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Masters Degrees (History And Philosophy Of Science)

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Are you looking for a highly challenging two-year Research Master's programme in Philosophy? Come to Radboud University!. Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Read more

Overview

Are you looking for a highly challenging two-year Research Master's programme in Philosophy? Come to Radboud University!

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess essential skills, including the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate; they require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy

What makes this programme special?

- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- An offering of research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy, History of Philosophy, and Philosophy of Religion.
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate.

Specialisations of the Master's in Philosophy

The Faculty of Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies at Radboud University offers the entire range of philosophical disciplines. However, students enrolling in the Research Master's programme are expected to choose one of the following specialisations:

- Metaphysics and Epistemology
In Metaphysics and Epistemology you focus on the development of the hermeneutic tradition – key figures being Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur and Derrida.

- Philosophical Anthropology
In Philosophical Anthropology you study the philosophical significance of psychoanalytical hermeneutics as developed by Freud and followers (Lacan, Klein, et. al.). Research focuses in particular on the phenomenological tradition (Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze and Butler).

- Philosophical Ethics
In Philosophical Ethics you investigate the moral implications of human actions from the point of view of virtue ethics (Aristotle, MacIntyre), phenomenology (Heidegger, Levinas) and hermeneutics (Gadamer, Ricoeur). This section also runs an international Nietzsche research project.

- Social and Political Philosophy
In Social and Political Philosophy you study ‘the political’ as an essential but conflict-ridden aspect of the human condition, and politics as a way of coping with this. Spinoza, Hobbes, Kant, Schmitt, Arendt, Zizek and Foucault are central figures in this specialisation.

- Philosophy of Language and Logic
Philosophy of Language and Logic involves the study of linguistic expressions such as words, sentences, texts and dialogues, where the emphasis is on the context in which these expressions are being interpreted.

- Philosophy of Mind
In Philosophy of Mind and Science you study problems such as mental causation, phenomenal consciousness and the nature of mental state attribution from the viewpoint of neurophenomenenology and the embodied embedded cognition paradigm.

- History of Philosophy
In History of Philosophy you explore the development of natural philosophy and metaphysics from the late Middle Ages to early modern and modern times, investigating, in particular the evolution of the sciences of psychology and physics from philosophy.

- Philosophy of Religion
In Philosophy of Religion you focus on the philosophical reflection on religion in Western thought and contemporary society, and also exploring the relation between philosophy and religion in Western and other cultural contexts.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, nor to one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess essential skills, including the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate; they require intensive training. The research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. Graduates tend to fall into one of three groups:
1. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating.
2. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools.
3. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education.

Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

The reputation of Radboud University – and of the Philosophy Faculty in particular – will serve you well whichever career path you choose.

NVAO: quality Research Master Philosophy above average

At the end of April the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders NVAO has renewed the accreditation of the Research Master Philosophy. The NVAO evaluates the Research Master Philosophy as 'good'. The verdict shows that the NVAO finds the Master's programme systematically above average quality.

Faculty scholarships for excellent international students

The Faculty offers scholarships for excellent students from abroad wishing to start the Research Master’s programme in Philosophy every year. Each scholarship amounts to €10,000 for the first year of the Research Master’s programme, and in case of good study results can be renewed for the second, final year.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy

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This course involves exploring the development of philosophy from Antiquity to early modern and modern times, with a particular emphasis on the genesis of modern scientific disciplines such as psychology, physics or chemistry, out of the traditional body of Aristotelian natural philosophy. Read more

Master's specialisation in History of Philosophy (Research)

This course involves exploring the development of philosophy from Antiquity to early modern and modern times, with a particular emphasis on the genesis of modern scientific disciplines such as psychology, physics or chemistry, out of the traditional body of Aristotelian natural philosophy.
There is no other academic discipline in which the past is so important as in philosophy: today's philosophers are still engaging with the pioneers of the field: Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger and Wittgenstein. For this reason, the philosophy curriculum at Radboud University consists of a number of historical courses. The specialisation History of Philosophy covers the entire history of philosophy from the Presocratic philosophers up to today, divided into four periods: ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary.
Key authors for this specialisation are, in alphabetical order, Aristotle, Descartes, Epicurus, Galileo, German idealists, Hegel, Hobbes, Hume, Leibniz, Lucretius, Merleau-Ponty, Plato, Pomponazzi, Sartre, and Thomas Aquinas.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/history

Why study History of Philosophy at Radboud University?

- We offer a large choice of research courses in the history of philosophy.
- Our programme emphasises the importance of developing and using research skills.
- You will have a personal supervisor who will guide you during the entire programme.
- As a Research Master’s student, you’ll be affiliated with the Centre for the History of Philosophy and Science, which has received top rankings in the field in past national evaluations (2006 and 2013).
- This is an excellent preparation for post-graduate life due to the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis: a publishable article and a PhD research proposal.
- Students have a high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad.
- There is an international climate: more than half of the teaching staff and Research Master’s students are from outside the Netherlands.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers investigate varied aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills; the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually, and the ability to document their conclusions using clear and persuasive language. Such skills require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first vocational step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme is designed for people aiming to do research in the field. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. The majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that over 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our research in this field

All of the research related to this specialisation is embedded in the Centre for the History of Philosophy and Science. This internationally renowned centre is dedicated to the study of the historical interrelation of philosophy and the sciences. Many of the researchers affiliated with the centre investigate the evolution of natural philosophy since Aristotle and the development of the different natural scientific disciplines (such as physics, chemistry or psychology) since the seventeenth century. Although the centre is best known for its expertise in the ancient, medieval and early modern periods, the researchers also cover the entire period from the Aristotelian corpus up to contemporary philosophy.

The focus on natural philosophy is due to the consideration that, at least up to the eighteenth century, factors such as time, space, the motion of stars, and the nature of the human soul were all integral parts of (natural) philosophy. Nijmegen's Center for the History of Philosophy and Science is the only research centre in the world dedicated to the investigation of this historical development.

