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This programme prepares you for a career as an economist in business, financial markets and the public sector. Upon completing the programme you will be awarded the Master of Social Sciences degree, having demonstrated that you have developed many skills needed in your future career. Read more
This programme prepares you for a career as an economist in business, financial markets and the public sector. Upon completing the programme you will be awarded the Master of Social Sciences degree, having demonstrated that you have developed many skills needed in your future career:
-Profound knowledge of economic theory and familiarity with scientific economic literature.
-The ability to apply economic theory to solving practical problems and interpreting economic phenomena.
-Familiarity with econometric methods and the ability to apply them to practical research problems.
-The ability to collect and interpret empirical data.
-The ability to communicate conclusions and assess the significance of the assumptions made for them.
-Fluency in communicating economic issues to different domestic and international audiences as well as the capability to work independently and in multidisciplinary cooperation.
-Readiness to assess your own professional performance and systematically develop it.
-Knowledge of sources of economic information and the ability to adopt new tools of economic analysis.

The programme comprises two tracks. The Research track is more demanding in that it gives more profound knowledge of economic theory and econometric methods than the General track. This track is particularly suitable if your goal is to pursue a doctoral degree in economics. Profound knowledge of economic theory and methods is also useful in many demanding careers as an economist.

The degree requirements in both tracks correspond to international standards, which will help you when finding employment and pursuing further studies towards a doctoral degree in Finland and globally.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The module of Economic Theory and Econometric Methods, which you will take in the autumn semester of your first year of study, is the foundation of the programme. It covers the central microeconomic and macroeconomic theory as well as basic econometric methods. After completing this module, you can choose from a wide selection of fields of economics to concentrate on. Optional studies consist of additional courses in economics, or other university-level courses. In addition, an internship or a labour market project is included in the degree requirements.

The programme mostly comprises lecture courses. The courses on economic theory and econometric methods consist of lectures and exercise sessions; for the most part they are completed by taking a written examination. Depending on the track, you take 3 to 4 field courses, selected based on your interests so that they form a meaningful whole. Additional field courses in economics can be included in the optional studies. In the field courses, you will be exposed to different teaching methods, such as problem-based learning and other group activities and seminars. Your grades in many field courses will be based on assignments, presentations and term papers in addition to a final examination.

Economics is a quantitative social science discipline, so you are expected to have good basic command of mathematics and statistics. Your skills in these areas will be systematically developed in this programme. Especially if you aim for a career as an economist or for doctoral studies, you are advised to include further methodological courses in your optional studies. In addition to mathematics and statistics, courses in computer science are recommended.

The structure of the programme is comparable to those of the Master's programmes in economics offered by the best international universities. It differs from the Master's programmes of the Finnish business schools in that the demanding courses in economic theory and econometrics comprise a greater proportion, and the goal is above all to prepare you for a career as an economist. The research track corresponds to Master's programmes in quantitative economics offered by some foreign universities. In line with our programme, the research track will prepare you for a career as an economist and for doctoral studies in economics.

Selection of the Major

The programme has two tracks:
-General track
-Research track

You select the track when applying for the programme: your choice will determine the degree requirements. The difference between the tracks is that the Research track aims at providing more profound knowledge of economic theory and econometric methods, whereas the General track emphasises fields and applications of economics, and it is possible to include more optional studies in the degree. The Research track prepares you for doctoral studies in economics, and its degree requirements contain most of the doctoral-level core courses in economic theory and econometrics. Taking these courses as part of the Master's degree helps you to graduate faster from the doctoral programme later. Graduates from the Research track are given precedence for the doctoral programme in economics at the University of Helsinki. The Research track is also recommended if you are interested in taking the more demanding core courses to acquire more profound knowledge of economics even if your goal is not to pursue doctoral studies.

