Human Rights Advocacy 30 credits
  • Global Governance through Law 30 credits

For more information on typical modules, read International and European Human Rights Law LLM Full Time in the course catalogue

For more information on typical modules, read International and European Human Rights Law LLM Part Time in the course catalogue

Learning and teaching

This programme is taught through a range of weekly lectures and seminars held on a two-weekly basis. You’re strongly advised to attend the weekly lectures on international human rights and international law, particularly if you’ve not previously studied international law.

Independent study is integral to this programme – not just to prepare for classes but to develop research and other critical skills. You’ll be expected to carry out advanced levels of legal research and participate fully in seminars.

Assessment

Most modules are assessed by essays. This is usually the most effective method for you to showcase your advanced legal research.

Career opportunities

Students who have graduated from this degree often choose careers that centre on or involve understanding and applying human rights law and developing policies at organisational level. Further training is required but many also go on to practise as lawyers or legal advisors.

Our alumni include people working at the European Commission, United Nations, non-governmental organisations and in the government sector. Others have chosen to follow academic careers.

Careers support

The School of Law offers career and personal development support through the School of Law Careers Advisor. The School also arranges career development workshops, seminars and one-to-one sessions for students on all postgraduate programmes.

We encourage you to prepare for your career from day one. That’s one of the reasons Leeds graduates are so sought after by employers.

The Careers Centre and staff in your faculty provide a range of help and advice to help you plan your career and make well-informed decisions along the way, even after you graduate. Find out more at the Careers website.



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The LLM in Human Rights Law programme is designed to enable students to form an advanced conceptual understanding of international law relating to the promotion and protection of human rights at the international, regional and domestic levels. Read more
The LLM in Human Rights Law programme is designed to enable students to form an advanced conceptual understanding of international law relating to the promotion and protection of human rights at the international, regional and domestic levels.

Human Rights Collegium at Queen Mary

The Human Rights Collegium is the first association between a university and a non-governmental organisation established to provide scholarly expertise, research and teaching on national and international human rights. The Human Rights Collegium is based at Queen Mary, University of London and is a consortium of members of the School of Law and the British Institute of Human Rights. The collegium's aim is to focus on areas that are at the forefront of human rights to help contribute to its progressive development and to benefit the community. These rights include socio-economic rights; rights of women; international child rights and the rights of other vulnerable groups.

Internships

Queen Mary LLM students have the opportunity to apply for three summer internships with the British Institute of Human Rights (BIHR).

Taught Modules

To specialise in this area, you must select 90 credits of modules from this list and do your compulsory dissertation in the field of Human Rights Law (45 credits). The additional 45 credits of taught modules can be in this area or can be unrelated and therefore selected from the full list of LLM available modules.

All modules are 22.5 credits unless otherwise stated below.

Note: Not all of the modules listed will be available in any one year and semesters listed can be subject to change. Any modules not available in the forthcoming academic session will be marked as soon as this information is confirmed by teaching academics.

The updated module list below represents the result of our ongoing modularisation of the LLM which is intended to offer students greater flexibility and choice of module options.

◦ QLLM021 Corporate Governance (45 credits)
◦ QLLM035 Gender, Law and the State: Current Legal Issues (45 credits) (Not running 2016-17)
◦ QLLM038 Human Rights of Women (45 credits)
◦ QLLM047 International and Comparative Social Justice (45 credits)
◦ QLLM053 International Criminal Law (45 credits)
◦ QLLM057 International Law of Armed Conflict and the Use of Force (45 credits)
◦ QLLM059 International Law on the Rights of the Child (45 credits)
◦ QLLM076 Media Law (45 credits)
◦ QLLM078 Mental Health Law (45 credits)
◦ QLLM100 EU Immigration Law (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM101 EU Criminal Law (Sem 2)
◦ QLLM127 International Human Rights Law (45 credits)
◦ QLLM167 Indigenous Rights: Selected Issues in Practice and Theory (Sem 1) (Not running 2016-17)
◦ QLLM168 International Law and Indigenous Peoples (Sem 2)
◦ QLLM170 Cultural Diversity and Law (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM172 Comparative Immigration and Nationality Law (Sem 2)
◦ QLLM173 Terrorism and Human Rights: Constitutional Perspectives (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM174 Migration, Security and Human Rights (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM176 International Refugee Law (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM177 International Migration Law (Sem 2) (Not running 2016-17)
◦ QLLM314 Transnational Law and Governance (Sem 1)
◦ QLLM315 Transnational Law and Governance in Practice (Sem 2)
◦ QLLM323 State Crime (sem 2)
◦ QLLM326 The Law of the European Convention on Human Rights (sem 1)
◦ QLLM327 European Union Human Rights Law (Sem 2) (Not Running 2016-17)
◦ QLLM355 Celebrity Privacy, the Media and the Law (sem 1)
◦ QLLM359 Cyberspace Law: Protecting the Online Persona: Digital Rights in Cyberspace (sem 2) (not running 2016-17)
◦ QLLM382 Energy Law and Ethics (sem 1)

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The LLM in International Human Rights Law offers the opportunity to gain a critical understanding of the history and theoretical underpinnings of international human rights, international and regional human rights systems, and the practical application of human rights norms in a range of contexts. Read more
The LLM in International Human Rights Law offers the opportunity to gain a critical understanding of the history and theoretical underpinnings of international human rights, international and regional human rights systems, and the practical application of human rights norms in a range of contexts.

