Implantology is a complex subject that in the last decade has become a vital part of mainstream dentistry. With the increasing demand from patients, more dentists need to pursue continued study to equip themselves with the necessary skills and competence to tackle a range of different cases.
We have partnered with the University of Portsmouth to bring you the Certificate in Implantology, a 6-month programme designed to give dentists the confidence to start placing implants and ultimately, improve their earning potential.
Students will learn crucial topics such as bone regeneration from leading experts in the field of implantology, and will take part in face-to-face practical sessions where they will place implants and observe placement.
As part of this programme, dentists will carry out 150 hours (15 credits) of recommended and highly-recommended CPD online, which can be counted towards 5-year cycles for UK-based dentists.
Unit 1 - Foundations in Implant Dentistry (including 2-day Practical Surgical Training)
Unit 2 - Legal and Ethical Issues
Unit 3 - Communications & Complaints Handling
Unit 4 - Safeguarding
Unit 5 - Treatment Planning in Implant Dentistry (Including 2-day Practical Surgical Training)
Unit 6 - Record Keeping
Unit 7 - Dental Radiology
Unit 8 - Oral Cancer
Unit 9 - Surgical & Restorative Principles of Implantology (Including 2-day Practical Surgical Training)
Unit 10 - Disinfection & Decontamination
Unit 11 - Medical Emergencies
Unit 12 - The Reflective Practitioner (Strategies for Life-long Learning)
There will be three 2-day practical workshops over the course of the 6 months during which you will practice placing implants and observing placement.
The programme will mostly be delivered online through live webinars, recorded lectures and e-Learning. There will be instances where you will need to travel to take part in practical hands-on sessions, during which you will practice placing implants and observing placements.
In the first semester of the programme, graduates from a range of backgrounds are brought up-to-speed on core knowledge in engineering, biology and research practice.
This is followed by specialist modules in the second semester on human movement analysis, prostheses, implants, physiological measurements and rehabilitation, as well as numerous computer methods applied across the discipline.
The course makes use of different approaches to teaching, including traditional lectures and tutorials, off-site visits to museums and hospitals, and lab work (particularly in the Human Movement and Instrumentation modules).
The core lecturing team is supplemented by leading figures from hospitals and industry.
This programme is studied full-time over one academic year and part-time over two academic years. It consists of eight taught modules and a research project.
All modules are taught on the University main campus, with the exception of visits to the health care industry (e.g. commercial companies and NHS hospitals).
Example module listing
The following modules are indicative, reflecting the information available at the time of publication. Please note that not all modules described are compulsory and may be subject to teaching availability and/or student demand.
The course aims:
The programme provides opportunities for students to develop and demonstrate knowledge and understanding, skills, qualities and other attributes in the following areas:
Knowledge and understanding
Intellectual / cognitive skills
Professional practical skills
Key / transferable skills
We often give our students the opportunity to acquire international experience during their degrees by taking advantage of our exchange agreements with overseas universities.
In addition to the hugely enjoyable and satisfying experience, time spent abroad adds a distinctive element to your CV.
Our Periodontology MClinDent combines academic study, clinical skills training and research and offers exceptional, innovative teaching. A wealth of academic expertise will give you a thorough practical education in advanced clinical periodontology, including aesthetics, implants and contemporary surgical methods.
The main themes which you will study are:
Through hands-on experience, you will acquire advanced competency in the full range of specialist periodontics clinical skills and complementary aspects of restorative dentistry.
Students will be exposed to research methods by seminars, extensive reviews of the classical and contemporary literature, critical appraisal of new scientific and clinical developments, and the completion of an in-depth literature review and a research project.
Our students have recently investigated smoking and periodontal health, periodontal microbiology and immunology, clinical trials of periodontal treatment and oral hygiene methods, behavioural factors in periodontology and periodontal relationships to systemic health.
You will achieve clinical proficiency in periodontics to a recognised UK specialist level and have the opportunity to sit a final conjoint membership examination with the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
This course is available to study full-time over three years or over four years. The content is identical across both periods.
Designed to provide extensive contemporary knowledge and clinical proficiency in periodontology, qualified dentists train on this course to UK specialist level. The course has formal recognition for UK specialist training and offers greater depth of knowledge and clinical skills than is required for general practice.