Thesis subjects in History of Philosophy

The centre is active in organising public lectures, seminars and colloquia, which students are very welcome to attend. Although many research Master’s students choose a topic related to the research activities of the Centre, this is not mandatory. Recent Master’s theses (publishable articles) were about the following themes:
- The use of history in utopian tales
- The Vatican censorship of Paracelsus
- Thought experiments in Locke and Leibniz
- The theme of flight in Plato and Philo of Alexandria
- Bergson’s method of intuition
- Chiffons of Clairvaux on the will
- Perceptual experience in Merleau-Ponty
- Agamben’s reading of Hegel

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/history

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Philosophy of mind and cognition touches on some of the most profound questions about ourselves. What does it mean to have a mind? How is the brain related to the mind? What is consciousness? How can our mental states drive our actions? Do we have free will?. Read more

Master's specialisation in Philosophy of Mind (Research)

Philosophy of mind and cognition touches on some of the most profound questions about ourselves: What does it mean to have a mind? How is the brain related to the mind? What is consciousness? How can our mental states drive our actions? Do we have free will?
Traditionally, philosophy of mind is part of the analytical method in philosophy. Recently, however, a more phenomenological approach to typical questions in the philosophy of mind has provided a refreshing new look on old topics. Additionally, the advance of cognitive neuroscience is providing a new method to address old questions. Philosophy of Mind and Cognition in Nijmegen combines traditional analytical theorizing with insights from phenomenology and the empirical sciences.

Information for students of the Research Master

In Philosophy of Mind and Science you study problems such as mental causation, phenomenal consciousness and the nature of mental state attribution from the viewpoint of neurophenomenenology and the embodied embedded cognition paradigm.
The research carried out in this section (‘cognitiefilosofie') covers a number of traditional topics: mental causation, perception of, for example, colour, phenomenal consciousness and qualia, theories of mind, mental content and the nature of folk-psychology.
These subjects are specifically addressed against the backdrop of the idea that cognition is essentially embodied. This is the basic premise of the 'embodied embedded cognition paradigm', the 'enactive' approach to cognition and specific body-based forms of neurophenomenology.
Three smaller research projects take place within this section: (1) 'The Bisected Mind', the idea that folk psychology can be regarded as an interpretation of body-based behavioural tendencies and tries to reconcile indeterminacy of mental state attribution with mental realism (Slors). (2) 'Phenomenal Consciousness and Mental Causation', which addresses the problem of the causal efficacy of phenomenal states as well as the possibility of a science of consciousness (van de Laar). (3) 'Colour Perception', which aims to reconcile different theories on the nature of colour and colour perception by developing the idea that the concept of colour is multi-layered, instead of monolithic (van Leeuwen).

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/mind

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our approach to this field

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Our research in this field

What makes this programme special?
The English-taught Research Master's programme in Philosophy is a two-year course that is meant for students of proven ability who wish to prepare for an academic career in philosophy. We offer the following to provide you with the best possible academic background:
- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- Research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy and the History of Philosophy
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/mind

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This one-year programme (two years part-time) is designed to give a deeper understanding of historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. Read more
This one-year programme (two years part-time) is designed to give a deeper understanding of historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. Research training includes historical methods, philosophical analysis and socio-cultural models, providing an interdisciplinary environment for those interested in progressing to a PhD or those simply interested in HPSM studies.

Former students have gone on to attract major doctoral funding awards and jobs in the media, government and NGOs. The core teaching staff are attached to the Department of Philosophy, the Northern Centre for the History of Medicine (co-run with Newcastle University) and the School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health. Modules are taught via lectures, seminars, personal tutorials and workshops. The diversity of staff research interests allows you to focus your research on a wide variety of topics, including historical, philosophical and/or cultural aspects of biology, biomedical ethics, the body, the environment, gender, medical humanities, medicine, and the physical sciences.

Programme Structure

Core Modules:
-Research Methods in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine
-Dissertation (Philosophy, Health, or History)

Optional Modules:
Students choose a total of three optional modules, with at least one from List A and one from List B. The module titles below are those offered in 2015/16. Not all the modules will necessarily run every year.
List A:
-History of Medicine
-Science and the Enlightenment
-Ethics, Medicine and History
-Gender, Medicine and Sexuality in Early Modern Europe
-Gender, 'Sex', Health and Politics

List B:
-Philosophical Issues in Science and Medicine
-Phenomenology and the Sciences of Mind
-Current Issues in Metaphysics
-Philosophy of Social Sciences
-Ethics of Cultural Heritage

Learning and Teaching

The MA in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine (HPSM) provides the opportunity for in-depth engagement with historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. In the process, students develop critical abilities and independent research skills in an interdisciplinary environment that prepare them for further postgraduate study and for a wide range of careers where such skills are highly prized.

Students select three topic modules from two lists of usually five historical and five philosophical options. They are also required to take a Research Methods in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine module and to complete a double-module dissertation in the Department of Philosophy, the Department of History, or the School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health.

Topic modules are typically taught via seven two-hour seminars, two one-to-one tutorials, and a workshop at the end of the module. Seminars incorporate staff-led discussion of topics, student presentations and small group discussions, in the context of a friendly, supportive environment. Seminars serve to (i) familiarise students with topics, positions and debates, (ii) help them to navigate the relevant literature, (iii) refine their oral and written presentation skills and (iv) further develop their ability to independently formulate, criticise and defend historical and philosophical positions. Students are expected to do approximately four hours of reading for each seminar. In consultation with the module leader students decide upon an essay topic, and the most appropriate supervisor available for their topic is allocated. At this point, they begin a more focused programme of reading and independent study, and also benefit from the one-to-one supervisions with the expert supervisor. These supervisions provide more focused teaching, tailored to a student’s chosen essay topic. Supervisions further enable students to develop and refine their own historiographical or philosophical positions, convey them clearly and support them with well constructed arguments. In the workshop students present a draft of their essay and receive further feedback from their peers as well as staff.