Programme Structure

The programme comprises 120 credits (ECTS, European Credit Transfer System), and it is designed to be completed in two years. The degree requirements consist of the following modules (in the General / Research track):
Advanced studies (at least 90 ECTS / 100 ECTS)
-Economic theory and econometric methods (30 ECTS / 45 ECTS)
-Research skills (10 ECTS)
-Master's thesis (30 ECTS)
-Field courses in economics (at least 20 ECTS / 15 ECTS)

Internship or Labour market project (5 to 15 ECTS)

Optional studies (15 to 25 ECTS / 5 to 15 ECTS)

After completing the unit in economic theory and econometric methods, you select the fields in economics that you want to concentrate on. It is advisable for you to include further advanced field courses in economics or methodological courses in your optional studies. The study unit in research skills prepares you for writing the Master's thesis, and familiarises you with scholarly work in economics, research ethics and reporting research results. In addition, you prepare a research proposal for your thesis. Integrated into the studies, the degree requirements include drawing up a personal study plan, and career planning. An internship period, a labour market project or other studies aimed at developing employment skills are also included (5 to 15 ECTS so that the extent of these studies and the optional studies amount to 30 ECTS in the General track and to 20 ECTS in the Research track).

Career Prospects

The Master's Programme in Economics at the University of Helsinki prepares you for a career as an economist in business and the public sector. Economists are employed in administrative, planning and development duties requiring economic expertise in various national and international organisations. Examples include an analyst career involving risk management, asset pricing and investment strategy, jobs related to analysing the market, production and pricing in companies, assessment and planning of economic policy, and communication. Analytical skills and knowledge of quantitative methods will be of central importance in your work as an economist. In particular, economists find employment in government, financial institutions, central banks, national and international organisations, and business.

The Research track prepares you for particularly demanding careers. It is also an excellent path to doctoral studies in economics. It is advisable to select the field courses and the topic for your Master's thesis in view of your interests and career goals. An internship is a good chance to acquire work experience in your area of interest.

Internationalization

The atmosphere at the Helsinki Centre of Economic Research (HECER) is quite international, consisting of the Discipline of Economics and the departments of economics at Aalto University and the Hanken School of Economics. The staff regularly publish in international journals and collaborate with foreign researchers. There are also several regular research seminars on a number of fields, where mostly foreign visitors present their work. In addition, foreign researchers often pay longer visits to the HECER, and a large proportion of the graduate students come from abroad.

All courses in the programme are taught in English, and a large proportion of Master's theses are written in English. The staff have ample experience at universities abroad, and there are several foreigners among them. Foreign graduate students act as teaching assistants, and exchange students from the universities involved in the HECER regularly take the courses of the programme. You can include study units in foreign languages arranged by the Language Centre in the optional studies.

The degree requirements meet internationally unified standards in economics. The University of Helsinki has a number of agreements with foreign universities that enable you to visit them to gain international experience and take courses offered there. Courses taken at the master's level at universities abroad can replace field courses in economics in the degree requirements, and you can include other university-level courses in your optional studies. The most suitable time for a visit to a foreign university is in the spring semester of your first year of study after completing the core courses in economic theory and econometrics. You can also include an internship abroad as part of your studies.

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Students who graduate from the Master’s programme in geography have strong theoretical and practical skills. The education in geography offers a broad understanding in current social and environmental issues. Read more
Students who graduate from the Master’s programme in geography have strong theoretical and practical skills. The education in geography offers a broad understanding in current social and environmental issues. Our students can work as experts in their field, both independently and as members of multi-professional teams.

The teaching within the programme is connected with the work of the geography research groups. It is often possible to write the final thesis as part of work in a research group or a research institute in a related field.

The Master’s programme in geography is divided into three sub-programmes (described in section 4). Our students have been very successful in the job market after completing our programme.