The usual training period will be a minimum of 4,500 hours across the degree.
The course content is apportioned approximately as:
This time allocation is flexible and will depend upon the capacity of the trainees to complete the curriculum to a competent level.
Standard university term times do not apply to this course. You will receive a leave allowance for each academic year with full details provided on enrolment.
Your three academic taught modules will be assessed by written exams. Your six clinical modules will be examined on case reports, with oral and clinical examinations, and clinical examinations on unseen patients. Your research module will be assessed by a project report and oral examination.
The study time and assessment methods detailed above are typical and give you a good indication of what to expect. However, they may change if the course modules change.
Entry to the programme is strictly dependent upon occupational health clearance that you are able to conduct exposure prone procedures (EPPs) before you start clinical work. This will assess your hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody status, HIV and TB status following the completion of a health questionnaire and a further health check before or at enrolment.
If offered a place on the course, overseas students are advised to be tested locally and send the results of these checks with the questionnaire, prior to a separate full test in the UK at the College's Occupational Health Department before term begins. All offers of a place on a programme are made subject to a satisfactory criminal conviction disclosure. If you are from overseas or have never lived in the UK before, you should contact the relevant authorities in your home country to arrange for the equivalent check to be conducted and/or a certificate of good conduct to be issued.
Our Prosthodontics MClinDent offers you the opportunity to learn fixed, removable and implant prosthodontics from world-renowned academics and clinicians. You will receive personal supervision and training, both academic and practical, and we will teach you the skills and methods needed to complete an in-depth research project in an area which interests you.
Sixty per cent of the programme is dedicated to clinical experience. Teaching styles include close mentoring, chair-side guidance and small group work that emphasises the importance of the evidence base in literature and creates new research opportunities.
Our programme covers the scientific background to implants, fixed and removable prosthodontics, and clinical techniques. You will study anatomy, physiology, histology and pathology of the dental and oral tissues, occlusion, epidemiology and prevention of dental caries and tooth wear, properties of dental materials, and radiology, infection control and audit in relation to prosthodontics.
By the end of our programme, which is formally recognised as part of UK specialist training, you will be a highly knowledgeable professional in prosthodontics at master's level, and proficient and skilful in related areas of restorative dentistry.
UK/EU practising dentists usually attend three days per week over four years. Practising dentists from overseas who have to relocate to take the course will generally attend five days per week over three years.
The programme content is identical across both versions.
Teaching styles include close mentoring, chairside guidance and small group work that emphasises the importance of the evidence base for prosthodontics in the literature and creates new research opportunities. A research project is also undertaken.
For more information about the department and staff please see our departmental brochure
Modular programme consisting of 360 credits. Modules are grouped into three distinct types:
The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh has approved the programme for award of the MRD diploma after completion of specialist training. If you are on a Specialist Advisory Committee (SAC) approved training pathway leading to specialist accreditation, you will undertake additional clinical activity during your tenure that will complete your requirements for specialist certification with the General Dental Council (GDC).
The Audiological Science with Clinical Practice MSc is designed to train students from other disciplines as audiologists. This unique two-year programme includes a 12-month clinical placement and provides the core knowledge, skills and clinical competencies necessary for employment as an audiologist and/or hearing aid dispenser.
The programme provides a detailed study of the hearing and balance mechanisms, their structure, function, pathology and assessment.
The successful student will become competent in a wide range of adult hearing assessments and adult hearing amplification and aural rehabilitation. In addition students will acquire skills that will allow them to assist in specialist areas, specifically balance and paediatric hearing assessments.
Students undertake modules to the value of 300 credits.
The full-time two-year programme consists of eight core modules (120 credits) and a dissertation/report (60 credits) in the first year, and four core clinical modules (120 credits) in the second year.
The postgraduate diploma two-year programme consists of eight core modules (120 credits) in year one, and four core clinical modules (120 credits) in year 2.
Year one core modules
Please note: only first-year modules can be taken in flexible mode. The in-service clinical placement modules need to be completed in one year - equivalent to year two of the full-time programme.
Year two core modules
All students undertake an independent research project which culminates in a dissertation of 10,000 –12,000 words. This is submitted at the end of year one.
Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of lectures, seminars, case presentations, tutorials, enquiry-based learning, practical demonstrations and in-service clinical placements within accredited audiology departments in the NHS or private sector.
Assessment (formative and summative) is by essays, case presentations, mini -tests, final written and practical examinations, and dissertation.
Further information on modules and degree structure is available on the department website: Audiological Science with Clinical Practice MSc
It is anticipated that the majority of students will seek employment as audiologists within the UK, in both the NHS and private sector. The main area of activity is adult hearing assessment and rehabilitation. As experience is acquired, audiologists might develop an interest and expertise in balance assessment and rehabilitation, paediatric audiology, tinnitus, cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored hearing aids.
With further experience it is anticipated that graduates might also move towards management, research or teaching.
Although the programme is vocational and career-specific (audiology) some of our graduates have pursued academic careers, completing PhDs and taught doctorates. International students have used the knowledge and skills gained to promote and develop audiological services in their home countries. Graduates will also acquire many transferable skills, for example, excellent communication skills, the ability to work under pressure, the ability to work independently and in teams, and excellent interpersonal and research skills.
The UCL Ear Institute is a recognised international centre of excellence for research and training with strong links to the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital and other specialised audiology departments in London.
Our programme aims to ensure that graduates are scientifically literate at postgraduate level and clinically competent within an audiology setting, and that graduates from a relevant discipline acquire the knowledge and skills to practise as an audiologist and/or hearing aid dispenser or pursue a research career.
Our programme allows students the opportunity to network with a variety of different professionals, particularly audiologists, and doctors with specialist interests in ENT or audiovestibular medicine.
The Research Excellence Framework, or REF, is the system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions. The 2014 REF was carried out by the UK's higher education funding bodies, and the results used to allocate research funding from 2015/16.
The following REF score was awarded to the department: Ear Institute
83% rated 4* (‘world-leading’) or 3* (‘internationally excellent’)
Learn more about the scope of UCL's research, and browse case studies, on our Research Impact website.
Our course will suit practitioners with little or no implant dentistry experience. You will develop the skills to plan, treat and maintain implant cases. We provide the patients you treat on the course. The course satisfies the requirements of UK Training Standards in Implant Dentistry.
You will develop your intellectual skills through:
-Case study analysis
You will develop your practical clinical skills through:
-One-to-one clinical coaching
-Supervised clinical work carried out on patients
You will also gain experience in:
-Minimal trauma extractions
-Guided bone regeneration
-Designing long-term maintenance plans
-How to establish implant dentistry into the practice setting
The course satisfies the requirements of the Training Standards in Implant Dentistry. This is endorsed by the General Dental Council (UK) at the level of 'straightforward placement of implants'. It also provides good preparation for dentists planning to sit the Diploma in Implant Dentistry, offered by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
The course is part time over 18 months (approximately one full day per fortnight contact time) commencing in either January or July. We deliver the course through a combination of:
-Skills training workshops using plastic, animal and human cadaver materials
-One-to-one teaching whilst treating patients
We select patients for planning, surgery and restoration of dental implants. As far as possible, you will see the same patients through their whole course of treatment.
We encourage that a dental nurse from your team accompanies you at skills training workshops and on teaching clinics. Nurses receive broad instruction in surgical and restorative implant procedures. They will also become familiar with implant product handling.
We run the course in partnership with Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The vast majority of the course takes place at the School of Dental Sciences and Dental Hospital in Newcastle upon Tyne.
We provide professional development in an area not taught in detail at undergraduate level. We have had students start this course with no previous experience of implant dentistry. They have then progressed to carry out implant surgery and restoration in their own dental practices.
The course director is Mr Francis Nohl, Consultant in Restorative Dentistry. He is an Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer and Specialist in Restorative Dentistry and Prosthodontics. Francis has over 20 years of experience of the surgical and prosthodontic aspects of implant dentistry.
The course is also supported by a motivated team of:
The School of Dental Sciences at Newcastle is one of the most modern and best equipped in the country. We have a spacious, purpose-built facility in the same building as the Dental Hospital. We're also next to the Medical School and Royal Victoria Infirmary teaching hospital. This makes us one of the largest integrated teaching and hospital complexes in the country.