The core modules of the programme are the Research Methods module and the double-module Dissertation. The former consists of nine seminars, each of 2 hours duration and a feedback session. They introduce students to relevant methodologies and approaches in the history of medicine, history of science, philosophy of science, and medical humanities, as well as to HPSM resources in the University Library, research tools, MA-level essay composition and format, and other research-related matters. They also include focused advice and discussion concerning dissertation proposals, which students are required to submit as part of this module.

Having completed the three topic modules and the research methods module, students start work on their dissertations. The nature of the dissertation will vary depending upon the topic studied and the department in which the module is undertaken. Students are offered up to six one-to-one tutorials of up to an hour each, with a supervisor who will be an expert in their chosen field. The supervisions help to further refine skills acquired during the academic year (such as presenting and defending an argument in a clear, structured fashion) and to complete a substantial piece of high quality independent research.

In addition to this core teaching, students benefit from a range of activities, including an MA Dissertation Workshop, research seminars of the Centre for the History of Medicine and Disease, and regular meetings of EIDOS, the Philosophy Department’s postgraduate society. They are welcomed as full participants in the Department’s research culture, and are thus strongly encouraged to attend a range of other events, including weekly Research Seminars, and occasional Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures, conferences, workshops and reading groups. The programme director remains in regular contact with the students throughout the year and is available to discuss any issues that might arise (personal or academic).

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This diverse programme allows you to study the history and philosophy of science, technology and medicine from a range of perspectives to gain a wide range of knowledge and skills. Read more
This diverse programme allows you to study the history and philosophy of science, technology and medicine from a range of perspectives to gain a wide range of knowledge and skills.

You’ll explore the issues, debates and trends that have shaped the study of history and philosophy of science, with core modules that will also allow you to develop your skills in research and analysis. You’ll also have the chance to specialise in the areas that interest you by choosing from a range of optional modules on topics such as science and religion historically considered, modern science communication, and realism and representation in science.

Supported by active researchers at our Centre of History and Philosophy of Science, you’ll benefit from expert teaching and have access to our excellent library resources. You’ll even have the chance to develop your research skills and gain experience as we develop our Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine.

Course Content

In your first semester you’ll take a core module that develops your understanding of the research process, equipping you with a range of skills from different disciplines. You’ll learn about interviewing and other forms of fieldwork as well as working with legal and historical documents, the use of theory and ethics among others.

A second core module in the following semester will build your knowledge of the role of religion in public life, focusing on issues such as the meaning of secular and post-secular society, tolerance and religious freedom, multiculturalism and globalisation. By the end of the year, you’ll be able to showcase the knowledge and skills you’ve gained with your dissertation – an independently researched project on a topic of your choice – and you can even choose to extend your dissertation to go into greater depth.

You’ll also have the chance to select from a range of optional modules. These will allow you to specialise in topics that suit your interests, from religion and global development to Islam in the modern world. You’ll take two optional modules if you do the standard dissertation, or you can swap one for the extended dissertation.

If you choose to study part-time, you’ll study over a longer period and take fewer modules in each year.

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Philosophy of Language and Logic involves the study of linguistic expressions such as words, sentences, texts and dialogues, where the emphasis is on the context in which these expressions are interpreted. Read more

Master's specialisation in Philosophy of Language and Logic (Research)

Philosophy of Language and Logic involves the study of linguistic expressions such as words, sentences, texts and dialogues, where the emphasis is on the context in which these expressions are interpreted.
The programme "Philosophy of Language and Logic" focuses on the development of analytical philosophy from Frege onwards and the rise of modern semantics in the last decades of the 20th century. Its main research interests are the context-dependent interpretation and its relation to formal semantics and pragmatics, and philosophy of mind. Typical themes that are addressed are context-dependence and presupposition, dynamic theories of meaning, discourse and discourse structure, the analysis of propositional attitudes and their relation to mental states, and the relation between interpretation and psychological processes.
Current research is connected with two NWO-funded projects that are being carried out within this section, namely "Information Integration in Discourse" and "Reasoning and the Brain" (in collaboration with the University of Amsterdam and the F.C. Donders Centre). Furthermore, together with the department of linguistics, this section organises the interdisciplinary "Semantics Colloquium".
The members of the section work together with several philosophical and semantic centres in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United States.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/logic

Admission requirements for international students

1. A completed Bachelor's degree in Philosophy or in a related discipline (in the latter case, students must have acquired at least 60 EC in Philosophical disciplines).
The applicant must have a degree with merit or distinction or equivalent. Meaning: a student’s weighted grade-point average in philosophy in the 2nd and 3rd year of their Bachelor's programme must be the equivalent of 7.5 or more (on the Dutch scale of 10).
On the page "Conversions of international grades" you will find an indication of what the equivalent of a Dutch 7.5 or 8 might be in the country where you obtained your Bachelor’s degree.

2. A proficiency in English
In order to take part in this programme, you need to have fluency in both written and spoken English. Non-native speakers of English* without a Dutch Master's degree must either have obtained a higher diploma from an English-teaching institution or be in possession of one of the following certificates:
- A TOEFL score of >577 (paper based) or >233 (computer based) or >90 (internet based)
- An IELTS score of >6.5
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) or Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) with a mark of C or higher

3. Highly motivated
An applicant must be able to demonstrate to the Examination Board that they have serious research interests and skills. Applicants must write a motivation letter and send a writing sample which can help evaluate their research and writing skills.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually, and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate, they require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our approach to this field

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Our research in this field

What makes this programme special?
The English-taught Research Master's programme in Philosophy is a two-year course that is meant for students of proven ability who wish to prepare for an academic career in philosophy. We offer the following to provide you with the best possible academic background:
- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- A big offer of research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy and the History of Philosophy
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/logic

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The MPhil in History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine is a full-time 9-month course that provides students with the opportunity to carry out focused research under close supervision by senior members of the University. Read more
The MPhil in History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine is a full-time 9-month course that provides students with the opportunity to carry out focused research under close supervision by senior members of the University. Students will acquire or develop skills and expertise relevant to their research interests, as well as a critical and well informed understanding of the roles of the sciences in society. Those intending to go on to doctoral work will learn the research skills needed to help them prepare a well planned and focused PhD proposal. During the course students gain experience of presenting their own work and discussing the issues that arise from it with an audience of their peers and senior members of the Department; they will attend lectures, supervisions and research seminars in a range of technical and specialist subjects central to research in the different areas of History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine.