The strengths of students who have completed our Master’s programme when it comes to research and expertise are:
-Their ability to apply theoretical knowledge.
-A broad understanding of multi-layered regional issues.
-Strong interaction skills within multi-disciplinary groups of specialists.
-Their ability to communicate in writing, orally, and graphically about geographical phenomena and research findings.
-Their ability to utilise and interpret various kinds of research data.
-Their versatile knowledge of methodology in geography.
-Their ability to apply the newest methods in geoinformatics and cartography.
-Their embracing of responsible and ethical scientifc practices.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The first year of the advanced module of the Master’s programme contains the method courses of your chosen sub-programme, elective courses, and advanced literature. During this year you will start planning your Master’s thesis.

In the autumn of the second year, you will join a Master’s seminar and take exams on literature related to the MSc thesis. In the spring, you should be ready to present your finished MSc thesis (Pro gradu). In addition, you can take optional courses in both years that support your sub-programme. If you are studying to be a teacher, you will take courses in pedagogy during your second year.

Studying takes many forms. A large part of the instruction is contact teaching. Method and specialisation courses are usually implemented in groups of 10-20 students, where it is easy to discuss professional issues and gain deeper insights. Independent study is supported through workshops supervised by older students, and reading circles. The Master’s programme also includes extensive exams on literature in the field.

Selection of the Major

The Master’s programme in geography is divided into sub-programmes. The sub-programmes offer students the opportunity to specialise in different areas of geography. The Master’s programme contains both general and sub-programme-specific courses. The teaching within the Master’s programme in geography is seamlessly connected with the Master’s programme in urban studies and planning, which is jointly implemented with Aalto University.

The sub-programmes in the Master’s programme for geography are:
-Physical Geography
-Human Geography and Spatial Planning
-Geoinformatics

Physical Geography
Physical geography is an area of geography that studies natural systems and the regional interaction between nature and humans. The main parts of physical geography are geomorphology, climatology, hydrogeography, biogeography, and research into global change.

The Master’s courses in physical geography work towards deeper regional syntheses, explain the physical surroundings and their changes as a part of the function of regional systems, and analyse and model the relationships between different sectors. Focus areas in the Master’s programme in physical geography are the effect of global change on natural systems, watershed research, and the regional modelling of geomorphological processes and local climates. A considerable part of the Master’s programme in physical geography consists of work in small groups or in the field, where you will learn to implement theories in practice.

Having completed the Master’s programme in physical geography, you will be able to analyse and model regional systems of nature, as well as the interaction between nature and humans. In addition, the programme teaches you to analyse sustainable use of natural resources, and evaluate environmental impact. You will learn to implement theoretical knowledge and regional methods in planning a scientific thesis, implementing it in practice, and presenting your results orally and in writing. Further, the courses will train you to take specimens independently, analyse them, and interpret them. The teaching at the Master’s stage is closely connected with research on physical geography: theses are done in collaboration with a research group or research institute.

Human Geography and Spatial Planning
Human geography and spatial planning is a sub-programme, where regional structures and related planning is studied. Urban structures, regional social structures, statewide regional structures, the regional development in the European Union, and globalisation are studied. At the core of the sub-programme is the spatial transformation of society. The Master’s programme studies such phenomena as the divergence of regional and urban structures, urban culture, as well as the political-geographical dynamics of regions. In addition, sustainability, multiculturalism, segregation, housing, and migration are at the core of the sub-programme. Relevant themes for the sub-programme are also regional and urban planning, the political ecology of use of natural resources and land, and gobal development issues. These geographical phenomena and themes are studied through both theoretical and empirical questions, which can be analysed with different qualitative and quantitative methods.

The programme goes into how theories on cities and regional systems can be transformed into empirical research questions. After completing their Master’s theses, students can independently gather empirical data on the main dimensions of regional and urban structures and regional development, they can analyse these data with both qualitative and quantitative methods, and they can evaluate the planning practices connected with regional and social structures. After graduating from the Master’s programme, students will be able to communicate about phenomena and research findings in regional and urban structures, both orally and in writing.