This course combines rigorous legal education with a contemporary and global perspective and is ideally suited to students from a law, history, politics, or other social sciences background.

It is designed to provide the specialist skills and in-depth knowledge that will be attractive to employers in the areas of international legal practice and international development as well as those who intend to pursue careers in international governmental and non-governmental organisations.

See the website http://www.brookes.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/llm-in-international-human-rights-law/

Why choose this course?

- It enables you to specialise in areas such as international criminal law, the laws of armed conflict, humanitarian intervention and post-conflict reconstruction, international development and globalisation, refugee and migrant law, and the promotion and application of human rights as part of legal reform in the developing world.

- It is ideal for those who intend to pursue careers in international governmental and non-governmental organisations, as well as in government and academic posts. Recent graduates from this course have gained positions in international organisations, such as UNICEF.

- You can enhance your CV and career prospects by developing specialisations that go beyond the standard human rights law subjects of a LLB or other law degree.

- Your course tutors, fellow students and alumni are drawn from countries around the world giving you the opportunity to build a truly international network of contacts.

- All members of the LLM course team are active researchers and encourage students to become involved in their respective areas of research by teaching specialist modules in which they have expertise and by supervising dissertations in their specialist subjects.

- Special support is provided for international students, particularly those whose first language is not English, to ensure that they find their feet quickly and are able to participate fully.

- The 2015 Times/ Sunday Times Good University Guide places the School of Law at Oxford Brookes in the top 30 of all the UK’s university Law Schools.

- You will benefit from a range of teaching and learning strategies, from case studies to interactive seminars, presentations and moots.

- Oxford has much to offer lawyers and as one of the world's great academic cities, it is a key centre of debate, with conferences, seminars and forums taking place across a range of international law topics within the University, the city of Oxford and in nearby London.

Teaching and learning

A wide diversity of teaching methods are employed throughout the LLM courses in order to provide a high-quality learning experience. These include lectures, seminar discussions, individual and small group tutorials, case studies, and group and individual presentations.

Particular emphasis is placed on skills training, with opportunities provided to acquire and practice legal reasoning as well as research and IT skills. Assessment methods include coursework and individual and group presentations.

All the members of the LLM course team are active researchers and encourage students to become involved in their respective areas of research by teaching specialist modules in which they have expertise and by supervising dissertations in their specialist subjects.

Careers

Graduates from the LLM succeed across an impressive range of careers from policy makers and human rights activists through to high flying diplomats and commercial lawyers. LLM staff can advise you and direct you to possible careers and employers depending on your particular needs and ambitions.

"I have joined a corporate law team at a leading multinational law firm in Beijing, thanks to my LLM."
- LLM Alumna, Lin Zheng

- Pursuing an academic career in law
Research is fundamental to the Law School - one of the reasons we performed so well in the latest REF. Your own interests will be reflected in the modules you choose and many students feel moved to continue their academic studies and become specialists themselves. Several former LLM students have chosen to become researchers, publishing and lecturing on their work and graduating to do a PhD.

"The grounding that I now have in international law has allowed me to take on work that I would not previously have been qualified for. For example, I am currently developing a programme of litigation on the issue of counter-terrorism and human rights for an international organisation. I have lectured at Harvard Law School and been invited to contribute to an edited volume produced by Harvard."
- LLM Alumnus Richard Carver, Associate Lecturer and Human Rights Consultant

Free language courses for students - the Open Module

Free language courses are available to full-time undergraduate and postgraduate students on many of our courses, and can be taken as a credit on some courses.

Please note that the free language courses are not available if you are:
- studying at a Brookes partner college
- studying on any of our teacher education courses or postgraduate education courses.

Research highlights

Professor Peter Edge researches in the interaction of religion and law, and the law of small jurisdictions including International Finance Centres. Recent projects exploring these at the transnational level have included a study of foreign lawyers working in small jurisdictions, and a comparative study of the status of ministers of religion in employment law. Past PhD students have worked on projects such as a comparison of the European Convention on Human Rights and Shariah, and a comparative study of how criminal law treats religion.

Professor Lucy Vickers’ research into the religious discrimination at work has led to consultancy work for Equality and Human Rights Commission, as well invitations to speak at United Nations with the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief.