The educational aims of the programme are:

- to give students with relevant training at first-degree level the opportunity to carry out focussed research in History, Philosophy of Science and Medicine under close supervision;
- to give students the opportunity to acquire or develop skills and expertise relevant to their research interests;
- to enable students to acquire a critical and well informed understanding of the roles of the sciences in society; and
- to help students intending to go on to doctoral work to acquire the requisite research skills and to prepare a well planned and focussed PhD proposal.

Visit the website: http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/courses/directory/hphpmpstm

Course detail

The MPhil course is taught by supervisions and seminars and assessed by three research essays and a dissertation.

The topics of the essays and dissertation should each fall within the following specified subject areas:

1. General philosophy of science
2. History of ancient and medieval science, technology and medicine
3. History of early modern science, technology and medicine
4. History of modern science, technology and medicine
5. History, philosophy and sociology of the life sciences
6. History, philosophy and sociology of the physical and mathematical sciences
7. History, philosophy and sociology of the social and psychological sciences
8. History, philosophy and sociology of medicine
9. Ethics and politics of science
10. History and methodology of history, philosophy and sociology of science, technology and medicine

Format

The MPhil seminars are the core teaching resource for this course. In the first part of year these seminars are led by different senior members of the Department and focus on selected readings. During the rest of the year the seminars provide opportunities for MPhil students to present their own work.

Students are encouraged to attend the lectures, research seminars, workshops and reading groups that make the Department a hive of intellectual activity. The Department also offers graduate training workshops, which focus on key research, presentation, publication and employment skills.

The MPhil programme is administered by the MPhil Manager, who meets all new MPhil students as a group in early October, then sees each of the students individually to discuss their proposed essay and dissertation topics. The Manager is responsible for finding appropriate supervisors for each of these topics; the supervisors are then responsible for helping the student do the research and writing needed for the essays and the dissertation. Students will see each of their supervisors frequently; the MPhil Manager sees each student at regular intervals during the year to discuss progress and offer help and advice.

Supervisions are designed to provide students with the opportunity to set their own agenda for their studies. The supervisor's job is to support the student's research, not to grade their work – supervisors are formally excluded from the examination process.

See the website http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/courses/directory/hphpmpstm

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have:

- Knowledge and Understanding -

- developed a deeper knowledge of their chosen areas of History, Philosophy of Science and Medicine and of the critical debates within them;
- acquired a conceptual understanding that enables the evaluation of current research and methodologies;
- formed a critical view of the roles of the sciences in society.

- Skills and other attributes -

By the end of the course students should have:

- acquired or consolidated historiographic, linguistic, technical and ancillary skills appropriate for research in their chosen area;
- demonstrated independent judgement, based on their own research;
- presented their own ideas in a public forum and learned to contribute constructively within an international environment.

Assessment

- A dissertation of up to 15,000 words. Examiners may request an oral examination but this is not normally required.
- Three essays, each of up to 5,000 words.

Students receive independent reports from two examiners on each of their three essays and the dissertation.

Continuing

The usual preconditions for continuing to the PhD are an overall first class mark in the MPhil, a satisfactory performance in an interview and agreement of the PhD proposal with a potential supervisor.

How to apply: http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/applying

Funding Opportunities

- Rausing Studentships
- Raymond and Edith Williamson Studentships
- Lipton Studentships
- Wellcome Master's Awards

Please see the Department's graduate funding page for more information: http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/studying/graduate/funding.html

General Funding Opportunities http://www.graduate.study.cam.ac.uk/finance/funding

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The Master's programme in History and Philosophy of Science offers a unique opportunity to study the foundations, practice and culture of science from historical and philosophical perspectives. Read more

History and Philosophy of Science

The Master's programme in History and Philosophy of Science offers a unique opportunity to study the foundations, practice and culture of science from historical and philosophical perspectives.

This two-year master's programme encompasses the history and philosophy of the natural sciences, humanities, social sciences, medicine, and mathematics.
The historical approach focuses on the development of scientific thought and practice in times past, including the relations between science and cultural, social or institutional features at particular times and places. The focus is mostly on the early modern and modern periods (17th-20th century). Philosophy of science studies questions concerning the nature of scientific knowledge, methods and explanations. It also includes conceptual analysis of fundamental theories such as relativity theory, quantum mechanics, evolution and modern genetics.

The programme is both broad and flexible. The main specializations are: History of Science or the Humanities, Philosophy of Science, Foundations of Physics, and Foundations of Mathematics and Logic.

Nearly half of our alumni continue in PhD programmes in Utrecht or elsewhere. Many have also found employment in science communication, science policy, consultancy, or other fields.

This programme is the only English-taught programme in the field on the European continent.

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This programme offers breadth across a wide range of historical and philosophical themes. It also encourages intensive investigation and specialisation. Read more
This programme offers breadth across a wide range of historical and philosophical themes. It also encourages intensive investigation and specialisation: a survey of nearly 3,000 years of scientific ideas and communities, and an exploration of the inner workings of science's methods and theories.

Degree information

The programme provides broad-based training in the history of science, the philosophy of science, and an “integrated history and philosophy of science”. The historical coverage is broad, from antiquity to the present, while the philosophical coverage spans causality and the philosophy of medicine as well as the metaphysics of chemistry and computer science.

MSc students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits.

The programme consists of one core module (15 credits), four optional modules (60 credits), three ancillary modules (45 credits), and a dissertation (60 credits). The Postgraduate Diploma programme consists of one core module (15 credits), four optional modules (60 credits) and three ancillary modules (45 credits), available in full time mode. The Postgraduate Certificate programme consists of one core module (15 credits) and three optional modules (45 credits), available in full time mode.

