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Masters Degrees (History Of Science)

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The University of Bristol ranks among the top European institutions in the philosophy and history of science. We currently hold four major research grants to study Darwinism and Rational Choice, Epistemic Utility Theory, Homotopy Type Theory and a philosophy and medicine project on breathlessness. Read more
The University of Bristol ranks among the top European institutions in the philosophy and history of science. We currently hold four major research grants to study Darwinism and Rational Choice, Epistemic Utility Theory, Homotopy Type Theory and a philosophy and medicine project on breathlessness. Our expertise is in a broad range of areas related to the philosophy and history of the specific sciences, including physics, biology, mathematics, logic, medicine and psychology.

Our MA draws on these strengths. It is intended both for students who have a first degree in philosophy who wish to specialise in philosophy and/or history of science at a higher level, and also for individuals with a background in pure science who wish to make a transition to philosophy and history of science or to explore foundational issues within the sciences.

The emphasis of the programme is on philosophical issues arising from specific scientific disciplines, with special emphasis on physics, biology and mathematics. The history of science is studied in terms of the philosophical debate about the nature of scientific method and knowledge.

You will be an active member of the department’s flourishing research culture. All students are encouraged to participate in both the weekly departmental research seminar and the weekly Philosophy and History of Science research seminar, which often features well-known scholars in the field, from Bristol and beyond. There is also a weekly postgraduate seminar, where you are encouraged to present your own work, and where you will learn to develop argumentative strategies in a supportive environment.

Programme structure

You will take six taught units (two compulsory and four optional).

Core units
-Scientific Methodology and Epistemology
-Philosophical Writing and Research Seminar

Optional units
-History of Science
-Philosophy and History of Mathematics
-Philosophy and History of Medicine
-Philosophy of Biology
-Philosophy of Physics
-Philosophy of Psychology
-An individual, supervised research project
Please be aware that optional units may vary from year to year.

Satisfactory completion of semesters one and two allows you to progress to writing a dissertation of up to 15,000 words on an approved topic of your choice. The dissertation is your chance to produce an extended piece of philosophical research that can act as preparation for a graduate research degree. You will have supervisory meetings with a member of staff who will also provide feedback on a draft of your work.


Students who have completed the MA in Philosophy and History of Science have taken up careers in teaching, the IT sector and scientific administration.

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This programme is unique in teaching the collective history of science, medicine, environment and technology. It is also unique as it offers modules that combine imperial, ethical, and military history with general areas of history of science and medicine. Read more
This programme is unique in teaching the collective history of science, medicine, environment and technology. It is also unique as it offers modules that combine imperial, ethical, and military history with general areas of history of science and medicine.

You learn from experts working in these diverse fields, being taught how different societies, cultures, and races have conceptualised disease, reacted to changes in environment and created different technological artefacts and scientific knowledge. You are introduced to the major and recent historiographical and methodological approaches, become familiar with the main archives in the UK and encouraged to approach the history of medicine, science, environment and technology from past as well as contemporary concerns.

Visit the website https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/83/history-of-science-medicine-environment-and-technology

About the School of History

The School of History at the University of Kent offers a great environment in which to research and study. Situated in a beautiful cathedral city with its own dynamic history, the University is within easy reach of the main London archives and is convenient for travelling to mainland Europe.

The School of History is a lively, research-led department where postgraduate students are given the opportunity to work alongside academics recognised as experts in their respective fields. The School was placed eighth nationally for research intensity in the most recent Research Excellence Framework, and consistently scores highly in the National Student Survey.

There is a good community spirit within the School, which includes regular postgraduate social meetings, weekly seminars and a comprehensive training programme with the full involvement of the School’s academic staff. Thanks to the wide range of teaching and research interests in the School, we can offer equally wide scope for research supervision covering British, European, African and American history.

At present, there are particularly strong groupings of research students in medieval and early modern cultural and social history, early modern religious history, the history and cultural studies of science and medicine, the medicine, the history of propaganda, military history, war and the media, and the history of Kent.


The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation. Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

HI878 - Methods and Interpretations of Historical Research (30 credits)
HI866 - Science and Medicine in Context (30 credits)
HI817 - Deformed, Deranged and Deviant (30 credits)
HI827 - Home Front Britain, 1914-18 (30 credits)
HI857 - Geiger Counter at Ground Zero: Explorations of Nuclear America (30 credits)
HI881 - Museums, Material Culture and the History of Science (30 credits)
HI883 - Work Placement (30 credits)


All courses are assessed by coursework, and the dissertation counts for half the final grade (comprising one third assessed preparation, two thirds actual dissertation).

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

- place the study of texts, images and documentaries in their historical contexts, at the centre of student learning and analysis

- ensure that students of the history of science, medicine, environment and technology acquire a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the historical modes of theory and analysis

- enable you to understand and use concepts, approaches and methods of the history of science, medicine, environment and technology in different academic contexts and develop an understanding of the differing and contested aspects between, and within, the relevant disciplines

- develop your capacities to think critically about past events and experiences

- encourage you to relate the academic study of the history of science, medicine, environment and technology to questions of public debate and concern

- promote a curriculum supported by scholarship, staff development and a research culture that promotes breadth and depth of intellectual enquiry and debate

- assist you to develop cognitive and transferable skills relevant to your vocational and personal development.

Study support

Postgraduate resources
The resources for historical research at Kent are led by the University’s Templeman Library: a designated European Documentation Centre which holds specialised collections on slavery and antislavery, and on medical science. The Library has a substantial collection of secondary materials to back-up an excellent collection of primary sources including the British Cartoon Archive, newspapers, a large audio-visual library, and a complete set of British Second World War Ministry of Information propaganda pamphlets.

The School has a dedicated Centre for the Study of Propaganda and War, which has a distinctive archive of written, audio and visual propaganda materials, particularly in film, video and DVD. Locally, you have access to: the Canterbury Cathedral Library and Archive (a major collection for the study of medieval and early modern religious and social history); the Centre for Kentish Studies at Maidstone; and the National Maritime Collection at Greenwich. Kent is also within easy reach of the country’s premier research collections in London and the national libraries in Paris and Brussels.

Dynamic publishing culture
Staff publish regularly and widely in journals, conference proceedings and books. Among others, they have recently contributed to: Journal of Contemporary History; English Historical Review; British Journal for the History of Science; Technology and Culture; and War and Society.

Global Skills Award
All students registered for a taught Master's programme are eligible to apply for a place on our Global Skills Award Programme (http://www.kent.ac.uk/graduateschool/skills/programmes/gsa.html). The programme is designed to broaden your understanding of global issues and current affairs as well as to develop personal skills which will enhance your employability

Research areas

Medieval and early modern history
Covering c400–c1500, incorporating such themes as Anglo-Saxon England, early-modern France, palaeography, British and European politics and society, religion and papacy.

Modern history
Covering c1500–present, incorporating such themes as modern British, European and American history, British military history, and 20th-century conflict and propaganda.

History of science, technology and medicine
Incorporating such themes as colonial science and medicine, Nazi medicine, eugenics, science and technology in 19th-century Britain.


As the job market becomes increasingly competitive, postgraduate qualifications are becoming more attractive to employers seeking individuals who have finely tuned skills and abilities, which our programmes encourage you to hone. As a result of the valuable transferable skills developed during your course of study, career prospects for history graduates are wide ranging. Our graduates go on to a variety of careers, from research within the government to teaching, politics to records management and journalism, to working within museums and galleries – to name but a few.

Find out how to apply here - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/apply/

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This programme will give you an insight into the complex history of technology, medicine, scientific knowledge and methodology, as well as how they have shaped the world we live in. Read more
This programme will give you an insight into the complex history of technology, medicine, scientific knowledge and methodology, as well as how they have shaped the world we live in.

You’ll explore the themes, concepts and debates in the study of the history of science through core modules. These will also allow you to develop your historical research skills, using our excellent library resources to work with primary and secondary sources. But you’ll also choose from a range of optional modules that allow you to specialise in topics areas that suit your interests, from birth, death and illness in the Middle Ages to modern science communication.