Sonia Morano-Foadi, interviewed and quoted in The Economist, secured £12,000 from the European Science Foundation to fund exploratory work into the effects of EU directives on migration and asylum.

Professor Ilona Cheyne has been invited to participate in the EU COST group on 'Fragmentation, Politicisation and Constitutionalisation of International Law', working on standards of review in international courts and tribunals.

Research areas and clusters

Oxford Brookes academics are at the forefront of a wide range of internationally recognised and world-leading research and projects. In the 2014 REF 96% of the School of Law’s research was internationally recognised. The LLM course team consists of researchers working within the International Law and Fundamental Rights and Equality research groups. LLM students can attend the programmes of research seminars and other events that underpin the research culture of the School of Law.

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The key paradox of international human rights law is that the recent proliferation of treaties and adjudicative bodies has not significantly diminished serious human rights abuses. Read more
The key paradox of international human rights law is that the recent proliferation of treaties and adjudicative bodies has not significantly diminished serious human rights abuses.

The LLM in International Human Rights Law and Practice engages students in a critical and nuanced examination of this paradox, while providing them with the practical skills necessary to apply global norms at the local level.

Why study International Human Rights at York?

The LLM in Human Rights Law and Practice provides the knowledge, skills and networks necessary for mid-career professionals and recent graduates to work in the human rights field. The LLM is offered on both a full-time and part-time basis. Our LLM is distinctive because students:
-Work on real human rights issues, which gives practical skills, hands-on experience and improved job prospects
-Get the opportunity to work alongside human rights defenders during a two-week field visit to Malaysia (student numbers permitting) or placement in York
-Learn from international human rights defenders based at the Centre
-Explore how international human rights law interacts with national public policy in various states

LLM Structure

Three core modules cover international human rights law, policy and advocacy. Optional CAHR modules cover several topical issues through a human rights lens: culture, development, migration, and post-conflict justice.

The programme requires you to undertake a placement with human rights organisations in Malaysia (student numbers permitting) or the UK. This is an important part of the degree programme and will develop your practical skills and provide hands-on experience, both of which will prepare you for working in this field and improve your career prospects.

The LLM is taught in weekly lectures and seminars covering specific case studies and including skills training on oral presentations, advocacy, report writing, and memos.

Compulsory Modules
The compulsory modules reflect the three sides to human rights activism: law, policy and practice.
-Defending human rights (40 credits; terms 1-2)
-Applying international human rights law (20 credits; term 1)
-International human rights law and advocacy (20 credits; term 1)
-Dissertation (60 credits; terms 3-4)

Optional Modules
In the second term students will be able to take two options. Four optional modules taught by Centre staff will explore areas where rights are being used in new and innovative ways. Students may also choose optional modules taught by other departments, from the list below.

Optional modules taught at CAHR
-Asylum, migration and trafficking
-Culture and protest
-Development Alternatives: Development, Rights, Security
-Truth, justice and reparations after violence

Optional modules taught at the York Law School
-Corporate responsibility and law
-Financial citizenship and social justice

Optional modules taught in other departments
-Conflict and development (Politics)
-Globalisation and social policy (Social Policy and Social Work)
-Global social problems (Social Policy and Social Work)
-International organisations (Politics)
-New security challenges (Politics)
-Teaching and learning citizenship and global education (Education)
-Women, citizenship and conflict (Centre for Women's Studies)

Please note that optional modules may not run if the lecturer is on leave or there is insufficient demand.

Placements
A key part of the LLM is exposing students to the practice of international human rights law at the domestic level. Thus students have the opportunity to pursue a placement and related project with our NGO partners in Malaysia and York. The fieldwork takes place over a two week period in weeks 9 and 10 of the autumn term in either Kuala Lumpur or York. Please note that the Malaysia trip/placements will only run if there are sufficient student numbers.

Students will be expected to work together in small groups in partnership with a human rights organisation. This will include:
-Extensive background research on country context, the host organisation, relevant thematic issues etc.
-Devising a project prior to the field visit, in collaboration with the host organisation
-Two weeks of intensive work in Malaysia (student numbers permitting) or York in November and December
-Ongoing discussions about project completion once students return to York

Where after the LLM?

Our LLM provides career advice, networking opportunities, hands-on experience, and personalised reference letters to help our graduates find good jobs with human rights NGOs, humanitarian organisations, charities, policy think-tanks, national governments, and UN agencies.

For example, recent graduates are working with:
-Foreign and Commonwealth Office
-UK-based bar association
-Egyptian human rights NGO
-Development NGO in West Africa
-East and Horn of Africa Human Rights Defenders Network
-Human Rights Watch
-Pakistan's judicial sector
-UK-based NGO working with sub-Saharan children affected by HIV/AIDS

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Taught in the critical tradition of Kent Law School, this programme examines the theory and practice of human rights law, international criminal law, humanitarian law, transitional justice, migration law and other fields in the context of different policy areas and various academic disciplines. Read more
Taught in the critical tradition of Kent Law School, this programme examines the theory and practice of human rights law, international criminal law, humanitarian law, transitional justice, migration law and other fields in the context of different policy areas and various academic disciplines.