Core modules
-Introduction to Science and Technology Studies

Optional modules - students choose four options from the following:
-Science in the 19th Century
-Material Culture and Science in the 18th Century
-Early Modern Science
-Medieval Science and Medicine in Global Perspective
-Science in Antiquity
-Causality, Mechanism, and Classification in Science
-Knowledge, Evidence, and Explanation in Science
-Science, Art, and Philosophy
-Special Topics Seminar in History and Philosophy of Science

One optional module from our sister MSc programme, Science, Technology, and Society, may be substituted here provided it contributes to a coherent programme of study.

Ancillary Modules - students choose three ancillary modules which may be options from our degrees, e.g. Science in the 20th Century and Beyond, and Curating the History of Science, or they might be selected from any other programme at UCL.

Dissertation/research project
All MSc students undertake an independent research project which culminates in a dissertation of 10,000–12,000 words.

Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of seminars, lectures, tutorials and research supervision. Student performance is assessed through coursework such as long and short essays, advocacy work and project work.

Careers

Our programme provides essential training for students wishing to pursue PhD level study in related fields. It also provides appropriate training for those pursuing careers in education, museum and archival curatorship, or governance and policy-making.

Employability
During the course of this programme, students will develop a wide range of transferable skills, including writing, research, critical thinking, and working in collaboration with others. Most graduates of this programme go on to follow careers that engage with the substance of the degree, including in the museums sector, or in academia. For these students, this programme provides an excellent opportunity to develop the specialist skills and personal connections necessary to succeed. These include basic curatorial skills, developing personal contacts in London museums, and developing personal and intellectual connections with key thinkers in the field.

Why study this degree at UCL?

There is no UK academic department quite like UCL Science & Technology Studies. The department combines award-winning teaching with award-winning public engagement.

We are research-active over an enormous range of topics. Our teaching builds on research not only in our subject specialties but also in the fundamentals of teaching and learning.

Our programme makes unique use of London’s attractions and resources. We have close links with the Science Museum, the National Maritime Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Wellcome Library, and UCL Museums & Collections. We also use the city as a classroom, with custom-made walking tours, site visits, and special excursions.

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Philosophy at Essex takes philosophy back to its roots in everyday existential, social and political issues. Read more
Philosophy at Essex takes philosophy back to its roots in everyday existential, social and political issues. Our radical approach cuts across traditional boundaries, fostering dialogue between different schools and disciplines, and we are one of the few universities in the world that bridges the divide between the two great traditions of Analytic and Continental philosophy.

Our MA Philosophy will provide you with a rigorous grounding in modern and contemporary European philosophy. We have leading expertise in critical theory, phenomenology, German Idealism, nineteenth Century German philosophy, aesthetics, existentialism, contemporary French philosophy, philosophy and psychoanalysis, and medical humanities.

You study modules of your choice, develop your research, writing, and employability skills through an intensive Writing Workshop, and prepare an MA dissertation in your chosen area of research.

Our department is widely regarded as among the very best in the UK, having been recognised as one of the top 10 UK universities for research excellence (REF 2014), and being placed in the top 10 in The Guardian University Guide in 2010, 2011, and 2013.

As an alternative to our more flexible MA Philosophy, you can focus your study on a more specific area by following one of the following pathways:

MA Philosophy (Continental Philosophy Pathway)
All of our academic staff work on Continental Philosophy, including classical German philosophy (Kant and German Idealism), Frankfurt School Critical Theory (Adorno, Habermas, Honneth), nineteenth-century philosophy (Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche), and phenomenology (Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty). On this pathway you choose from a range of specified topics in these areas, in addition to some outside options and a dissertation on a topic in Continental Philosophy.

MA Philosophy (Critical Social Theory Pathway)
We are the leading centre for Critical Social Theory in the UK with five members of academic staff working on the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Habermas, Honneth), contemporary French thought (Derrida, Foucault, Rancière) and issues in Critical Social Theory, such as activist political theory, theory of recognition, aesthetics and politics, deliberative democracy, and the moral limits of markets. On this pathway you study modules on the Frankfurt School and Contemporary Critical Theory, in addition to some outside options and a dissertation on a topic in Critical Social Theory.

MA Philosophy (Philosophy and Art History Pathway)
Drawing on the collaborative and interdisciplinary approach of the School, our new Philosophy and Art History pathway enables students to get a thorough grounding in philosophical aesthetics. You explore issues in aesthetics and their bearing on other areas of philosophy (such as critical theory or existentialism) and Art History (such as aesthetic practices and curating), and profit from the wide-ranging expertise of our staff in both disciplines. On this pathway you study modules on Philosophy/Aesthetics and Art History (dealing, for example, with Art & Politics, Art, Architecture and Urbanism, or Art, Science & Knowledge), in addition to some outside options and a dissertation on a topic in Philosophy and Art History.

Our expert staff

Our courses are taught by world-class academics, and over three quarters of our research is rated “world-leading” or “internationally excellent” (REF 2014), which puts us fifth in the UK for research outputs.

Our open-minded and enthusiastic staff have an exceptionally broad range of research interests, so whatever questions in philosophy catch hold of your imagination, there is certain to be someone you can approach to find out more.