Our facilities include:
Find out about our dental laboratory facilities and Dental Clinical Research Facility on the Centre for Oral Health Research website.
During the course we arrange visits to dental practices carrying out implant dentistry. This allows you to learn about how to establish implant dentistry into the practice setting.
The purpose of this module is to provide you with knowledge and understanding of the core concepts related to Adult Auditory Rehabilitation including principles of health psychology and signal processing as well as technical and psychosocial aspects of the rehabilitation process. As an Audiologist or Hearing Aid Dispenser this will help you to assess the needs of adult patients with hearing loss and provide patients with accurate and up to date information in order that they can make informed decisions about their management and treatment including devices, equipment and features.
Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:
Our postgraduate Dental Implantology course provides the busy General Dental Practitioner with a part-time educational route to acquire the skills and knowledge required of a Dentist with Special Interest (DwiSI). Students can choose to study for an MSc or a PGDip.
Dental Implantology aims to develop a critical understanding and the ability to evaluate the clinical theory, practice and associated research applied to the practice of dental implantology as a mode of referred treatment. Our postgraduate course will provide you with the opportunities to apply the clinical theory, practice and associated research in the provision of dental implantology within the primary care setting. This course focuses on contemporary practice, teaching evidence-based principles and systems to ensure an optimal outcome for the patient and practitioner.
The Dental Implantology programme is also taught abroad in Malaysia, contact us for more information.
Postgraduate Advice Events
Tuesday 6th Feb 2018, 2pm – 4pm (Presentation and Facilities Tour)
Tuesday 10th April 2018, 2pm – 4pm
Wednesday 2nd May 2018, 2pm – 4pm (1 hour CPD lecture 4pm – 5pm)
Saturday 16th June 2018, 10.30am – 1pm (1 hour CPD lecture 12pm – 1pm)
Wednesday 11th July 2018, 2pm – 4pm (1 hour CPD lecture 4pm – 5pm)
Reserve your place by emailing [email protected]
During the course (two years PgDip; three years MSc) you will be expected to attend up to 20 study / assessment days per year. Many of these sessions will be within the School of Dentistry on the main UCLan Preston campus, though some sessions will be timetabled in the adjacent UCLan Dental Clinic, where you will observe, assist and ultimately lead in clinical treatment. To accompany the study days, much of the course content, including lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, and assignments will be delivered to you via the University’s Blackboard Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), allowing you to both prepare work for study days and undertake additional work independently from your home location.
Work in the early part of the course will comprise lectures, presentations and practical sessions in our state-of-the-art phantom head facility. As you move through the course you will progress to working on live patients under close supervision within the UCLan Dental Clinic. Here skills will be developed and assessed through Direct Observations of Procedural Skills (DOPS). The academic underpinning that supports this discipline will be developed though lectures, presentations, directed reading and case-based discussions, which you and others in the group will be expected to prepare and lead. Group sizes are generally small (typically 10 per cohort) leading to an informal and supportive learning environment where you can ensure that your own learning needs are being met.
The programme encompasses a blended learning approach and consists of a combination of lectures, seminars, workshops, clinic training sessions and laboratory visits. Each person will be assigned a personal tutor for the entire programme.
Each module of your course will have a series of assessments and examinations - these are designed to develop and test your core knowledge and skills at regular intervals throughout the programme. Assessments focus on your higher levels skills of diagnosis and planning, rather than simply remembering facts.
• Thorough case assessment and record taking
• Treatment planning and case selection
• Implant placement in Straightforward and some Advanced cases
• Guided bone regeneration techniques
• Restoration of implants
• Prevention and management of complications
Assessments and examinations are designed to develop and test your core knowledge and skills at regular intervals throughout the programme. Assessments focus on your higher level skills of diagnosis and treatment planning, rather than simply remembering facts. Typical assessments would include analysis of given clinical cases, mini clinical examinations and essays, in addition to continuous monitoring of your clinical performance.
The Master’s in Clinical Dentistry (MClinDent) Endodontology programme is perfect for dentists who are keen to increase the range of endodontic options they offer. The course aims to prepare you for practice, with the theoretical knowledge and expertise you need to confidently treat the most challenging and endodontically compromised teeth.