It is particularly suited to those who currently work in, or hope to work in, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, international law firms and foreign affairs departments.

The programme is delivered at our Brussels School of International Studies (BSIS) in conjunction with our law school.

- Extended programme

The extended programme allows students the opportunity to study their subject in greater detail, choosing a wider range of modules, and also provides the opportunity to spend one term at the Canterbury campus. The extended programme is ideal for students who require extra credits, or would like to have more time to pursue an internship.

Visit the website https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/772/human-rights-law

Course structure

We are committed to offering flexible study options at the School and enable you to tailor your degree to meet your needs by offering start dates in September and January; full- and part-time study; split-site options, and allowing students to combine two fields of study leading to a degree that reflects both disciplines.

Specialisations

The LLM in Human Rights Law allows students to choose secondary areas of specialisation from the range of programmes offered at BSIS. Thus, a focused programme of study can be constructed by studying Human Rights Law in the context of International Relations; International Conflict and Security; International Migration, and other subject areas we cover.

This leads to the award of an LLM degree in, for example, 'Human Rights Law with International Migration'.

Standard and extended versions

The LLM is offered in both a standard version (90 ECTS credits) and an extended version (120 ECTS credits) and in each case students may take the programme with or without a secondary specialisation. Those on the extended version will take more modules to gain extra credit.

Research areas

- European and Comparative Law

European and Comparative Law is being conducted both at an individual level as well as at the Kent Centre for European and Comparative Law, which was established in 2004 with a view to providing a framework for the further development of the Law School’s research and teaching activities in this area. Research and teaching reaches from general areas of comparative and European public and private law to more specialised areas and specific projects.

- Governance and Regulation

Legal research involves studying processes of regulation and governance. This research cluster focuses on the character of regulation and governance to critically understand the different modes through which governing takes place such as the conditions, relations of power and effects of governance and regulation. Work within this area is methodologically diverse.

Intellectually, it draws on a range of areas including socio-legal studies; Foucauldian perspectives on power and governmentality; Actor Network Theory; feminist political theory and political economy; postcolonial studies; continental political philosophy; and cultural and utopian studies.

- International Law

The starting point for research in international law at Kent Law School is that international law is not apolitical and that its political ideology reflects the interests of powerful states and transnational economic actors. In both research and teaching, staff situate international law in the context of histories of colonialism to analyse critically its development, doctrines and ramifications.

Critical International Law at KLS engages with theories of political economy, international relations and gender and sexuality to contribute to scholarly and policy debates across the spectrum of international law, which includes public, economic, human rights, criminal and commercial law. Scholars at the Centre for Critical International Law engage in the practical application of international law through litigation, training, research and consultancies for international organisations, NGOs and states.

- Law and Political Economy & Law and Development

Law and its relation to political economy are addressed from a variety of angles, including the exploration of the micro- and macrolevel of economic regulations as well as theoretical aspects of law and political economy.

- Legal Theories and Philosophy

Identifying the fact that several academics do work in cultural theory and political theory (including on normative concepts, religion and the state). While feminist and critical legal theories are focal points at Kent Law School, the departmental expertise also covers more essential aspects such as classical jurisprudence and the application of philosophy to law.

Other research areas within KLS include:

- human rights
- labour law
- law and culture
- law, science and technology
- legal methods and epistemology
- public law
- race, religion and the law.

Careers

Employability is a key focus throughout the University and at Kent Law School you have the support of a dedicated Employability and Career Development Officer together with a broad choice of work placement opportunities, employability events and careers talks. Details of graduate internship schemes with NGOs, charities and other professional organisations are made available to postgraduate students via the School’s Employability Blog.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country’s diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a ‘stage’ at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Law graduates have gone on to careers in finance, international commerce, government and law or have joined, or started, an NGO or charity.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: over 94% of our postgraduate students who graduated in 2013 found a job or further study opportunity within six months.

Find out how to apply here - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/apply/

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This MA examines contemporary issues concerning justice. You will learn how to conceptualise and study the possibilities of human rights, going beyond legal formulations to look at the conditions in which human rights claims are made- http://www.gold.ac.uk/pg/ma-human-rights/. Read more
This MA examines contemporary issues concerning justice. You will learn how to conceptualise and study the possibilities of human rights, going beyond legal formulations to look at the conditions in which human rights claims are made- http://www.gold.ac.uk/pg/ma-human-rights/

Human rights mobilise millions of supporters across borders, inspiring passion and hope. And they operate at and between all the scales involved in globalisation: local, national, international, transnational. They are moral claims to justice. Although often associated with law, human rights are not the same as legal rights – human rights can be claimed where no legal rights are codified, even if changes in the law are invariably called for as part of attempts to realise human rights in practice.