Guided by leading researchers and supported by our Centre of History and Philosophy of Science, you’ll learn in a stimulating environment with access to a wide range of activities. You could even gain research experience by getting involved in the development of our Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine.

Course Content

In your first semester you will take a core module introducing you to different approaches and debates in history of science, technology and medicine, as well as how they have been used over time to help us understand scientific developments. You will build on this in the following semester with a second core module that will give you a foundation in historical skills and research methods, equipping you to work critically and sensitively with primary and secondary sources.

You will have the chance to demonstrate the skills and knowledge you’ve gained in your dissertation, which you will submit by the end of the year. This is an independently researched piece of work on a topic of your choice within the history of science, technology and medicine – and you can choose to take an extended dissertation if you want to go into even greater depth.

Throughout the year you’ll be able to choose from a range of optional modules, allowing you to develop your knowledge by specialising in a topic of your choice such as science and religion historically considered, or science in the museum. You will take one optional module if you take the extended dissertation, or two if you do the standard dissertation.

If you choose to study part-time, you’ll study over a longer period and take fewer modules in each year.

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This MA will use the unique contributions of Shropshire to many areas of science. As those contributions include the theory of evolution, major geology advances and leading roles in the industrial use of iron and other materials, this focus will not restrict you as a student in any way. Read more
This MA will use the unique contributions of Shropshire to many areas of science. As those contributions include the theory of evolution, major geology advances and leading roles in the industrial use of iron and other materials, this focus will not restrict you as a student in any way. You will have the opportunity to explore any aspect of the history of science as you develop an understanding of how social factors have influenced scientific advances and how those, in turn, have impacted on society.

Why study History of Science at Shrewsbury?

Shropshire has had a strong influence on the development of science since the 19th century. Two of its most famous sons are Charles Darwin and William Penny-Brookes. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution has been highly influential in all areas of biology and beyond. Also known as the 'Father of the Modern Olympics', William Penny-Brookes promoted the use of exercise in prevention and treatment of illness. Apart from these two examples, Shropshire has had crucial roles in advances in many other areas, including geology, medicine and the industrial revolution. This Masters programme will cover scientific advances over the centuries, and within each module one section will cover Shropshire's unique contributions to the subject.


During this course, you will literally be following in the footsteps of many scientific giants – of which Charles Darwin was the greatest. You will be able to walk Darwin's thinking path while pondering how geology has shaped our evolution; sit in the library where Darwin was schooled in natural history; and reflect on one county's immense contribution to the world we know today.

Programme Structure:

The modules given below are the latest example of the curriculum available on this degree programme. Please note that programme structures and individual modules are subject to change from time to time for reasons which include curriculum enhancement, staff changes, student numbers, improvements in technology, changes to placements or regulatory or external body requirements.

The programme is modular with six taught modules – each worth 20 credits - and culminates in a 60-credit Dissertation. Modules are as follows:
- A Brief History of Time - a review of major advances in science over time – with a particular emphasis on building the research skills required for Level 7. Your literature searching, critical appraisal and writing skills will be developed through a series of group exercises.

- Darwin and Evolution - a look at how the evidence Darwin collected on the Beagle voyage persuaded him of the truth of evolution. You will discuss the influence of his family on his theory and also on the delay to publish. You will also follow the development of evolutionary theory – through the modern synthesis to molecular evolutionary studies.

- History of Medicine - in which you will learn about the important medical advances that have been made over the centuries. William Farr (the father of medical statistics) from Kenley was the first to use statistics effectively in epidemiology, demonstrating that the source of cholera was polluted water. Other important Shropshire medics include Henry Hickson (one of the fathers of anaesthesia) and Agnes Hunt (the first orthopaedic nurse and founder of the Shropshire Orthopaedic Hospital, which later moved to Oswestry and is now known as Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital).

- The Rocks of Ages - in which you will explore the unique rich geological heritage in a county that represents most of the rock types found throughout most of the geological period of time. You will also examine the work of the geological pioneers, such as Impey Murchison, and their contribution to our modern understanding of earth sciences.

- Iron and the Industrial Revolution - Shropshire's pioneering scientific and technological iron founding processes contributed directly to the development of modern metallurgy. In this module you will explore the inquisitiveness of the industrial pioneers such as Abraham Darby and their understanding of the natural environment that led to the birth of the industrial revolution.

- Dissertation - which aims to provide you with an opportunity to investigate systematically and in depth a topic of direct relevance to the programme of study and your personal interests; to enable you to draw on and contribute to the development of the growing body of knowledge in the broad history of science field; and to enable you to present the outcomes of personal research in the form of a substantial review paper and an academic research article suitable for publication in an appropriate research journal.


We use a flexible mode of delivery, including three-day intensive modules and evening lectures to facilitate attendance from students in employment, both nationwide and internationally. Assessments vary between modules – but will be coursework only – and will include a review paper, a report case study, poster, or an oral presentation. Please contact us for further details.

The Dissertation is assessed by the production of a substantial review paper and an academic research article suitable for publication in an appropriate research journal.

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The MPhil in History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine is a full-time 9-month course that provides students with the opportunity to carry out focused research under close supervision by senior members of the University. Read more
The MPhil in History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine is a full-time 9-month course that provides students with the opportunity to carry out focused research under close supervision by senior members of the University. Students will acquire or develop skills and expertise relevant to their research interests, as well as a critical and well informed understanding of the roles of the sciences in society. Those intending to go on to doctoral work will learn the research skills needed to help them prepare a well planned and focused PhD proposal. During the course students gain experience of presenting their own work and discussing the issues that arise from it with an audience of their peers and senior members of the Department; they will attend lectures, supervisions and research seminars in a range of technical and specialist subjects central to research in the different areas of History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine.

The educational aims of the programme are:

- to give students with relevant training at first-degree level the opportunity to carry out focussed research in History, Philosophy of Science and Medicine under close supervision;
- to give students the opportunity to acquire or develop skills and expertise relevant to their research interests;
- to enable students to acquire a critical and well informed understanding of the roles of the sciences in society; and
- to help students intending to go on to doctoral work to acquire the requisite research skills and to prepare a well planned and focussed PhD proposal.

Visit the website: http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/courses/directory/hphpmpstm

Course detail

The MPhil course is taught by supervisions and seminars and assessed by three research essays and a dissertation.

The topics of the essays and dissertation should each fall within the following specified subject areas:

1. General philosophy of science
2. History of ancient and medieval science, technology and medicine
3. History of early modern science, technology and medicine
4. History of modern science, technology and medicine
5. History, philosophy and sociology of the life sciences
6. History, philosophy and sociology of the physical and mathematical sciences
7. History, philosophy and sociology of the social and psychological sciences
8. History, philosophy and sociology of medicine
9. Ethics and politics of science
10. History and methodology of history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine


The MPhil seminars are the core teaching resource for this course. In the first part of year these seminars are led by different senior members of the Department and focus on selected readings. During the rest of the year the seminars provide opportunities for MPhil students to present their own work.

Students are encouraged to attend the lectures, research seminars, workshops and reading groups that make the Department a hive of intellectual activity. The Department also offers graduate training workshops, which focus on key research, presentation, publication and employment skills.

The MPhil programme is administered by the MPhil Manager, who meets all new MPhil students as a group in early October, then sees each of the students individually to discuss their proposed essay and dissertation topics. The Manager is responsible for finding appropriate supervisors for each of these topics; the supervisors are then responsible for helping the student do the research and writing needed for the essays and the dissertation. Students will see each of their supervisors frequently; the MPhil Manager sees each student at regular intervals during the year to discuss progress and offer help and advice.

Supervisions are designed to provide students with the opportunity to set their own agenda for their studies. The supervisor's job is to support the student's research, not to grade their work – supervisors are formally excluded from the examination process.