Taught by renowned academics and experts in the field, you will learn how to use advanced technologies through a blended learning approach. You will be exposed to an intensive mix of lectures, seminars and practical workshops using advanced microscopes, piezo techniques and other contemporary ways of managing endodontic problems. You will also work with colleagues from other programmes to discuss management of patient cases with a multidisciplinary approach and develop sound judgement based on evidence.
As part of this programme, you will design and implement a research project that advances understanding in the discipline. Our objective is to provide dental surgeons with the core knowledge and clinical skills essential for the delivery of competent, high-quality dental care.
The Master's in Clinical Dentistry (MClinDent) Endodontology degree is awarded by BPP University.
This module explains the causes and aetiology of pulpal disease and how they may be treated or prevented. It provides knowledge of the morphology of teeth including the size, shape and course of the pulp chamber and canals developing an awareness of anatomical variations. Students will also be able diagnose pulpal disease, treat endodontology emergencies and advise patients of post-operative sequelae.
This module teaches students to develop a comprehensive, properly sequenced treatment plan and alternative plans based on all diagnostic data. It introduces the latest methods of managing disease of the pulp and technologies of root canal preparation, debridement and obturation underpinned by evidence-based treatment planning. It also covers restorative protocols and their influence on current thinking with regard the long-term prognosis of the root treated tooth.
If root canal treatment is not a viable or cost-effective treatment option this module gives an overview of implants and the theory of osseointegration with guidance on patient selection, diagnosis, treatment planning, and restorative protocols.
This module develops competency in retreatment of failed root canal treatment as a result of under-preparation, inadequate obturation and iatrogenic perforation of the canal system. Included is the management of facial trauma and surgical endodontology with risk assessment and determination of long-term prognosis.
This module addresses clinical aspects of occlusal treatment: diagnosis and treatment protocol, fabrication of bite splints, treatment of temporomandibular disorders, the creation of functional restorations, occlusal adjustment, and treatment of malocclusion.
Students present and treat a minimum of ten surgical cases, four of which are under supervision and appraised at an regional clinic. Students also contribute to seminars and present interesting case reports they treated or intend to treat under supervision or independently. The cases build up a clinical portfolio that is marked for evidence of successful completion of the module.
Introduces statistics, measurement, research design, and argument exploring their specific application in dental research and evaluation of different treatment modalities.
Students will be able to develop a research question and produce a research dissertation in an area relevant to their practice.
Design and optimisation of instrumentation and operative technique to facilitate an established surgical approach to a specific foot and ankle surgical intervention. There is a growing awareness of the impact of human factors and design phycology on the effectiveness and acceptance of instrumentation for surgical procedures. User experience with surgical instrumentation can impact surgeon confidence with a particular instrument set, and can influence purchasing choices for implants and instrumentation. Much of the development of recent years has focused on high volume procedures in the hip, knee and spine. This project proposes the investigation of the application of the designCORE approach to human centred design to the area of foot and ankle surgery, which has historically been underserved. Through the application of industrial design techniques the insights captured by this approach will be brought through to concept realisation and validation through simulation with qualified health care professionals (HCP) in University Hospital Waterford (UHW). A key objective of the project will be the development, through this case study, of a human centred design approach suitable for use in a design controlled environment.
Secondary research will be conducted to establish the state of the art in terms of surgical instrument design and to develop an understanding of the design factors specific to medical device design. Through discussion with contacts at UHW a candidate surgical intervention will be identified and the researcher will conduct in-depth research into this procedure. Following the desktop based research the researcher will gather design insights through contextual enquiry and ethnographic investigation. Working through the designCORE method of human centred design these insights will be brought through iterative design steps to develop viable design solutions to true user need. Design iterations will be tested through video analysis and human factors engineering. Design solutions will subsequently be validated through simulation with the identified HCPs.
From a design perspective the project aims to produce one or more improvements to the instrumentation or workflow of an existing foot and ankle surgical technique. The project will also provide a practice based case study for the application of the human centred design approach to medical device design. The project will also provide a platform to develop a research collaboration with University Hospital Waterford from which may lead to further postgraduate research opportunities. Through continued collaboration a South East regional hub for design in a healthcare setting may ultimately be developed between ITC and WUH. It is anticipated that the study outcomes could be reported in a joint publication between ITC and the participants at WUH.