Human rights are carried by different actors:

-grassroots social movements, small Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and huge International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs)
-lawyers and judges
-bureaucrats and experts in Inter-Governmental Organisations (IGOs) even, sometimes, national politicans
-journalists, novelists, translators, artists, film-makers

These different actors are often at odds with each other in defining and defending particular justifications of what human rights are and should be.

In this Masters you will learn about how human rights are constructed, exploring framings of human rights through case studies; and you will begin to practice some of the methodologies and methods that are currently used in NGOs and grassroots activist networks trying to remedy global injustices.

The focus on culture that runs through the programme makes for an emphasis on concrete, situated practices and meanings. Can human rights contribute to a global culture in which injustices figure as ‘wrongs’? Or are human rights invariably skewed, constructing injustices in ways that suit international elites better than they suit people who are suffering? Do human rights do violence to local cultures? Are they an appropriate response to local violence? In this MA we contextualise the study of how human rights are constructed in micro-processes, in the media and face-to-face in relation to debates over macro-structures, processes of globalisation and the institutions of global governance.

In terms of social justice, the MA is set up to study human rights beyond narrow, legalistic definitions. We look at what really makes a difference in terms of realising human rights in practice. Can human rights really be constructed in ways that challenge and overturn established social structures? Can rights be claimed in such a way that they can really protect us as human beings against the ‘creative destruction’ of global capitalism, state repression, the subjugation of women, and hatred and violence against minorities of all kinds – sexual, ethnic, religious?

This course covers the following disciplines: sociology, politics, anthropology, law, geography, english, literature, cultural studies, criminology

Contact the department

If you have specific questions about the degree, contact Kate Nash.

Modules & Structure

The MA in Human Rights, Culture and Social Justice is taught in the Department of Sociology, where there are a number of people who are working on areas broadly related to human rights as well as directly on how human rights are constructed and claimed.

In the first part of the course you will take the core module ‘Constructing Human Rights’ in which you will be introduced to debates over the possibilities of human rights, different ways of conceiving culture and the role that is played by a diverse range of organisations involved in challenging injustices connected to globalisation. You will also consider practical attempts to realise human rights.

You will take two short, skills-oriented modules 'Researching Human Rights' and 'Organising Human Rights' in which you will be introduced to methods and skills that will be of direct practical use in working for NGOs (eg evaluating user engagement, team-building and decision-making through role play, tracing the media impact of a campaign).

In the second term, you will choose among a number of options. You can choose to take 'Practicing Human Rights' and make use of some of the skills you have learned in a placement. Students who choose this option find and negotiate a placement in an organisation or a grassroots campaign whose work can be related to human rights and attend a series of workshops that allow them to reflect on the practical work, on their professional skills and on the broader significance of their observations.

While the core modules of the programme are taught by lecturers in Sociology, you may choose your option modules from those that are run here or in other departments, including Politics, Media and Communications, and Anthropology.

Finally you will write a dissertation based on research you will carry out, possibly related to the NGO or network you have worked in, and making use of a range of concepts and methods taught in the Department. You will be supervised by someone with expertise and interest in the topic you are studying and the methodologies and methods you plan to use.

Option modules

You will choose option modules worth 60 credits in Sociology, Media and Communications, the Centre for Cultural Studies, English and Comparative Literature, Anthropology, Politics, Music and Educational Studies.

This includes the following option module, available to Human Rights students only:

Practising Human Rights (30 credits)
This series of workshops accompanies your placement in an organisation or grassroots activist network. We will discuss diaries that each participant will carry out during the placements in the context of broader debates about human rights on the one hand, and about professional practice, organisations and activism on the other hand. As a requirement for this option, you will negotiate a placement in an organisation whose work can be related to human rights or practical involvement in a grassroots campaign.

Skills & Careers

As issues of globalisation and justice are frequently in the media, and government policy in the UK, US, and elsewhere in Europe is now supposed to be guided by considerations of humanitarianism and human rights, there is a need for graduates with knowledge of human rights.

There are openings for careers in organisations including charities, humanitarian and human rights NGOs and even multi-national corporations, many of which are now concerned with their image in terms of human rights.

Funding

Please visit http://www.gold.ac.uk/pg/fees-funding/ for details.

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The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas. Read more
The Kent LLM (and associated Diploma programme) allows you to broaden and deepen your knowledge and understanding of law by specialising in one or more different areas.

This specialisation is taught primarily by examining current international events and the theoretical bases of international law. It is particularly suited to those involved with, or who are hoping to work for, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, international law firms and foreign affairs departments. Students studying Public International Law are encouraged to participate in the activities of the Centre for Critical International Law (CeCIL) at Kent. These include, workshops, trips to international courts and tribunals, and guest lecture series.