Geoinformatics
Geoinformatics is an effective approach to the study and understanding of complex regional issues. Geoinformatics studies and develops computational methods for gaining, processing, analysing, and presenting positioning data. As a part of geography, geoinformatics is a research method on the one hand, to be used in the study of complex regional issues from urban environments to natural ones, from studying local environments to issues of sustainability in developing countries. On the other hand, the methods are the object of research. In urban environments, the methods of geoinformatics can be used to study accessibility and mobility, for example, or to plan a good park network. In the context of developing countries, the research into climate change, land use, or interaction between humans and environment with the help of quantitative, qualitative, and involving methods rises into the front. Students in geography reach a basic understanding of geoinformatics methods in the study of geographical issues, the sources and use of different sets of data (remote sensing, global and national databases, geographical Big Data), analysis methods, and effective visualisation of results.

At the Master’s level, as a student specialising in geoinformatics you will advance your skills both theoretically and technically, developing your methodological expertise from data acquisition to data refinement and visualisation with the help of geoinformatics methods. The instruction is directly connected with the work of research groups and theses are often written as a part of research work. After graduating, you will be able to utilise versatile approaches in geoinformatics in research into geographical questions. You will be able to follow the rapid development of the subject independently, and participate on your own.

Programme Structure

The Master’s programme in geography comprises 120 credits (ECTS) and you should graduate as a Master of Science in two academic years. The following courses are included in the degree:
-60 credits of shared advanced courses or according to sub-programme (including MSc thesis 30 credits).
-60 credits of other courses from your own or other programmes.
-60 credits of courses in pedagogy for teaching students.
-The other studies may include working-life or periods of international work or study.
-Working-life orientation and career planning.
-Personal study plan.

Career Prospects

The Master’s programme in geography provides you with excellent abilities to work in research or as specialists. Our graduates have found good employment in the public and private sectors, in Finland and abroad. Their postings include:
-Evaluation of environmental effects and environment consultation.
-Positioning and remote-sensing work.
-Regional and urban planning.
-Governmental community and regional administration.
-Governmental posts in ministries.
-Organisational posts.
-Development cooperation projects.
-Communication and publishing work.
-Teaching.

Internationalization

The Master’s programme in geography offers many opportunities for international work:
-Student exchange in one of the exchange locations of the faculty or university.
-Traineeship abroad.
-Participation in international projects and expeditions (e.g. to the Taita research station in Kenya).
-Participation in international research groups (writing your thesis).
-Participation in language courses at the University of Helsinki (a wide range of languages, including rare ones).

Research Focus

In physical geography:
-Research into global change, especially the environmental effects of climate change.
-Watershed research, the physical-chemical quality and ecological status of water systems.
-Natural systems, their function and change.
-Regional analytics and modelling in research into natural systems.
-Positioning and remote-sensing methods and their application when studying the status and changes in natural environments.
-‘Big data,’ analysis of regional and temporal data.
-The Arctic areas: status, change and vulnerability.

In human geography and spatial planning:
-Transformation and segregation in the social and physical urban environment.
-The changing rationalities and concepts of regional and urban planning.
-Regional policy and geopolitics.
-Urbanisation and changing relationships between state and cities.
-Internationalisation of cities and states.
-The spatial planning system of the European Union.
-Regional policy of data-intensive economics.
-The political ecology and management of natural resources and land use.
-Globalisation.

In geoinformatics:
-Spatial data analysis, new information sources.
-Development of remote-sensing methods for environmental study, especially hyper-spectral remote-sensing data and drone applications.
-Application of geoinformatics methods to environmental and urban research.