Recent projects and publications include:
-Béatrice Han-Pile and Dan Watts’ major new research project, The Ethics of Powerlessness: the Theological Virtues Today
-The Essex Autonomy Project, a major interdisciplinary project funded by the AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council), which aims to investigate the role of autonomous judgment in many aspects of human life
-Peter Dews’ The Idea of Evil, Polity, 2007
-Béatrice Han-Pile, Foucault’s Critical Project: Between the Transcendental and the Historical, Stanford University Press, 2002
-Fiona Hughes, Kant’s Critique of Aesthetic Judgement: A Reader’s Guide, Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
-Wayne Martin, Theories of Judgement: Psychology, Logic, Phenomenology, Cambridge University Press, 2006
-Irene McMullin’s Time and the Shared World: Heidegger on Social Relations, Northwestern University Press, 2013
-Fabian Freyenhagen’s Adorno’s Practical Philosophy: Living Less Wrongly, Cambridge University Press, 2013

Specialist facilities

-Graduate students have access to desk space in the School and many students work there on a daily basis
-A dedicated German-language course for graduate students in philosophy
-Attend our Critical Theory Colloquium
-Attend the Werkstatt, where recent work on phenomenology is presented
-An exciting programme of research seminars, reading groups and mini-courses that help you expand your philosophical knowledge beyond what you learn on your course
-Access a variety of philosophy textbooks and journals in the Albert Sloman Library and in our departmental library

Your future

Many of our philosophy graduates embark on doctoral study after finishing their MA. We offer supervision for PhDs in a range of fields including:
-Continental philosophy
-Critical Social Theory
-History of philosophy
-Applied ethics

Our graduates have also gone into careers in law, the media, local administration, HM Revenue and Customs, and top jobs in the Civil Service.

We work with our university’s Employability and Careers Centre to help you find out about further work experience, internships, placements, and voluntary opportunities.

Example structure

-Dissertation: Continental Philosophy (optional)
-Dissertation: Critical Social Theory (optional)
-Dissertation: MA Philosophy (optional)
-Dissertation: Philosophy & Art History (optional)
-Phenomenology and Existentialism (optional)
-Kant's Revolution in Philosophy (optional)
-Hegel (optional)
-Contemporary Critical Theory (optional)
-Topics in Continental Philosophy (optional)
-MA Writing Workshop (optional)
-The Frankfurt School (optional)
-Philosophy and Aesthetics (optional)
-Collecting Art From Latin America (optional)
-Art & Politics (optional)
-Current Research in Art History (optional)
-Art, Architecture and Urbanism (optional)
-Contemporary Theories of Justice (optional)
-Environmental Politics (optional)
-Political Economy (optional)
-Political Theory (optional)
-Research Seminar in Political Theory and Methods (optional)
-Theory and Explanation in Political Science (optional)
-Ideology and Political Discourse (optional)
-The New Nature Writing (optional)
-Foundations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (optional)
-The Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persons in International Law (optional)
-Human Rights and Development (optional)
-International Trade, Investment and Human Rights. (optional)
-Human Rights for Women (optional)
-Transitional Justice (optional)
-Psycho Analytic Theory (optional)
-Psychoanalytic Methodology (optional)

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This course is about researching the moral conflicts and ethical issues in contemporary Western culture and setting them against the backdrop of continental European philosophy. Read more

Master's specialisation Philosophical Ethics (Research)

This course is about researching the moral conflicts and ethical issues in contemporary Western culture and setting them against the backdrop of continental European philosophy.

There is no philosophical discipline that is more deeply rooted in the current and controversial socio-cultural debates than practical philosophy and more specifically than philosophical ethics. The rejuvenation of the philosophical tradition, when it comes to contemporary issues, is never more necessary or more exciting than in this field of philosophy. The hermeneutical perspective – which is so characteristics of philosophical ethics at Radboud University – combines the precise interpretation of influential texts with a focus on culture philosophical approaches, phenomenological analysis and ethical applications. A unique addition in the ethical discussion is the attention for ethical issues, especially in literary sources.

Key authors for this specialisation are, in chronological order, Aristoteles, Thomas van Aquino, Kant, Hegel, Schleiermacher, Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, Ricoeur, Habermas, Taylor and Toulmin.

Information for students of the Research Master

In Philosophical Ethics, you investigate the moral implications of human actions from the point of view of virtue ethics (Aristotle, MacIntyre), phenomenology (Heidegger, Levinas) and hermeneutics (Gadamer, Ricoeur). This section also runs an international Nietzsche research project.
The department of ethics participates both in the research programme 'The project of a hermeneutic philosophy' as well as in the research programme ‘Ethos, Polis, Religion' (research programme in practical philosophy).
This section of the faculty investigates the moral implications of human actions from the point of view of virtue ethics (Aristotle, MacIntyre), phenomenology (Heidegger, Levinas) and hermeneutics (Gadamer, Ricoeur). For its ethical research it cooperates closely with the Centre for Ethics of Radboud University (in Dutch). The section also runs an international Nietzsche research project.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/ethics

Admission requirements for international students

1. A completed Bachelor's degree in Philosophy or in a related discipline (in the latter case, students must have acquired at least 60 EC in Philosophical disciplines).
The applicant must have a degree with merit or distinction or equivalent. Meaning: a student’s weighted grade-point average in philosophy in the 2nd and 3rd year of their Bachelor's programme must be the equivalent of 7.5 or more (on the Dutch scale of 10).
On the page "Conversions of international grades" you will find an indication of what the equivalent of a Dutch 7.5 or 8 might be in the country where you obtained your Bachelor’s degree.

2. A proficiency in English
In order to take part in this programme, you need to have fluency in both written and spoken English. Non-native speakers of English* without a Dutch Master's degree must either have obtained a higher diploma from an English-teaching institution or be in possession of one of the following certificates:
- A TOEFL score of >577 (paper based) or >233 (computer based) or >90 (internet based)
- An IELTS score of >6.5
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) or Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) with a mark of C or higher

3. Highly motivated
An applicant must be able to demonstrate to the Examination Board that they have serious research interests and skills. Applicant must write a motivation letter and send a writing sample which can help evaluate their research and writing skills.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess essential skills, including he ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our approach to this field

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Our research in this field

What makes this programme special?
The English-taught Research Master's programme in Philosophy is a two-year course that is meant for students of proven ability who wish to prepare for an academic career in philosophy. We offer the following to provide you with the best possible academic background:
- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- A big offer of research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy and the History of Philosophy
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/ethics

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The University of Bristol ranks among the top European institutions in the philosophy and history of science. We currently hold four major research grants to study Darwinism and Rational Choice, Epistemic Utility Theory, Homotopy Type Theory and a philosophy and medicine project on breathlessness. Read more
The University of Bristol ranks among the top European institutions in the philosophy and history of science. We currently hold four major research grants to study Darwinism and Rational Choice, Epistemic Utility Theory, Homotopy Type Theory and a philosophy and medicine project on breathlessness. Our expertise is in a broad range of areas related to the philosophy and history of the specific sciences, including physics, biology, mathematics, logic, medicine and psychology.