Students taking this specialisation can choose to spend one term at our Canterbury campus and one at our Brussels centre (returning to their primary location to complete the dissertation) under our split-site option for this programme. The split site option is charged at a different rate. Please see under Fees below for more information.

Think Kent: International Law

The field of international law continues to be understood both by the general public and in the academy as existing in opposition to national and local laws and realities. In this lecture, Dr Luis Eslava engages with the expansive and ground-level operation of international law by discussing the ways in which international norms and aspirations shape local, everyday life across the world.

About Kent Law School

Kent Law School (KLS) is the UK's leading critical law school. A cosmopolitan centre of world-class critical legal research, it offers a supportive and intellectually stimulating place to study postgraduate taught and research degrees.

In addition to learning the detail of the law, students at Kent are taught to think about the law with regard to its history, development and relationship with wider society. This approach allows students to fully understand the law. Our critical approach not only makes the study of law more interesting, it helps to develop crucial skills and abilities required for a career in legal practice.

The Law School offers its flagship Kent LLM at the University’s Canterbury campus (and three defined LLM programmes at the University’s Brussels centre). Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field. You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research. The split site option is charged at a different rate. Please see under Fees below for more information.

Our programmes are open to non-law graduates with an appropriate academic or professional background who wish to develop an advanced understanding of law in their field. You study within a close-knit, supportive and intellectually stimulating environment, working closely with academic staff. KLS uses critical research-led teaching throughout our programmes to ensure that you benefit from the Law School’s world-class research.

National ratings

In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by Kent Law School was ranked 8th in the UK for research intensity. We were also ranked 7th for research power and in the top 20 for research output, research quality and research impact.

An impressive 99% of our research was judged to be of international quality and the School’s environment was judged to be conducive to supporting the development of world-leading research.

Course structure

You can tailor your studies to your particular needs and interests to obtain an LLM or Diploma in a single specialisation, in two specialisations jointly, or by choosing a broad range of modules in different areas of law to obtain a general LLM or Diploma in Law.

Your choice of specialisation will be shaped by the modules you take and your dissertation topic. To be awarded an LLM in a single specialisation, at least three of your six modules must be chosen from those associated with that specialisation and your dissertation focusing on that area of law. The other three modules can be chosen from any offered in the Law School. All students are required to take the Legal Research and Writing Skills module. To be awarded a major/minor specialisation you choose three modules associated with one specialisation, and three from another specialisation, with the dissertation determining your 'major' specialisation.

For example, a student who completes at least three modules in International Commercial Law and completes a dissertation in this area would graduate with an LLM in International Commercial Law; a student who completes three Criminal Justice modules and three Environmental Law modules and then undertakes a dissertation which engages with Criminal Justice would graduate with an LLM in Criminal Justice and Environmental Law.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of this specialisation stream. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation and student demand. Most specialisation streams will require you to study a combination of subject specialisation modules and modules from other specialisation streams so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

LW814 Public International Law

LW844 Legal Aspects of Contemporary International Problems

LW906 International Environmental Law – Legal Foundations

LW843 International Human Rights Law

LW846 International Criminal Law

LW884 International Environmental Law – Substantive Legal Aspects

LW886 Transnational Criminal Law

LW922 Labour Rights in a Global Economy

LW925 Cultural Heritage Law

Assessment

The postgraduate programmes offered within the Law School are usually taught in seminar format. Students on the Diploma and LLM programmes study three modules in each of the autumn and spring terms. The modules normally are assessed by a 4-5,000-word essay. Students undertaking an LLM degree must write a dissertation of 15-20,000 words.

Programme aims

This programme aims to provide:

1. LLM: The opportunity to develop (a) expert knowledge and a sophisticated understanding of particular areas of law; (b) advanced research, writing and oral communication skills of general value to postgraduate employment.
PGDip: The opportunity to develop (a) expert knowledge and a sophisticated understanding of particular areas of law; (b) written and oral communication skills of general value to postgraduate employment.

2. LLM: A sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and influential ideas, theories, assumptions and paradigms of particular areas of law.
PGDip: A sound knowledge and systematic understanding of the institutional structures, key principles of law and policy and influential ideas, theories, assumptions and paradigms of the subjects studied.

3. LLM & PGDip: A degree of specialisation in areas of law and policy chosen from the LLM option streams available and an opportunity for students to engage with academic work at the frontiers of scholarship.

4. LLM & PGDip: A critical awareness of the operation of law and policy, particularly in contexts that are perceived to be controversial or in a state of evolution.

5. LLM: The skills to undertake supervised research on an agreed topic in their specialisation and to encourage the production of original, evaluative analysis that meets high standards of scholarship.