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Why do languages change? Why does your mobile device suggest funny completions for words you are typing? How did it happen that Finnish is spoken mostly… Read more
Why do languages change? Why does your mobile device suggest funny completions for words you are typing? How did it happen that Finnish is spoken mostly in Finland, but its linguistic relatives are scattered over a larger area? How can you study a language that does not have a standard orthography? Why can you sometimes tell where other people come from just by their accent? Why do some people stick to their dialect, but others give it up when they move to the city? Should you try to support language diversity? Can we save languages that are spoken by a very small number of people? How can computer-synthesised speech be made to sound more human? Why do some languages seem so much more difficult to learn - are they inherently more complex?

This Master's programme will provide you with an understanding of the nature and diversity of human language and with the theoretical tools for working with language material. If you are interested in languages but are unable to decide which of them you want to study, this Master's programme offers several fields of specialisation. One of them might be just perfect for you.

During your studies, you will:
-Gain an in-depth understanding of the basic structure of language, its subsystems (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics) and their mutual relationships.
-Learn the fundamentals of linguistic analysis and language description.
-Familiarize yourself with linguistic concepts, theories, descriptive models and the associated research methods.
-Learn how language is related to cognition, speech and interaction as well as to social structures, culture and society.
-Learn to use various methods and technical tools in order to manage and analyze language data.
-Gain a good understanding of linguistic variation and diversity: what is common to the world's languages and how they differ, how language changes through time, how languages influence one another, how individuals cope with multilingual situations and how communities speaking endangered languages can be supported.

After completing your studies, you will be able to work independently in various fields that require multidisciplinary expertise in linguistic sciences. You will have the theoretical knowledge and skills that are required for postgraduate studies in the doctoral programme in language studies.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

Linguistic Diversity in the Digital Age is an integrated international programme that offers you a comprehensive view of all subfields of the science of language. As a student in the programme you will be able to choose among four specialist options: (1) General Linguistics, (2) Phonetics, (3) Language Technology, and (4) Diversity Linguistics.

General Linguistics
Gives you comprehensive in-depth training in a wide range of theoretical and methodological approaches to language structure and language in use. Special emphasis is put on language typology in a global perspective as well as the documentation and description of endangered and previously undocumented and under-documented forms of speech.

Phonetics
Introduces you to the tools for working with the articulatory, acoustic and perceptional aspects of human speech from a multidisciplinary perspective. At the more advanced level, you will become acquainted with the methods of experimental phonetics.

Language Technology
Combines linguistics with digital technology in an interdisciplinary approach with close links to computer science. The focus areas include natural language processing (NLP) for morphologically rich languages, cross-lingual NLP and language technology in the humanities.

Diversity Linguistics
Encompasses all aspects of linguistic diversity in time and space, including historical linguistics as well as the extralinguistic context of languages: ethnicities, cultures and environ­ments. The areal foci in Diversity Linguistics are Eurasia and Africa.

These four specialist options interact at all levels. There is a study module common to all students in the programme regardless of the specialist option they choose. The integration of these four perspectives into one programme is unique - no similar programme exists anywhere else.

In the context of “Humanities”, the programme has the closest relationship to natural sciences, and many subfields of the programme involve methods directly linked to laboratory sciences, including digital technology and neurosciences.

The teaching in the programme includes lectures and seminars, practical exercise sessions, reading circles, fieldwork excursions, as well as work practice (internship). The broad spectrum of teaching methods guarantees optimal support for your learning processes.

Programme Structure

The scope of the Master of Arts degree is 120 credits. The degree contains the following studies:
-Studies common to all students in the programme (30 credits)
-Advanced studies in the specialist option (at least 60 credits)
-Other studies (up to 30 credits)

The target duration of full-time studies leading to an MA degree is two years.

All students in the programme take the same courses during the autumn semester of the first year.

Then you will focus on your specialist option (general linguistics, phonetics, language technology, or diversity linguistics). This block of studies consists of courses (at least 30 credits) and of the final project, which is your Master's thesis (30 credits).

Additionally, you choose other studies: modules offered either by the other specialist options within this Master's programme or by other programmes within the University of Helsinki. The size of such optional study modules is typically 15, 25 or 30 credits. Courses offered by other universities can also be included here.