See the website http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/courses/directory/hphpmpstm

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have:

- Knowledge and Understanding -

- developed a deeper knowledge of their chosen areas of History, Philosophy of Science and Medicine and of the critical debates within them;
- acquired a conceptual understanding that enables the evaluation of current research and methodologies;
- formed a critical view of the roles of the sciences in society.

- Skills and other attributes -

By the end of the course students should have:

- acquired or consolidated historiographic, linguistic, technical and ancillary skills appropriate for research in their chosen area;
- demonstrated independent judgement, based on their own research;
- presented their own ideas in a public forum and learned to contribute constructively within an international environment.


- A dissertation of up to 15,000 words. Examiners may request an oral examination but this is not normally required.
- Three essays, each of up to 5,000 words.

Students receive independent reports from two examiners on each of their three essays and the dissertation.


The usual preconditions for continuing to the PhD are an overall first class mark in the MPhil, a satisfactory performance in an interview and agreement of the PhD proposal with a potential supervisor.

How to apply: http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/applying

Funding Opportunities

- Rausing Studentships
- Raymond and Edith Williamson Studentships
- Lipton Studentships
- Wellcome Master's Awards

Please see the Department's graduate funding page for more information: http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/studying/graduate/funding.html

General Funding Opportunities http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/finance/funding

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Why do languages change? Why does your mobile device suggest funny completions for words you are typing? How did it happen that Finnish is spoken mostly… Read more
Why do languages change? Why does your mobile device suggest funny completions for words you are typing? How did it happen that Finnish is spoken mostly in Finland, but its linguistic relatives are scattered over a larger area? How can you study a language that does not have a standard orthography? Why can you sometimes tell where other people come from just by their accent? Why do some people stick to their dialect, but others give it up when they move to the city? Should you try to support language diversity? Can we save languages that are spoken by a very small number of people? How can computer-synthesised speech be made to sound more human? Why do some languages seem so much more difficult to learn - are they inherently more complex?

This Master's programme will provide you with an understanding of the nature and diversity of human language and with the theoretical tools for working with language material. If you are interested in languages but are unable to decide which of them you want to study, this Master's programme offers several fields of specialisation. One of them might be just perfect for you.

During your studies, you will:
-Gain an in-depth understanding of the basic structure of language, its subsystems (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics) and their mutual relationships.
-Learn the fundamentals of linguistic analysis and language description.
-Familiarize yourself with linguistic concepts, theories, descriptive models and the associated research methods.
-Learn how language is related to cognition, speech and interaction as well as to social structures, culture and society.
-Learn to use various methods and technical tools in order to manage and analyze language data.
-Gain a good understanding of linguistic variation and diversity: what is common to the world's languages and how they differ, how language changes through time, how languages influence one another, how individuals cope with multilingual situations and how communities speaking endangered languages can be supported.

After completing your studies, you will be able to work independently in various fields that require multidisciplinary expertise in linguistic sciences. You will have the theoretical knowledge and skills that are required for postgraduate studies in the doctoral programme in language studies.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

Linguistic Diversity in the Digital Age is an integrated international programme that offers you a comprehensive view of all subfields of the science of language. As a student in the programme you will be able to choose among four specialist options: (1) General Linguistics, (2) Phonetics, (3) Language Technology, and (4) Diversity Linguistics.

General Linguistics
Gives you comprehensive in-depth training in a wide range of theoretical and methodological approaches to language structure and language in use. Special emphasis is put on language typology in a global perspective as well as the documentation and description of endangered and previously undocumented and under-documented forms of speech.

Introduces you to the tools for working with the articulatory, acoustic and perceptional aspects of human speech from a multidisciplinary perspective. At the more advanced level, you will become acquainted with the methods of experimental phonetics.

Language Technology
Combines linguistics with digital technology in an interdisciplinary approach with close links to computer science. The focus areas include natural language processing (NLP) for morphologically rich languages, cross-lingual NLP and language technology in the humanities.

Diversity Linguistics
Encompasses all aspects of linguistic diversity in time and space, including historical linguistics as well as the extralinguistic context of languages: ethnicities, cultures and environ­ments. The areal foci in Diversity Linguistics are Eurasia and Africa.

These four specialist options interact at all levels. There is a study module common to all students in the programme regardless of the specialist option they choose. The integration of these four perspectives into one programme is unique - no similar programme exists anywhere else.

In the context of “Humanities”, the programme has the closest relationship to natural sciences, and many subfields of the programme involve methods directly linked to laboratory sciences, including digital technology and neurosciences.

The teaching in the programme includes lectures and seminars, practical exercise sessions, reading circles, fieldwork excursions, as well as work practice (internship). The broad spectrum of teaching methods guarantees optimal support for your learning processes.

Programme Structure

The scope of the Master of Arts degree is 120 credits. The degree contains the following studies:
-Studies common to all students in the programme (30 credits)
-Advanced studies in the specialist option (at least 60 credits)
-Other studies (up to 30 credits)

The target duration of full-time studies leading to an MA degree is two years.

All students in the programme take the same courses during the autumn semester of the first year.

Then you will focus on your specialist option (general linguistics, phonetics, language technology, or diversity linguistics). This block of studies consists of courses (at least 30 credits) and of the final project, which is your Master's thesis (30 credits).

Additionally, you choose other studies: modules offered either by the other specialist options within this Master's programme or by other programmes within the University of Helsinki. The size of such optional study modules is typically 15, 25 or 30 credits. Courses offered by other universities can also be included here.

The studies in your own specialist option as well as the other studies may also include an internationalization period (e.g. student exchange) and work practice or other working life oriented study units. Working life and career development perspectives are integrated in many courses in the programme.

You will complete your studies systematically. At the beginning of your Master’s studies, you will prepare your first personal study plan (PSP). In this, you will receive support especially from the staff of the Master's programme. Guidance is also given at the Faculty level.

Career Prospects

After graduation, students of the programme find employment in a wide variety of positions, in which special knowledge of language is required.

One path prepares you for a research career, and many graduates work as researchers in Finland and abroad. You can also work in the political, diplomatic, and educational sectors, as well as research administration. Further potential employers are found in the publishing industry, media and journalism, public relations and communications of business and public administration, as well as NGOs.

If you choose a technological orientation, you may work in language technology firms or more generally in the IT sector. Big international companies are in constant need of experts in speech and language technology. Additionally, there is a vibrant field of domestic companies, some established ones and many promising start-ups. Some students have founded their own companies and become entrepreneurs.

Note that it is not possible to graduate as a (subject) teacher in the LingDA Master's programme.

In honour of the University of Helsinki's 375th anniversary, the Faculty of Arts presented 375 humanists during year 2015. Get to know the humanists! http://375humanistia.helsinki.fi/


Linguistics is by definition an international field. Language capacity is a feature common to all human beings, and the objective of linguistics as a science is to study both the universal background of language as a phenomenon and the global diversity of languages as expressions of social and cultural heritage.

In the LingDA programme, internationalization is present in several forms and at several levels:
-The programme functions in English and accepts international students from all countries.
-The programme recruits students representing a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
-The students are encouraged to study and master many languages from both the practical and the theoretical points of view.
-The students are encouraged early on to get engaged in documentational and typological field work among speakers of little documented languages in various parts of the world.
-The students are encouraged to use the opportunities of international exchange that the university offers.

The programme has a high international profile and all teachers have wide international contact networks. At the university of Helsinki, linguistics was internationalized as early as the 19th century. Finland is a country where, in particular, ethnolinguistics and field linguistics were developed and practised much earlier than in most other European countries. Some of the regions where Finnish ethnolinguists have been active include North and Central Eurasia, the Near and Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, and Africa. This tradition of field-work-oriented linguistics is today carried on by the HALS (Helsinki Area and Linguistic Studies) research community. At the same time, the more recent fields of linguistics, including phonetics, language technology, and typology, have developed their own international profiles.