6. LLM & PGDip: Critical, analytical and problem-solving skills that can be applied to a wide range of contexts.

7. LLM & PGDip: The skills of academic legal research and writing.

8. LLM: A sophisticated grounding in research methods.

Careers

Information about the internship programme for LLM students can be found on the Kent Law School Employability blog - http://blogs.kent.ac.uk/klsemployability/postgraduates/llm-internships/

Learn more about Kent

Visit us - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/visit/openday/pgevents.html

International Students - https://www.kent.ac.uk/internationalstudent/

Why study at Kent? - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/why/

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This programme offers students from a wide variety of backgrounds the opportunity to develop their legal knowledge and skills in some of the most intellectually challenging and practically relevant areas of trade and commercial law. Read more
This programme offers students from a wide variety of backgrounds the opportunity to develop their legal knowledge and skills in some of the most intellectually challenging and practically relevant areas of trade and commercial law. The course has a particular emphasis upon the international aspects of these areas of legal knowledge and practice.

During the first two terms of the programme, students study taught modules drawn from a wide variety of topics on international trade and commercial law. Students then complete their studies by writing a dissertation on a topic chosen by them, and supervised by a member of staff with expertise in their selected subject area. Teaching is by a mixture of lectures and smaller, student-led, seminar or tutorial groups. The dissertation is pursued by independent research with individual supervision.

Students attending the programme are drawn from a broad range of countries, and their previous academic or professional experiences enrich the programme. The School is host to the Institute of Commercial and Corporate Law, and students on the LLM are encouraged to participate in its activities.

Course Structure

Students must study one compulsory module in Applied Research Methods in Law. You must also choose a number of additional taught modules, from a large body of optional modules. Finally, a dissertation must be completed, on a topic chosen by you in consultation with your allotted supervisor.

Core Modules

-Applied Research Methods in Law
-Dissertation (of 10,000, 15,000 or 20,000 words)

Optional Modules

Please note: not all modules necessarily run every year, and we regularly introduce new modules. The list below provides an example of the type of modules which may be offered.
-Advanced Issues in International Economic Law
-Advanced Issues in the Constitutional Law of the EU
-Advanced Issues of International Intellectual Property Law
-Advanced Law of Obligations
-Advanced Research in EU Law
-Carriage of Goods by Sea
-Commercial Fraud
-Comparative and Transnational Law
-Comparative Corporate Governance
-Comparative Insurance Law
-Comparative Private Law
-Corporate Compliance
-Corporate Social Responsibility
-Corporations in an EU Context
-Current Issues in Commercial Law
-Current Issues in Company Law
-Current Problems of International Law
-Domestic Anti-Discrimination Law
-Electronic Commerce
-Environement Law and International Trade
-EU Competition Law
-EU Trade Law
-European Discrimination Law
-Free Speech Problems in International and Comparative Perspective
-Fundamentals of International Law
-International and Comparative Advertising Law
-International and Comparative Corporate Insolvency Law
-International Banking Law
-International Commercial Dispute Resolution
-International Co-operation in Criminal Matters
-International Human Rights Law
-International Human Rights Law, Development and Commerce
-International Investment Law
-International Law of Human Rights
-International Perspectives on Law and Gender
-International Sales Law
-Introduction to Corporate Governance
-Introduction to EU Law
-Introduction to Intellectual Property Law
-Introduction to International Criminal Justice
-Introduction to Media Freedom under the Human Rights Act
-Introduction to the Law of Oil Contracts
-Islamic Law
-Law of the WTO
-Media Freedom under the Human Rights Act
-Mergers and Acquisitions
-Perspectives on Securities Law and Capital Markets
-Principles of Corporate Insolvency Law
-Rights of the Child
-Selected Issues in Competition Law
-Selected Issues in European Law
-Selected Issues of Intellectual Property Law
-Takeover Regulation in the EU
-Tax Law and Policy
-The Community Legal Order
-The European Union and International Trade
-Unjust Enrichment

Learning and Teaching

This programme involves both taught modules and a substantial dissertation component. Taught modules are delivered by a mixture of lectures and seminars. Although most lectures do encourage student participation, they are used primarily to introduce chosen topics, identify relevant concepts, and introduce the student to the main debates and ideas relevant to the chosen topic. They give students a framework of knowledge that students can then develop, and reflect on, through their own reading and study.

Seminars are smaller-sized, student-led classes. Students are expected to carry out reading prior to classes, and are usually set questions or problems to which to apply the knowledge they have developed. Through class discussion, or the presentation of student papers, students are given the opportunity to test and refine their knowledge and understanding, in a relaxed and supportive environment.

The number of contact hours in each module will reflect that module’s credit weighting. 15-credit modules will have, in total, 15 contact hours (of either lectures or seminars); 30-credit modules will have 30 contact hours. Students must accumulate, in total, between 90 and 120 credits of taught modules for the programme (depending upon the length of their dissertation). In addition to their taught modules, all students must produce a dissertation of between 10,000 and 20,000 words. This is intended to be the product of the student’s own independent research. Each student is allocated a dissertation supervisor, and will have a series of (usually four) one-to-one meetings with their supervisor over the course of the academic year.