Our MA draws on these strengths. It is intended both for students who have a first degree in philosophy who wish to specialise in philosophy and/or history of science at a higher level, and also for individuals with a background in pure science who wish to make a transition to philosophy and history of science or to explore foundational issues within the sciences.

The emphasis of the programme is on philosophical issues arising from specific scientific disciplines, with special emphasis on physics, biology and mathematics. The history of science is studied in terms of the philosophical debate about the nature of scientific method and knowledge.

You will be an active member of the department’s flourishing research culture. All students are encouraged to participate in both the weekly departmental research seminar and the weekly Philosophy and History of Science research seminar, which often features well-known scholars in the field, from Bristol and beyond. There is also a weekly postgraduate seminar, where you are encouraged to present your own work, and where you will learn to develop argumentative strategies in a supportive environment.

Programme structure

You will take six taught units (two compulsory and four optional).

Core units
-Scientific Methodology and Epistemology
-Philosophical Writing and Research Seminar

Optional units
-History of Science
-Philosophy and History of Mathematics
-Philosophy and History of Medicine
-Philosophy of Biology
-Philosophy of Physics
-Philosophy of Psychology
-An individual, supervised research project
Please be aware that optional units may vary from year to year.

Dissertation
Satisfactory completion of semesters one and two allows you to progress to writing a dissertation of up to 15,000 words on an approved topic of your choice. The dissertation is your chance to produce an extended piece of philosophical research that can act as preparation for a graduate research degree. You will have supervisory meetings with a member of staff who will also provide feedback on a draft of your work.

Careers

Students who have completed the MA in Philosophy and History of Science have taken up careers in teaching, the IT sector and scientific administration.

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In the Research Master's specialisation in Philosophy of Religion you will focus on the philosophical reflection on religion in Western thought and contemporary society, as well as exploring the relation between philosophy and religion in Western and other cultural contexts. Read more

Master's specialisation in Philosophy of Religion (Research)

In the Research Master's specialisation in Philosophy of Religion you will focus on the philosophical reflection on religion in Western thought and contemporary society, as well as exploring the relation between philosophy and religion in Western and other cultural contexts.

Information for students of the Research Master

What is the relation between philosophy and religion in Western culture and in other cultural contexts? How does modern and contemporary philosophy reflect on religion? What is meant by a philosophical critique of religion? Which theories of religion have been developed? What is religious experience? The specialisation in Philosophy of Religion explores both classical questions concerning religion, such as the problem of evil, the conceptualization of faith and religious practices, and the issues of religious pluralism and (in)tolerance.

Furthermore, it focuses on contemporary philosophical reflections on religion in a (post)secular society and in a global age. In this specialisation you will study the relation between philosophy and religion in non-Western contexts – for example in the Eastern (Indian) tradition, in the African context or in an Islamic context. The specialisation thus offers a combination of a focus on a Western philosophical body of thought and a comparative global approach to philosophical reflections on religion. You will gain insight in past and present philosophical thought on a conflict-ridden phenomenon.

Key authors include Agamben, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Weber, Freud, De Certeau, Foucault, Gauchet, Said and Taylor.

http://www.ru.nl/english/education/masters/philosophy-of-religion-research/

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our approach to this field

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers delve into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Our research in this field

What makes this programme special?
This is the only research master in philosophy in the Netherlands that offers a specialisation in philosophy of religion.
The English-taught Research Master's programme in Philosophy is a two-year course that is meant for students of proven ability who wish to prepare for an academic career in philosophy. We offer the following to provide you with the best possible academic background:
- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- Research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy and the History of Philosophy
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate.

http://www.ru.nl/english/education/masters/philosophy-of-religion-research/

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Metaphysics deals with basic philosophical questions such as. Read more

Metaphysics and Epistemology

Metaphysics deals with basic philosophical questions such as: What is being? What is truth? What is the essence of something? Is reality one or many? In Nijmegen, the Department of Metaphysics and Epistemology focuses mainly on the question of how these metaphysical questions are affected by hermeneutical philosophy as it has been developed in the 19th and 20th century. In particular, this impact is examined in discussion with the work of philosophers such as Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur and Derrida.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/metaphysics

Information for students

In Metaphysics and Epistemology you focus on the development of the hermeneutic tradition - key figures being Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur and Derrida.
This specialisation covers the classic metaphysical tradition from Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas to Hegel, but more particularly the hermeneutic philosophical tradition of the 19th and 20th centuries. The hermeneutic tradition is studied from a metaphysical and ontological point of view, with particular attention to hermeneutic philosophers of the 19th century (Schleiermacher, Dilthey) as well as to the 20th-century authors who continued this tradition in a phenomenological framework (Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur, Derrida).
Research in this line mainly focuses on the meaning and status of being, truth and subjectivity in the hermeneutic tradition. Those authors in the continental tradition who were critical of these hermeneutic developments in philosophy are also included.
Current research projects are devoted to Ricoeur and Derrida on Metaphor and Truth and The Hermeneutics of Strangeness. Finally, the section has for some years been running a successful Heidegger seminar.

Admission requirements for international students

1. A completed Bachelor's degree in Philosophy or in a related discipline (in the latter case, students must have acquired at least 60 EC in Philosophical disciplines).
The applicant must have a degree with merit or distinction or equivalent. Meaning: a student’s weighted grade-point average in philosophy in the 2nd and 3rd year of their Bachelor's programme must be the equivalent of 7.5 or more (on the Dutch scale of 10).
On the page "Conversions of international grades" you will find an indication of what the equivalent of a Dutch 7.5 or 8 might be in the country where you obtained your Bachelor’s degree.