Research Focus

The MA programme Diversity Linguistics in the Digital Age combines several research fields in which the University of Helsinki has long been a global leader. Language research in Helsinki has always maintained its strong commitment to a better understanding of cultural areas and their history. Situated in an ideal place for the study of language history and contact linguistics of various Eurasian language families, the study of Uralic languages has a long tradition in Helsinki. Our interest in the culturally and historically informed study of language reaches well beyond that, though, spanning Asia, Europe and Africa.

Our language research is empirically driven and informed by linguistic typology. The question of linguistic complexity, its significance for language and cultural history, and its intersection with ecological models is a hallmark of the Helsinki School of Linguistics. We explore new horizons in area and language studies by combining cutting edge research in linguistic typology with field work based descriptive linguistics and linguistic anthropology.

A unique asset at the University of Helsinki is the presence of various language technology initiatives at the forefront of the digital humanities. The study of morphologically complex languages plays a great role here, and special attention is paid to lesser researched languages.

Each of the four study lines of our MA programme thus corresponds to a University of Helsinki focus area. Our language-related research is typically multidisciplinary and involves more than one linguistic specialty. This is also a crucial feature in our MA programme. Students receive theoretical, thematic and methodological training for research or other professional careers that require problem-solving skills in order to maintain linguistic diversity and to support people’s linguistic well-being.

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Take advantage of one of our 100 Master’s Scholarships to study History at Swansea University, the Times Good University Guide’s Welsh University of the Year 2017. Read more
Take advantage of one of our 100 Master’s Scholarships to study History at Swansea University, the Times Good University Guide’s Welsh University of the Year 2017. Postgraduate loans are also available to English and Welsh domiciled students. For more information on fees and funding please visit our website.

The MA by Research in History is a research degree pursued over one year full-time or two years part-time. Students on the History research programme undertake research under the supervision of History staff, and produce a thesis that makes an original contribution to knowledge and understanding of some aspect of the past.

Key Features of the MA by Research in History

The expertise of the Department of History and Classics spans from the ancient cultures and languages of ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome to the history of late twentieth- and early twenty-first-century Europe. The research of our staff and postgraduates is integral to the life of the Department of History and Classics, and it means that Swansea is a dynamic, exciting, and stimulating place to study.

History and Classics is part of the Research Institute for the Arts and Humanities (RIAH: http://www.swansea.ac.uk/riah/), which organises a large number of seminars, conferences, and other research activities. There are also a number of research groups which act as focal points for staff and postgraduates, including: the Richard Burton Centre for the Study of Wales, Centre for Ancient Narrative Literature (KYKNOS), Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Research (MEMO), and the Centre for research into Gender in Culture and Society (GENCAS).

As a student of the History research programme you have access to skills and training programmes offered by the College of Arts and Humanities and the University.

The MA by Research in History is ideal for those who would like to do an initial research degree, either as a stand-alone culmination to their studies or with a view to further, subsequent research, e.g. in form of a PhD. Research proposals are invited on any topic in medieval, early modern, or modern history for which staff can provide supervision.

For informal enquiries regarding the MA by research in History programme please contact: Dr Fritz-Gregor Herrmann ().

Research Interests

Research interests in the Department of History and Classics include:

Medieval History

• The Anglo-Norman ‘Realm’ and the Angevin Empire
• Capetian France, especially the monarchy, aristocracy, and religious orders
• The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade
• Charters and the documentary records of medieval France and England
• The Mediterranean world, especially the Crusades, later medieval Italian society and politics, and the Italian Renaissance, including art history
• England and Wales in the central and late Middle Ages, including the aristocracy and gentry, the Welsh Marches, urban history, law and crime, women and the law, religious belief and practice, and education and literacy
• Gender and the life cycle in late medieval Europe
• Medieval frontier societies and borderlands, and concepts of frontiers from the late Roman Empire to the present day

Early Modern History

• Most aspects of British history between 1500 and 1800, especially religious, scientific, cultural and gender history
• The history of health and medicine in early modern Britain
• History of Disabilities
• The Portuguese Empire
• The Reformation and Counter-Reformation
• Science, intellectual life, collecting and museums in early modern Europe
• The social history of early modern sex and marriage
• Crime and witchcraft
• The Enlightenment, republicanism and international relations in the eighteenth century

Modern History

• Most aspects of Welsh history, especially industrial society
• The cultural, intellectual and urban history of nineteenth-century and twentieth-century Britain
• Modern international history
• The United States since 1750, in particular slavery, the South and the Civil War
• The economic and imperial history of Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
• Emigration and urbanisation in the British Isles between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries
• The political history of the UK since 1800
• Military and society in Europe between 1750 and 1815
• Austrian and German history in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
• Austrian, German and Central European history, especially in the fields of urban, labour and post-1945 history
• Modern economic history
• Quantitative aspects of British economic growth from the sixteenth to the twenty-first centuries
• Anti-capitalist and socialist political economy
• Policing and police forces in twentieth-century Europe
• Italian fascism
• Allied Occupation of Italy
• Contemporary French and Italian social an d cultural history
• Memory studies and oral history of twentieth-century Europe
• History of protest and activism in the 1960s and 1970s

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Take advantage of one of our 100 Master’s Scholarships to study History at Swansea University, the Times Good University Guide’s Welsh University of the Year 2017. Read more
Take advantage of one of our 100 Master’s Scholarships to study History at Swansea University, the Times Good University Guide’s Welsh University of the Year 2017. Postgraduate loans are also available to English and Welsh domiciled students. For more information on fees and funding please visit our website.

The MA in History is an exciting programme that covers a wide range of topics in history from the Middle Ages onwards.

Key Features of MA in History

The wide-ranging expertise of Swansea University's historians offers the study of British, European, American or Asian History. The History MA allows students to explore the history of art and culture, empire, gender, politics, religion, sexuality and science.

Students on the MA History programme are introduced to key concepts that shape the study of history. The MA in History students benefit not only from the unusual concentration of historians at Swansea, but also from the existence of the College of Arts and Humanities Research Centres, the Callaghan Centre for the Study of Conflict, Power and Empires and the Richard Burton Centre.

History MA students benefit from the the College of Arts and Humanities' Graduate Centre. The Graduate Centre fosters and supports individual and collaborative research activity of international excellence and offers a vibrant and supportive environment for students pursuing postgraduate research and taught masters study including the MA in History programme. The Centre provides postgraduate training to enhance academic and professional development and facilitates participation in seminar programmes, workshops and international conferences.

The full-time History course structure is split across the year with three modules taken in each academic semester (a total of six modules) and then a dissertation over the summer. History students study three compulsory modules and three optional modules. The dissertation is written on a specialist research topic of the student's choosing.

Part-time study for MA in History is available.

MA in History Programme Aims

- To acquire advanced knowledge and understanding of a range of topics related to history.
- To develop theoretical and methodological skills relevant to all aspects of the study of history.
- To lay a solid foundation of knowledge and analytical and presentational skills for further research work in the field.

Modules on the MA in History

Modules on the History course typically include:

• Historical Methods and Approaches
• New Departures in the Writing of History
• Communicating History
• Directed Reading in History
• From Princely Possessions to Public Museums: A History of Collecting and Display
• Power, Conflict, and Society in the Modern World
• Venice and the Sea
• Medieval Manuscripts
• Fascism & Culture

Who should Apply?

Students from a history or related background. Students interested in preparation for postgraduate research, MPhil or PhD, or who wish to develop skills and knowledge related to history.

Research Interests

All staff in the Department of History and Classics are research active and publish books and articles in their areas of expertise. Staff and students are members of a range of Arts and Humanities research centres: the Callaghan Centre for the Study of Conflict, Power and Empire, the Richard Burton Centre for the Study of Wales and the Research Groups: MEMO: the Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Research and GENCAS: the Centre for Research into Gender in Culture and Society. Regular research seminars and lectures are run through these groups and through the Research Institute for Arts and Humanities (RIAH) giving students including those of the MA in History programme access to cutting-edge research.