Visit our website for more information on fees, scholarships, postgraduate loans and other funding options to study Computing and Future Interaction Technologies at Swansea University - 'Welsh University of the Year 2017' (Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017).
This Research Masters in Future Interaction Technologies and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) teaches graduate students to go beyond simply building new software and hardware, to evaluating how they would be used, and how they can be improved.
The MRes is taught by the Future Interaction Technology (FIT) Lab, within the Computer Science. The FIT Lab’s mission is to explore and apply Advanced Computer Science to make interaction technologies dependable, enjoyable and effective. Interaction technologies include mobile devices, the Web, Web 2.0, implants, home TVs, microwave cookers, ticket machines, navigational aids, etc. Furthermore, we aim to work on grand challenges, like improving safety in healthcare, or developing technology to reach the millions and help us live more effective and sustainable lives.
Our Research Masters programme in Future Interaction Technologies mainly concludes of a large individual research project worth 120 credits. Inclusive of this 120 credits is training and experience provided by our Lab & Field Research Methods module. You will spend around 8 months preparing for and working on this extensive project, which provides key experience in performing research-oriented projects. As the MRes has a research focus, you will spend more independent research time building a strong knowledge of research literature and striving to make a novel contribution to the HCI community.
In addition to the research project, you can choose from a range of modules that provide skills and development training in different areas during your studies on the Computing and Future Interaction Technologies MRes.
Modules available currently include:
Human Computer Interaction Project
Interaction Technologies: Lab & Field Work (compulsory)
Interaction Technologies: Seminars & Readings (compulsory)
Research Methodology (compulsory)
Mobile Interaction Design
Interactive Systems Design
Interaction Technologies: Information Retrieval
Interaction Technologies: Hardware & Devices
The MRes in Computing & Future Interaction Technologies is ideally suited for continued academic research, but also provides the necessary skills and key experience to apply research methods in HCI practitioner positions in industry.
Our Maxillofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation MSc has been designed for maxillofacial prosthetists, technologists and prosthodontists to learn to use cutting edge digital technology for intra and extra-oral prosthetic facial rehabilitation in clinical practice.
Delivered primarily online, the programme will enable you to develop your technical skills and develop higher standards of clinical practice without disrupting your professional and personal life. The content is prepared by world-leading experts, augmented with face-to-face skills training, and enables you to enhance your knowledge of prosthetic facial rehabilitation and improve your clinical and technical skills while continuing to practice anywhere in the world.
This programme will allow you to develop and demonstrate your extended knowledge, understanding and advanced skills in the treatment of patients who require prosthetic facial rehabilitation. You will study and practice a broad range of treatments for the replacement of missing hard and soft tissues, using both traditional and advanced digital technologies. The course includes:
Please note - The provision of any clinical opinions, treatment planning, treatment plans and/or any advice in relation to care of individual patients will not be provided by the teachers and staff of the programme. Patient treatment and care is the sole responsibility of the treating clinician. Advice regarding the suitability of a clinical case for submission for the clinical module can be given at the tutor’s discretion.
Intensive face-to-face training blocks
Delivered primarily online, the course also provides 18 days of intensive teaching and practical training at Rangoonwala College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Pune, India. Under expert supervision, these blocks are an invaluable way to consolidate learning and progress to the final year.
You will be taught mostly online through King's E-learning and Teaching Service (KEATS) which provides information, interactive questions, assignments, use of bibliographic databases and reading material. This gives you the freedom to study without interrupting your work and personal life, and to put your skills directly into practice. Our students participate in online tutorials and discussion groups, interacting with expert tutors and their fellow students. Face-to-face lectures and hands-on training take place in blocks in the first two years. Students are required to undertake and submit 4 cases of clinical work in their place of work.
60% per cent of each module will be assessed through exams and 40% through in-course assessment, with the exception of the Clinical Practice module, which is assessed entirely through coursework, and the Maxillofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation Research Report module which is assessed on a dissertation.
You can take your exams in London or, for overseas students, at centres in your country of residence.