The studies in your own specialist option as well as the other studies may also include an internationalization period (e.g. student exchange) and work practice or other working life oriented study units. Working life and career development perspectives are integrated in many courses in the programme.

You will complete your studies systematically. At the beginning of your Master’s studies, you will prepare your first personal study plan (PSP). In this, you will receive support especially from the staff of the Master's programme. Guidance is also given at the Faculty level.

Career Prospects

After graduation, students of the programme find employment in a wide variety of positions, in which special knowledge of language is required.

One path prepares you for a research career, and many graduates work as researchers in Finland and abroad. You can also work in the political, diplomatic, and educational sectors, as well as research administration. Further potential employers are found in the publishing industry, media and journalism, public relations and communications of business and public administration, as well as NGOs.

If you choose a technological orientation, you may work in language technology firms or more generally in the IT sector. Big international companies are in constant need of experts in speech and language technology. Additionally, there is a vibrant field of domestic companies, some established ones and many promising start-ups. Some students have founded their own companies and become entrepreneurs.

Note that it is not possible to graduate as a (subject) teacher in the LingDA Master's programme.

In honour of the University of Helsinki's 375th anniversary, the Faculty of Arts presented 375 humanists during year 2015. Get to know the humanists! http://375humanistia.helsinki.fi/

Internationalization

Linguistics is by definition an international field. Language capacity is a feature common to all human beings, and the objective of linguistics as a science is to study both the universal background of language as a phenomenon and the global diversity of languages as expressions of social and cultural heritage.

In the LingDA programme, internationalization is present in several forms and at several levels:
-The programme functions in English and accepts international students from all countries.
-The programme recruits students representing a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
-The students are encouraged to study and master many languages from both the practical and the theoretical points of view.
-The students are encouraged early on to get engaged in documentational and typological field work among speakers of little documented languages in various parts of the world.
-The students are encouraged to use the opportunities of international exchange that the university offers.

The programme has a high international profile and all teachers have wide international contact networks. At the university of Helsinki, linguistics was internationalized as early as the 19th century. Finland is a country where, in particular, ethnolinguistics and field linguistics were developed and practised much earlier than in most other European countries. Some of the regions where Finnish ethnolinguists have been active include North and Central Eurasia, the Near and Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, and Africa. This tradition of field-work-oriented linguistics is today carried on by the HALS (Helsinki Area and Linguistic Studies) research community. At the same time, the more recent fields of linguistics, including phonetics, language technology, and typology, have developed their own international profiles.

Research Focus

The MA programme Diversity Linguistics in the Digital Age combines several research fields in which the University of Helsinki has long been a global leader. Language research in Helsinki has always maintained its strong commitment to a better understanding of cultural areas and their history. Situated in an ideal place for the study of language history and contact linguistics of various Eurasian language families, the study of Uralic languages has a long tradition in Helsinki. Our interest in the culturally and historically informed study of language reaches well beyond that, though, spanning Asia, Europe and Africa.

Our language research is empirically driven and informed by linguistic typology. The question of linguistic complexity, its significance for language and cultural history, and its intersection with ecological models is a hallmark of the Helsinki School of Linguistics. We explore new horizons in area and language studies by combining cutting edge research in linguistic typology with field work based descriptive linguistics and linguistic anthropology.

A unique asset at the University of Helsinki is the presence of various language technology initiatives at the forefront of the digital humanities. The study of morphologically complex languages plays a great role here, and special attention is paid to lesser researched languages.

Each of the four study lines of our MA programme thus corresponds to a University of Helsinki focus area. Our language-related research is typically multidisciplinary and involves more than one linguistic specialty. This is also a crucial feature in our MA programme. Students receive theoretical, thematic and methodological training for research or other professional careers that require problem-solving skills in order to maintain linguistic diversity and to support people’s linguistic well-being.

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