Career expectations are excellent for History graduates. MA degree holders in History may move on to doctoral study or enter employment in such areas as museums, heritage and tourism; marketing, sales and advertising; business, art, design and culture; media and PR; social and welfare professions; humanitarian organisations; the civil service, and education.

Student Quote

“I graduated with a First-Class Honours BA History degree and an MA in History from Swansea University. My four years of study here were truly the most enjoyable of my life so far! The lecturers, tutors and all members of the History department were also incredibly friendly and always willing to help. The History MA was fully funded by a University Alumni bursary. The range of modules available to MA students is exceptional and the facilities here are fantastic. With a designated Arts and Humanities Postgraduate computer room and common-room area, as well as the University’s very own archives, Swansea is a great place to study History.”

Cath Horler, History, MA

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This course involves exploring the development of philosophy from Antiquity to early modern and modern times, with a particular emphasis on the genesis of modern scientific disciplines such as psychology, physics or chemistry, out of the traditional body of Aristotelian natural philosophy. Read more

Master's specialisation in History of Philosophy (Research)

This course involves exploring the development of philosophy from Antiquity to early modern and modern times, with a particular emphasis on the genesis of modern scientific disciplines such as psychology, physics or chemistry, out of the traditional body of Aristotelian natural philosophy.
There is no other academic discipline in which the past is so important as in philosophy: today's philosophers are still engaging with the pioneers of the field: Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger and Wittgenstein. For this reason, the philosophy curriculum at Radboud University consists of a number of historical courses. The specialisation History of Philosophy covers the entire history of philosophy from the Presocratic philosophers up to today, divided into four periods: ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary.
Key authors for this specialisation are, in alphabetical order, Aristotle, Descartes, Epicurus, Galileo, German idealists, Hegel, Hobbes, Hume, Leibniz, Lucretius, Merleau-Ponty, Plato, Pomponazzi, Sartre, and Thomas Aquinas.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/history

Why study History of Philosophy at Radboud University?

- We offer a large choice of research courses in the history of philosophy.
- Our programme emphasises the importance of developing and using research skills.
- You will have a personal supervisor who will guide you during the entire programme.
- As a Research Master’s student, you’ll be affiliated with the Centre for the History of Philosophy and Science, which has received top rankings in the field in past national evaluations (2006 and 2013).
- This is an excellent preparation for post-graduate life due to the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis: a publishable article and a PhD research proposal.
- Students have a high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad.
- There is an international climate: more than half of the teaching staff and Research Master’s students are from outside the Netherlands.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers investigate varied aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills; the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually, and the ability to document their conclusions using clear and persuasive language. Such skills require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first vocational step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme is designed for people aiming to do research in the field. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. The majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that over 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our research in this field

All of the research related to this specialisation is embedded in the Centre for the History of Philosophy and Science. This internationally renowned centre is dedicated to the study of the historical interrelation of philosophy and the sciences. Many of the researchers affiliated with the centre investigate the evolution of natural philosophy since Aristotle and the development of the different natural scientific disciplines (such as physics, chemistry or psychology) since the seventeenth century. Although the centre is best known for its expertise in the ancient, medieval and early modern periods, the researchers also cover the entire period from the Aristotelian corpus up to contemporary philosophy.

The focus on natural philosophy is due to the consideration that, at least up to the eighteenth century, factors such as time, space, the motion of stars, and the nature of the human soul were all integral parts of (natural) philosophy. Nijmegen's Center for the History of Philosophy and Science is the only research centre in the world dedicated to the investigation of this historical development.

Thesis subjects in History of Philosophy

The centre is active in organising public lectures, seminars and colloquia, which students are very welcome to attend. Although many research Master’s students choose a topic related to the research activities of the Centre, this is not mandatory. Recent Master’s theses (publishable articles) were about the following themes:
- The use of history in utopian tales
- The Vatican censorship of Paracelsus
- Thought experiments in Locke and Leibniz
- The theme of flight in Plato and Philo of Alexandria
- Bergson’s method of intuition
- Chiffons of Clairvaux on the will
- Perceptual experience in Merleau-Ponty
- Agamben’s reading of Hegel

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/history

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Develop your understanding of history and of the nature of historical research with this flexible course that encourages you to develop as independent researcher. Read more
Develop your understanding of history and of the nature of historical research with this flexible course that encourages you to develop as independent researcher.

Course overview

The MA Historical Research is for students who want to develop their understanding of history and of the nature of historical research. It is a flexible course that will encourage you to develop as an independent researcher. You will be able to pursue your interests in history while discovering the ways in which historians work. You will also engage with the intellectual, practical and social facets of the profession.

Core modules emphasise the nature of the discipline or historical research, its evolution (History in the Past or Historians on History) and the preparatory work for independent research (The Profession of the Historian or the Dissertation Feasibility Study). These modules will give you the grounding needed to engage with your own research project in the dissertation module.

Design your MA studies according to your preferred methods of learning. If you prefer to work independently you may choose to opt for the Extended History Dissertation, whereas if you prefer more taught elements you can opt for the History Dissertation. This will allow you to place more or less emphasis on independent work and research. The Extended History Dissertation is a great opportunity for those wanting to move on to further research or who want to develop a career in which research is a key element. In both cases, the project will be negotiated with the teaching team to reflect both you and your lecturers’ research interests.

The course is designed to implement the research-led curriculum of the university in which you become involved in research through the guidance of research-active members of staff - all staff members on the teaching team are research active.

You will graduate with a firm grounding in the way history evolves through an understanding of the nature of the discipline in all its diversity and of the challenges it faces. This, combined with an engagement with a specific subject area, will foster a critical understanding of history, necessary for a wide range of careers in research, academia, law, journalism and the cultural sector.

Course content

The course mixes taught elements with independent research and self-directed study. There is flexibility to pursue personal interests in considerable depth, with guidance from Sunderland's supportive tutors.

Core module:
-History in the past (15 Credits)
-Historians on History (15 Credits)
-History in the past (15 Credits)
-Historians on History (15 Credits)
-Dissertation Feasibility study (30 Credits)
-The profession of the historian (15 Credits)
-The Profession of the historian (Symposium/Webinar) (15 Credits)

Dissertation modules:
-History Dissertation (60 Credits)
-Extended History Dissertation (90 Credits)

Optional modules (for students choosing the Dissertation module HISM40) would typically include:
-Suicide Until the Reformation
-Suicide Since the Reformation
-Law, Family and Community Relations 1550-1800
-Law, Treason and Rebellion 1550-1800
-Britain Between the Wars: The Changing Party System
-Britain Between the Wars: The Challenges of the Inter War Years
-Foundations of Liberty - Obedience and Resistance
-Foundations of liberty - Religious toleration
-Human Rights in History: Ideas and Movements
-Human Rights in History: Organizations, Activists and Campaigns
-Revolution in Science and Art 1870-1920
-Revolution in Science and Art 1870-1920

You will normally choose your options during the induction week when the full list of optional modules available that year will be presented to you. The number of optional modules offered will depend on the size of the cohort and the availability of staff. Not all options will be available every year. In any one academic year no more than three optional modules (3 x 15 credits) will be offered. Optional modules all run in Semester 2.

Facilities & location

The University of Sunderland has excellent facilities that have been boosted by multi-million pound redevelopments.

University Library Services
We’ve got thousands of books and e-books on topics related to history, with many more titles available through the inter-library loan service. We also subscribe to a comprehensive range of print and electronic journals so you can access the most reliable and up-to-date academic and industry articles.

Some of the most important sources for your course include:
-House of Commons Parliamentary Papers including bills, registers and journals
-Early English Books Online, which provides digital images of virtually every work printed in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and British North America during 1473-1800
-Eighteenth Century Collections Online, which provides 136,000 full-text publications from 1701-1800
-Periodicals Archive Online, which provides digitised literary journals
-Archival Sound Recordings with over 12,000 hours of recordings
-JSTOR (short for ‘Journal Storage’), which provides access to important journals across the humanities, social sciences and sciences
Lexis, which provides access to legal information as well as full-text newspaper articles
-Nineteenth Century British Library Newspapers, with full runs of 48 titles
-Screen Online (BFI), which is an online encyclopaedia of British film and television, featuring clips from the vast collections of the BFI National Archive
-SocINDEX with full-text articles, which is probably the world's most comprehensive and highest-quality sociology research database

The Murray Library at the University also contains the physical archive of the North East England Mining Archive and Resource Centre. This contains mining records, technical reports, trade union records and health & safety information.