Finally, all taught postgraduate students on this programme, are encouraged to attend the various events, including guest lectures and seminars, organised through the School’s research centres, including the Institute for Commercial and Corporate Law, and Durham European Law Institute.

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The Universe of Human Rights. We aim at providing you with the scientific knowledge and the practical skills to work as a human rights expert in different professional environments. Read more
The Universe of Human Rights

Aims and objectives

We aim at providing you with the scientific knowledge and the practical skills to work as a human rights expert in different professional environments.

Target group

We welcome students with at least a bachelor degree in a broad variety of academic disciplines from all world regions, with an open mind, empathy for human beings and a strong interest to experience the fascinating world of human rights.

Modules

We offer an innovative and interdisciplinary approach to human rights, with a strong emphasis on practice. We keep the class size small in order to provide you with the best possible support, so you can get the most out of the programme. Your interests are taken very seriously – you have the opportunity to determine certain contents of your courses.

Semester overview
Semester 1: Courses introducing human rights, its mechanisms and its interdisciplinarity
Semester 2: Courses focusing on specific human rights and specific groups
Semester 3: Internship / research placement
Semester 4: Simulation of a human rights body's session and thesis writing

Overview of the Modules
a) Introduction to Human Rights from an Interdisciplinary Perspective (7 ECTS)
b) International and Regional Human Rights Systems (16 ECTS)
c) Current Human Rights Issues from an Interdisciplinary Perspective (21 ECTS)
d) Selected Human Rights and Human Rights of Specific Groups (10 ECTS)
e) Practical Human Rights Skills (6 ECTS)
f) Scientific Competence (5 ECTS)
g) Internship Related Courses (30 ECTS)

A detailed desription of the Modules is available here:
http://www.postgraduatecenter.at/en/programs/international-affairs-business/human-rights/curriculum/modules/

Our philosophy

As equal members of the interdisciplinary Vienna Master of Arts in Human Rights, staff and students of the University of Vienna we welcome all academic disciplines and all cultures.

We are dedicated to supporting and maintaining a community in which the universal principles of human rights are shared through the common enterprise of intellectual curiosity and research as well as of the translation of the acquired knowledge into action for the betterment of the human rights situation.

Spirit and Culture of the Vienna Master of Arts in Human Rights
We strive for a sense of community in which the individual growth of all members is advanced through the cultivation of mutual respect, tolerance, and understanding.
The Vienna Master of Arts in Human Rights values and encourages individuality while also affirming the community dimensions of academic life. Our human rights community shall provide a structure within which individual freedoms may flourish without threatening the freedoms of other fellow students, teaching staff and the academic management team of this Vienna Master of Arts in Human Rights.
The Master Programme is committed to honest, open, and equitable engagement with all, while respecting differences in religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, abilities and needs among others. We seek to promote an academic and social environment that in its diversity is integral to the educational purposes of the institution, by engaging in team building exercises, study trips and workshops while cultivating an open culture of communication.

Faculty

We offer you a broad variety of courses taught by university professors and academic lecturers from various disciplines as well as human rights practitioners working in international organisations, human rights institutes, the corporate sector, development agencies and civil society organisations.

Field trip

We provide you with an enlightening and memorable field experience in the post-conflict situation in Kosovo, where the UN, the OSCE, the EU, NATO and other international organisations are jointly operating an international administration with a strong human rights mandate. The trip will last for one week where you stay with a local family and get the opportunity to have lively discussions about Kosovo's human rights issues with international actors, national human rights institutions, NGOs, media, universities and politicians.

Job opportunities

We will train you for a career as a human rights expert to be employed by governments, international organisations, development agencies, business corporations, research institutes and civil society organisations. You might work as an election observer, officer for human rights monitoring and capacity building in the field, diplomat, trainer, mediator, consultant, researcher etc.

Vienna

- The Vibrant Heart of Europe

Not only is Vienna well known as the world city with the highest quality of life, but situated in the heart of Europe, it lies at the cross-roads of different cultures. People from all over the world come to Vienna to meet, to enjoy its charm and the sound of music, to study, to dance, to hold peace congresses and attend scientific conferences.

Many international organizations and agencies, including the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union, have chosen to be hosted in Vienna. After the end of the Cold War, the Vienna World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 laid the ground for the current human rights architecture of the United Nations. Combining tradition and modernity, arts and science, work and leisure, Vienna provides the ideal international environment to spend two unforgettable years studying the art of human rights. More information on Vienna is available here:
https://www.wien.info/en

Application Deadlines 26 February 2017 / 26 March 2017 / 30 April 2017 / Open Round
For more information please visit our website on http://humanrights.univie.ac.at

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