2. A proficiency in English
In order to take part in this programme, you need to have fluency in both written and spoken English. Non-native speakers of English* without a Dutch Master's degree must either have obtained a higher diploma from an English-teaching institution or be in possession of one of the following certificates:
- A TOEFL score of >577 (paper based) or >233 (computer based) or >90 (internet based)
- An IELTS score of >6.5
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) or Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE) with a mark of C or higher

3. Highly motivated
An applicant must be able to demonstrate to the Examination Board that they have serious research interests and skills. Applicant must write a motivation letter and send a writing sample which can help evaluate their research and writing skills.

Career prospects

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers poke their noses into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Job positions

This programme has been designed for people with the ambition to do research. Graduates tend to fall into three groups. A majority of the students continue their research within academia by applying for a doctoral programme in the Netherlands or abroad. We take particular pride in the fact that more than 75 percent of our graduates manage to obtain a PhD position within two years of graduating. A second group goes on to teach philosophy at secondary schools. And a third group enter research-related professions outside of education. Our graduates are also represented in journalism, science policy, and politics.

Our approach to this field

Philosophy has a unique role within contemporary society. Unlike other academic disciplines, its subject matter is not limited to one set of questions, or one domain of investigation. Philosophers poke their noses into all aspects of science and society. In order to do this, they must possess two essential skills, namely the ability to analyse complex issues logically and conceptually and the ability to document their conclusions in clear and persuasive language. Such skills are not innate. They require intensive training. The Research Master's programme in Philosophy constitutes the first professional step towards the acquisition of these skills.

Our research in this field

What makes this programme special?
The English-taught Research Master's programme in Philosophy is a two-year course that is meant for students of proven ability who wish to prepare for an academic career in philosophy. We offer the following to provide you with the best possible academic background:
- A combination of internationally acclaimed research and excellent teaching
- A big offer of research seminars in the history of philosophy, continental philosophy and analytic philosophy
- A broad range of specialisations in Philosophical Anthropology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of language and Logic, Philosophical Ethics, Social and Political Philosophy and the History of Philosophy
- An emphasis on the training of research skills
- A personal supervisor who guides you throughout the programme
- An excellent preparation for post-graduate life by means of the specialised character of the Research Master's thesis, which is composed of a publishable article and of a PhD research proposal
- A high chance of obtaining a PhD position in the Netherlands or abroad
- An international climate. Read what our Master's students say about our programme

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/philosophy/metaphysics

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The Department of Philosophy has exceptional research strength in philosophy of physics, and very strong links with the School of Physics. Read more
The Department of Philosophy has exceptional research strength in philosophy of physics, and very strong links with the School of Physics. Our MA draws on these strengths. It is intended both for students who wish to specialise in philosophy of physics at a higher level, and for individuals with a background in physics or mathematics who wish to make a transition to philosophy and foundations of physics. The course consists of five taught units in philosophy, two taught master's units in physics, and a 15,000-word dissertation.

As a postgraduate student, you will be an active member of the department’s flourishing research culture. You will be encouraged to attend and participate in both the weekly departmental research seminar and in the Philosophy and History of Science seminars, which often feature well-known scholars in the field, from Bristol and beyond. There is also a weekly postgraduate seminar, where you may present your own work before your peers and learn to develop your argumentative strategies in a supportive environment.

Programme structure

The MA consists of taught components in philosophy and physics, as well as a dissertation.

Core units
- Philosophical Writing and Research Methods (Philosophy, 20-credit unit)
- A mandatory, two-hour weekly seminar developing ideas, bibliographical and writing skills necessary for philosophical research. The unit is assessed by seminar contributions and presentations.
- Scientific Methodology and Epistemology (Philosophy, 20-credit unit)
This unit concerns core topics in scientific epistemology and metaphysics. The unit is examined on the basis of an essay of 5,000-6,000 words. As with all assessed essays, you may meet with a supervisor to discuss your work and to receive feedback on a draft essay.
- Philosophy of Physics (Philosophy, 20-credit unit)
This unit covers philosophical issues related to basic physical theories, focusing on conceptual issues in the foundations of quantum theory and special relativity. We will cover topics such as the relativity of simultaneity; geometry and the causal structure of relativity physics; the conceptual structure of quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument; the measurement problem and Schrödinger’s cat paradox of; locality and action-at-a-distance.
- Advanced Philosophy of Physics (Philosophy, 20-credit unit)
This unit will examine a selection of conceptual issues in the foundations of physical theory with particular focus on the physics of the mid-to-late 20th century. We cover topics such as: the arrow of time in thermal physics; the interpretation of quantum field theory; emergence and universality in condensed matter physics; fine tuning problems and inflationary cosmology; spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism; and time in quantum gravity.
- Foundations of Modern Physics (Physics, 10-credit unit)
Emphasis is placed on students developing an appreciation of the foundations of different areas of physics, and the unit assessment involves students writing an essay whose detailed subject is partly decided by the student. The lectures are divided into Classical, Spacetime and Quantum Physics.
- Relativistic Field Theory (Physics, 10-credit unit)
This course will give an account of the modern approach to special relativity and Lagrangian field theory, and their role in the covariant description of the classical electromagnetic field, and the relativistic quantum Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Formative assessment is through problem sheets discussed in problems classes. Summative assessment is through a 2 hour written examination

Optional units (all Philosophy 20-credit units)
- History of Science
- Logic
- Philosophy and History of Mathematics
- Philosophy and History of Medicine
- Philosophy of Biology
- Philosophy of Psychology
- An individual, supervised research project

Please be aware that optional units may vary from year to year.

Careers

The MA in Philosophy of Physics is an ideal platform for further studies in Philosophy or Foundations of Physics. This course will also provide students with Maths and Physics backgrounds with an opportunity to develop verbal, written and argumentative skills that are highly valued by employers.

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