IT provision
When it comes to IT provision you can take your pick from hundreds of PCs as well as Apple Macs in the David Goldman Informatics Centre and St Peter’s library. There are also free WiFi zones throughout the campus. If you have any problems, just ask the friendly helpdesk team.

Course location
The course is based at the Priestman Building on City Campus, just a few minutes from the main Murray Library and close to Sunderland city centre. It’s a very vibrant and supportive environment with excellent resources for teaching and learning.

Employment & careers

This course is relevant to a wide range of professions, highlighting as it does critical and analytical skills and an ability to develop and effectively advance an argument. A large number of transferable skills will be gained: research skills, writing skills, presentation skills, analytical and critical skills. These will be valuable in a huge range of careers and activities.

The course has been designed with employability in mind, with a focus on the way research skills can be transferred to the work place.

History by nature is a subject that includes a number of transferable skills such as critical thinking, collecting and analysing data critically, working independently and to a deadline, developing a coherent argument, writing, and oral skills. The QAA Subject Benchmark statement for History (December 2014) lists the some following (§3.3):
-Self discipline
-Independence of mind, and initiative
-A questioning disposition and the ability to formulate and pursue clearly defined questions and enquiries
-Ability to work with others, and to have respect for others' reasoned views
-Ability to gather, organise and deploy evidence, data and information; and familiarity with appropriate means of identifying, finding, retrieving, sorting and exchanging information
-Analytical ability, and the capacity to consider and solve problems, including complex problems to which there is no single solution
-Structure, coherence, clarity and fluency of both oral and written expression
-Imaginative insight and creativity
-Awareness of ethical issues and responsibilities that arise from research into the past and the reuse of the research and writing of others

These transferable skills will be fostered through each module and particularly emphasised in core modules. Furthermore, the research skills module The profession of the historian Symposium/Webinar will involve the organisation of a mini symposium. You will be expected to engage with some of the administrative and practical skills involved in organising an academic event.

During the dissertation feasibility study, you will be expected to deliver papers to an audience of staff and peers, allowing you to practice your oral and presentational skills.

MA Historical Research graduates can expect to be employed in:

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MSc history STM. A classic. Our much-praised MSc programme in history of science, medicine and technology. Running for more than 20 years. Read more
MSc history STM:
A classic. Our much-praised MSc programme in history of science, medicine and technology. Running for more than 20 years

MSc STM society:
Concentrate on science and technology policy and the sociology of science, using history as a lens

Programmes are run jointly with UCL (Wellcome Centre for the History of Medicine and department of Science and Technology Studies). Top marks went to all 3 departments in the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise.

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This Master's degree in history explores how the formidable forces of science and medicine have fundamentally shaped who we are. Read more
This Master's degree in history explores how the formidable forces of science and medicine have fundamentally shaped who we are. The history of science and medicine covers the history of ideas, technologies and interventions, but it also takes into consideration the history of everyday experiences of health, illness and wellbeing. 'Ordinary' people turn out to be the extraordinary lens through which we can reflect on our past. Pain and illness change the way we look at the world: certain forms of suffering are increasing, with chronic pain, for example, now affecting around 40% of people in Britain and America. The provision of healthcare is also undergoing major shifts and history can teach us valuable lessons about how medicine and caregiving has been understood in the past.

This programme explores the historical roots and the social and conceptual foundations of modern science and medicine, equipping you with a deep understanding of how scientific and medical ideas and institutions relate to their broader historical context. It offers you the chance to study this fascinating, expanding area of social and cultural history at a department in which teaching is research-led, delivered by core staff with world-renowned research expertise. This is a growing field in which exciting new questions are being asked and new methodological approaches are being created and applied. Birkbeck is at the forefront of these advances and, unlike similar MA programmes, we cover the period from the ancient world to the present, and from global perspectives.

The programme provides a framework within which you can develop your research techniques and prepare for doctoral, professional or other research, but the primary focus is on providing a rich and varied experience of studying history at postgraduate level, allowing you to satisfy and expand your passion for the subject. The programme will also appeal to healthcare professionals and caregivers who may benefit from knowing more about the history of medicine, health and care.

The compulsory core course will introduce you to the systematic study of historiography and the methodologies used in the analysis and interpretation of historical source material. You can explore the enormous breadth of research interests in the department via the 3 option modules you choose, which span from the ancient to the contemporary. Finally, the dissertation gives you the chance to pursue your own interests and undertake your own research and critical thinking under the supervision of a member of staff with relevant expertise.

Why study this course at Birkbeck?

Arts and humanities courses at Birkbeck are ranked third best in London and 11th in the UK in the Times Higher Education 2015-16 World University Subject Rankings.
This Master's degree offers an innovative approach to an exciting area of historical and cultural study and is taught by renowned scholars, including Professor Joanna Bourke.
The programme allows you to follow your own interests, with a wide choice of option modules, while developing your research skills and undertaking a dissertation in an area that interests you.
Birkbeck is home to several doctoral candidates and postdoctoral fellows, working in the areas of medical history and medical humanities, who are funded by the Wellcome Trust. Students on this programme are eligible to apply for Wellcome Trust studentships.
Our Department of History, Classics and Archaeology is one of the leading research and teaching departments for history in the UK. It is ranked 6th in the UK for the percentage of our research deemed world-leading or internationally excellent.
Our academic staff are international authorities in their fields, delivering stimulating, research-led teaching.
Our department is home to thriving student societies and a number of affiliated research centres that actively run seminars, conferences and other events where some of the world's best scholars present their latest research. These include the Pears Institute for the Study of Antisemitism, the Raphael Samuel History Centre and the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities.
We are located 5 minutes' walk from the British Museum and the British Library, while the Museum of London is easily reachable. The Institute of Historical Research is located in Bloomsbury, near the main Birkbeck campus, and has an internationally renowned library collection and seminars that you can attend.
Birkbeck Library has an extensive history collection, including the major specialist journals, and access to online materials.

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This programme explores the histories of science, technology and medicine (HSTM) through a wide range of case studies, from the emergence of professional scientific disciplines such as physics and biology, to the growth of `Big Science' in the Cold war era, to the complex history of the National Health Service. Read more
This programme explores the histories of science, technology and medicine (HSTM) through a wide range of case studies, from the emergence of professional scientific disciplines such as physics and biology, to the growth of `Big Science' in the Cold war era, to the complex history of the National Health Service. We focus on the integrated understanding of HSTM through consideration of sites, institutions, and schools of thought and practice, and pay particular attention to how scientists and medics have communicated with non-specialist audiences.

The taught course consists of lectures, seminars and tutorials. Reflecting CHSTM¿s established research strengths, studies focus on nineteenth- and twentieth-century cases. Students will gain experience in historical essay-writing before researching and writing an extensive dissertation on a specialised topic, supervised by experienced researchers.

This MSc is appropriate for students from any disciplinary background. It works both as an advanced study course for students with undergraduate experience in HSTM, and as a conversion route for students from other backgrounds (often in the sciences, but also including general history, social policy, and other fields).

The HSTM pathway is the most appropriate for students who have wide-ranging interests across the field, or are interested in the histories of the physical sciences or the life sciences in particular. If you wish to focus on biomedicine or healthcare, you may prefer the Medical Humanities pathway. If you are particularly interested in contemporary science communication or policy, you should consider the parallel Science Communication MSc programme.


-To explore the histories of theories, practices, authority claims, institutions and people, spaces and places, and communication in science, technology and medicine, across their social, cultural and political contexts.
-To provide an opportunity and open access to study particular topics of historical and contemporary significance in depth encourage and support the development of analytical skills in understanding the changing form and function of science, technology and medicine in society.
-To encourage and support the development of transferable writing and presentational skills of the highest standard, and thereby prepare students for further academic study or employment.
-To provide a comprehensive introduction to research methods in the history of science, technology and medicine, including work with libraries, archives, databases, and oral history.
-To enable students to produce a major piece of original research and writing in the form of a dissertation.

Teaching and learning

Teaching includes a mixture of lectures and small-group seminar discussions built around readings and other materials. We emphasise the use both of primary sources, and of current research in the field. Most students will also visit local museums and other sites of interest to work on objects or archives. All students meet regularly with a mentor from the Centre's PhD community, a designated personal tutor from among the staff, and, from Semester 2, a dissertation supervisor. Progression is developed through the Faculty's online-delivery Electronic Graduate Training Programme.

Coursework and assessment

Assessment is mostly based on traditional essay-format coursework submission. The HSTM pathway includes one examination based on a precirculated paper. All MSc students undertake a research dissertation (or optionally, for Medical Humanities students, a portfolio of creative work) counting for 60 of the 180 credits.

Career opportunities

Many of our students go on to PhD research in related areas, or to careers in fields including museums, libraries and archives; teaching; technical authorship and editing; science policy work; research administration; journalism and the media.

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The Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies offers an exciting new opening for graduates of all disciplines to pursue a taught postgraduate qualification in historical studies. Read more
The Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies offers an exciting new opening for graduates of all disciplines to pursue a taught postgraduate qualification in historical studies. This one-year part-time course offers a unique opportunity for students to combine focused study of key historical themes and concepts in British and Western European history with either a broad-based approach to history or with the opportunity to specialise by period or in a branch of the discipline (political, social, economic, art, architectural and local). The course culminates in the research and preparation of a substantial dissertation.

The Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies forms part of a two-year Master's programme. Students who successfully complete the Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies are eligible to apply to the Master's of Study in Historical Studies (https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/about/mst-in-historical-studies).

This Historical Studies course offers a stimulating and supportive environment for study. As a student of Oxford University you will also be entitled to attend History Faculty lectures and to join the Bodleian Library. The University’s Museums and Art Galleries are within easy walking distance.

Visit the website https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/about/postgraduate-certificate-in-historical-studies

Course content

Unit 1: Princes, States, and Revolutions
The first unit examines the interaction between the state and the individual from medieval to modern times and focuses upon authority, resistance, revolution and the development of political institutions. It introduces the development of scholarly debate, key historical themes and the critical analysis of documentary sources. Students explore disorder and rebellion in medieval and early modern England; the causes and impact of the British Civil Wars; and the causes and impact of the French Revolution.

Unit 2: European Court Patronage c.1400
The second unit explores cultural patronage in late medieval Europe and examines the diverse courtly responses to shared concerns and experiences, including the promotion of power and status; the relationship between piety and power; and the impact of dominant cultures. It introduces comparative approaches to history, the critical analysis of visual sources and the methodological issues surrounding the interpretation of material culture and the translation of written sources. Students compare the courts of Richard II of England, Philip the Bold and John the Fearless of Burgundy, Charles V and Charles VI of France, and Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan.

Unit 3: Religious Reformations and Movements
The third unit examines the role of organised religion and religious movements in the lives of people in the past. It utilises case studies from different historical periods to explore the impact of local circumstances upon the reception and development of new ideas and further encourages engagement with historical debate and the interpretation of documentary and visual sources. Students explore: medieval monasticism; the English and European reformations of the sixteenth century; and religion and society in nineteenth-century England, including the rise of nonconformity, secularism and the Oxford Movement.

Unit 4: Memory and Conflict
The fourth unit focuses upon a central theme in the study of twentieth-century European history: how societies have chosen to remember (and forget) violent conflicts, and the relationship between public and private memory. It explores the challenges faced by historians when interpreting documentary, visual and oral sources in the writing of recent history. Students examine the theoretical context and methodological approaches to the study of memory and consider two case studies: World War I and the Spanish Civil War.

Unit 5: Special Subjects
In the final unit, students study a source-based special subject and research and write a dissertation on a related topic of their own choice. A range of subjects will be offered, varying from year to year, allowing specialization across both time periods and the historical disciplines. Examples include:

- Visualising Sanctity: Art and the Culture of Saints c1150-1500
- The Tudor Court
- The English Nobility c1540-1640
- The Great Indian Mutiny and Anglo-Indian Relations in the Nineteenth Century
- The British Empire
- Propaganda in the Twentieth Century

The on-line teaching modules

The first module provides a pre-course introduction to history and post-graduate study skills. The second focuses upon the analysis and interpretation of material sources, such as buildings and images and the third upon the analysis and interpretation of a range of documentary sources. All include a range of self-test exercises.

Libraries and computing facilities

Registered students receive an Oxford University card, valid for one year at a time, which acts as a library card for the Departmental Library at Rewley House and provides access to the unrivalled facilities of the Bodleian Libraries which include the central Bodleian, major research libraries such as the Sackler Library, Taylorian Institution Library, Bodleian Social Science Library, and faculty libraries such as English and History. Students also have access to a wide range of electronic resources including electronic journals, many of which can be accessed from home. Students on the course are entitled to use the Library at Rewley House for reference and private study and to borrow books. The loan period is normally two weeks and up to eight books may be borrowed. Students will also be encouraged to use their nearest University library. More information about the Continuing Education Library can be found at http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/conted.

The University card also provides access to facilities at Oxford University Computing Service (OUCS), 13 Banbury Road, Oxford. Computing facilities are available to students in the Students' Computing Facility in Rewley House and at Ewert House.

Course aims

The Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies course is designed to:

- provide a structured introduction to the study of medieval and modern British and European history;

- develop awareness and understanding of historical processes, such as continuity and change, comparative perspectives and the investigation of historical problems;

- provide the methodology required to interpret visual arts as historical evidence;

- equip students to evaluate and interpret historical evidence critically;

- promote interest in the concept and discipline of history and its specialisms;

- enable students to develop the analytical and communication skills needed to present historical argument orally and in writing;

- prepare students for progression to study at Master's level.

By the end of the course students will be expected to:

- display a broad knowledge and understanding of the themes and methodologies studied;

- demonstrate a detailed knowledge and understanding of key topics, the historical interpretation surrounding them and the relationship between local case-studies and the national perspective;

- utilise the appropriate critical and/or technical vocabulary associated with the disciplines, periods and themes covered;

- identify underlying historical processes, make cross-comparisons between countries and periods and explore historical problems;

- assess the relationship between the visual arts and the cultural framework within which they were produced;

- evaluate and analyse texts and images as historical evidence and utilise them to support and develop an argument;

- develop, sustain and communicate historical argument orally and in writing;

- reflect upon the nature and development of the historical disciplines and their contribution to national culture;

- demonstrate the skills needed to conduct an independent research project and present it as a dissertation within a restricted timeframe.

Assessment methods

The Postgraduate Certificate in Historical Studies is assessed through coursework. This comprises: four essays of 2,500 words each, two source-based exercises of 1,500 words each and a dissertation of 8,000 words. Students will write one essay following each of the first four units and the dissertation following unit 5. There will be a wide choice of assignment subjects for each unit and students will select a dissertation topic relating to their special subject with the advice of the course team. Students will be asked to write a non-assessed book review following the first pre-course online module and the source-based exercises will follow the second and third online modules.

Assignment titles, submission deadlines and reading lists will be supplied at the start of the course.

Tuition and study

A variety of teaching methods will be used in both the face-to-face and online elements of the course. In addition to lectures, PowerPoint slide presentations and tutor-led discussion, there will be opportunities for students to undertake course exercises in small groups and to give short presentations on prepared topics.

University lectures

Students are taught by the Department’s own staff but are also entitled to attend, at no extra cost, the wide range of lectures and research seminars organised by the University of Oxford’s History Faculty. Students are able to borrow books from both the Department’s library and the History Faculty Library, and are also eligible for membership of the Bodleian Library.

Find out how to apply here - http://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/graduate/applying-to-oxford

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This programme is aimed at anyone interested in learning more about the design and operation of low energy buildings with the added attraction of three modules dedicated to computer modelling of building performance – an essential skill for anyone wishing to work in today’s rapidly changing world of building engineering consultancy. Read more
This programme is aimed at anyone interested in learning more about the design and operation of low energy buildings with the added attraction of three modules dedicated to computer modelling of building performance – an essential skill for anyone wishing to work in today’s rapidly changing world of building engineering consultancy.

Modules are taught by world-leading experts in the field who have designed some of the world’s most innovative low energy buildings. These design experiences provide unique case study material which students find exciting and invaluable for their own research and design work.

The programme is accredited for further learning for CEng and professional membership by CIBSE and the Energy Institute and benefits from its links with the Royal Academy of Engineering Centre of Excellence in Sustainable Building Design.

The course attracts students from all over the world, including countries such as Greece, Iran, China, France, Germany and Colombia. This is attractive to potential employers who often have international offices around the world.

Key Facts

- An outstanding place to study. The School of Civil and Building Engineering is ranked 2nd in the UK for Building in the Times Good University Guide 2015

- Research-led teaching from international experts. 75% of the School’s research was rated as world-leading or internationally excellent in the latest Government Research Excellence Framework.

- The programme is accredited by the two main institutions representing energy and buildings – the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers and the Energy Institute. On successful completion of the course, students are deemed to meet the education requirements for both institutions and their applications can be endorsed by course tutors.

See the website http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/civil/low-carbon-building-design/

Programme modules

- Building Energy Consumption [70% exam, 10 credits]
The aim of this module is for the student to understand the impact that climate, people, equipment selection and design have on energy consumption on a range of building sizes from domestic to large commercial.

- Renewable Energy and Low Carbon Technologies [70% exam, 15 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to understand the principles of renewable energy and low carbon technologies and their integration into buildings, and to be given a perspective on the potential benefits and applications of these technologies.

- Building Control & Commissioning [70% exam, 10 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to understand the application of automatic control in energy monitoring and commissioning and to examine the control problems in buildings and develop control strategies that will improve thermal comfort and building energy use.

- Concept Design [0% exam, 15 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to be introduced to the process within which buildings are conceived and designed by undertaking the architecture design of a major building using multi-disciplinary input. Students will develop team skills through working in design groups to generate schematic concepts before developing the best. They will apply previous knowledge of building services and low carbon design in the selection process and carry out performance analysis. Students will work with 3D architectural and 3D mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) systems within BIM software to further develop their concepts.

- Low Carbon Building Design [50% exam, 15 credits]
The module aims to introduce the principles of low and zero carbon building with special attention to the process of design and decision-making.

- Advanced Thermal Modelling [50% exam, 15 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to understand the principles of building thermal modelling and HVAC plant simulation, and be given a perspective on the applications of these techniques to the design process.

- Advanced Airflow Modelling [50% exam, 15 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to understand the principles of building airflow and ventilation modelling with respect to comfort and energy efficiency, and be given a perspective on the applications of these techniques to the design process.

- Advanced Lighting Modelling [50% exam, 15 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to understand the principles of lighting modelling in buildings with respect to comfort and energy efficiency, and be given a perspective on the application of these techniques to the design process.

- Research Project [0% exam, 60 credits]
The aim of this module is to provide the student with experience of the process and methodology of research by defining and studying (on an individual basis) a complex problem in a specialised area relating to Building Energy

- Research Methods in Building Performance [0% exam, 10 credits]
The aims of this module are for the student to become familiar with and comprehend the wide range of research methods and skills needed to investigate, understand and communicate building performance.


All masters students have access to a wide range of building simulation codes which include commercial software, as well as bespoke codes developed in-house. Students can run these codes on their personal laptops or access any one of our computer laboratories, including access to our recently commissioned 2000-node high performance computer cluster.

One of our key strengths at Loughborough is our experimental facilities which enable us to validate computer models. Our masters students have access to a vast range of experimental facilities, some of which are used during the taught modules and all of which are available for use by students during their research dissertations.

These include: a fully controllable environmental chamber; sophisticated thermal and breathing manikins; an indoor solar simulator; a 'darkroom' facility to carry out optical and high dynamic range measurements; and full-scale houses for pressure testing and studying innovative heating and control strategies. A recent investment of £360k was made to purchase an extensive array of monitoring and measuring equipment for use during field studies.

How you will learn

You will learn through a carefully balanced combination of lectures, in-class guided workshops, hands-on computer modelling, field measurements and independent research. Students have access to a wide range of air flow, thermal and daylight modelling software as well as extensive laboratory facilities. Following nine taught modules, students pursue a research dissertation of their choice which draws on the skills developed during the taught modules.

Students are assessed by a combination of traditional written exams, coursework and assignments. This split is typically 70/30 (exam/coursework) or 50/50, although some modules, such as research methods and concept design are assessed entirely based on coursework which comprises individual presentations and group work.

Careers and further study

Previous students have gone on to work for leading consulting engineering companies such as Arup, Pick Everad, Hoare Lea, Hulley and Kirkwood and SE Controls. Some of these companies offer work placements for students to undertake their research dissertations. Many visit the university to deliver lectures to our MSc students providing ideal opportunities for students to discuss employment opportunities.


The programme is accredited for further learning for CEng and professional membership by the CIBSE and Energy Institute.
The 'SE Controls prize for best overall performance' is awarded to the student graduating from this course with the highest overall mark. This presentation is made on graduation day.


The University offers over 100 scholarships each year to new self-financing full-time international students who are permanently resident in a county outside the European Union. These Scholarships are to the value of 25% of the programme tuition fee and that value will be credited to the student’s tuition fee account.
You can apply for a scholarship once you have received an offer for a place on this programme.

Why choose civil engineering at Loughborough?

As one of four Royal Academy of Engineering designated Centres of Excellence in Sustainable Building Design, the School of Civil and Building Engineering is one of the largest of its type in the UK and holds together a thriving community of over 60 academic staff, 40 technical and clerical support staff and over 240 active researchers that include Fellows, Associates, Assistants, Engineers and Doctoral Students.

Our world-class teaching and research are integrated to support the technical and commercial needs of both industry and society. A key part of our ethos is our extensive links with industry resulting in our graduates being extremely sought after by industry and commerce world-wide,

- Postgraduate programmes
The School offers a focussed suite of post graduate programmes aligned to meet the needs of industry and fully accredited by the relevant professional institutions. Consequently, our record of graduate employment is second to none. Our programmes also have a long track record of delivering high quality, research-led education. Indeed, some of our programmes have been responding to the needs of industry and producing high quality graduates for over 40 years.

Currently, our suite of Masters programmes seeks to draw upon our cutting edge research and broad base knowledge of within the areas of contemporary construction management, project management, infrastructure management, building engineering, building modelling, building energy demand and waste and water engineering. The programmes are designed to respond to contemporary issues in the field such as sustainable construction, low carbon building, low energy services, project complexity, socio-technical systems and socio-economic concerns.

- Research
Drawing from our excellent record in attracting research funds (currently standing at over £19M), the focal point of the School is innovative, industry-relevant research. This continues to nurture and refresh our long history of working closely with industrial partners on novel collaborative research and informs our ongoing innovative teaching and extensive enterprise activities. This is further complemented by our outstanding record of doctoral supervision which has provided, on average, a PhD graduate from the School every two weeks.

- Career Prospects
Independent surveys continue to show that industry has the highest regard for our graduates. Over 90% were in employment and/or further study six months after graduating. Recent independent surveys of major employers have also consistently rated the School at the top nationally for civil engineering and construction graduates.

Find out how to apply here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/programmes/departments/civil/low-carbon-building-design/

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