• University of Derby Online Learning Featured Masters Courses
  • Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Bristol Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Southampton Featured Masters Courses
  • Swansea University Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Edinburgh Featured Masters Courses
  • University of Oxford Featured Masters Courses
  • Goldsmiths, University of London Featured Masters Courses
Middlesex University Featured Masters Courses
OCAD University Featured Masters Courses
University of Reading Featured Masters Courses
Barcelona Technology school Featured Masters Courses
University of Surrey Featured Masters Courses
"global" AND "political" …×
0 miles

Masters Degrees (Global Political Economy)

We have 386 Masters Degrees (Global Political Economy)

  • "global" AND "political" AND "economy" ×
  • clear all
Showing 1 to 15 of 386
Order by 
This advanced specialist degree provides a cutting-edge perspective of economic and financial dynamics, state strategies, and questions of global order and change. Read more
This advanced specialist degree provides a cutting-edge perspective of economic and financial dynamics, state strategies, and questions of global order and change.

Who is it for?

The MA in Global Political Economy caters specifically to students who wish to broaden their understanding of the complex contemporary global economic system and the socio-political relationships contained therein. Often students begin this course with no formal economics education and from a wide range of subject fields, including politics, law, business studies, media studies and the humanities, among others.

Objectives

The MA in Global Political Economy (GPE) at City, University of London enables students to critically evaluate complex relationships between markets, governments, transnational actors and networks in the context of a globalising world economy. The course is tailored to students who wish to acquire a range of analytical skills and specialist knowledge of the global economic system in the 21st century.

This advanced specialist MA gives you the tools to analyse the complex and changing roles of private markets, states, institutions and transnational forces and actors in the global capitalist system. It enables students to gain an advanced understanding of the means and processes through which actors, institutions and structures of the global political economy participate in economic and political life.

By the end of the course, you will have developed an in-depth understanding of the ways the global economy works and will have learned to address and analyse critical issues facing global business leaders as well as national and international policymakers.

Teaching and learning

The MA in Global Political Economy is taught by internationally renowned and world leading scholars in the field. This includes Ronan Palan, Anastasia Nesvetailova, Stefano Pagliari, Amin Samman, Sandy Brian Hager and Nick Srnicek amongst others.

Academic staff

The staff within our Department of International Politics are research active, enthusiastic and passionate about their work. Often this research and influence leads to policy change and many media appearances.

Student activities

In many modules students are encouraged to give presentations. We use group discussions, brain-storming, role-play and mini-roundtables on thematic issues in addition to conventional teaching techniques.

As MA student you are also invited to attend PhD workshops organised by doctoral students in the Department. The dissertation in MA in Global Political Economy is grounded in a specialised stream of the Research Design module (IPM111), where GPE students receive specialised training in research methodology tailored for their dissertation in the field of global political economy.

Assessment

All modules are assessed through a written essay of 4,500 words. In addition to coursework, you must complete a final MA dissertation of 15,000 words based on your independent research. The dissertation is worth one-third of the overall MA mark.

Modules

City's MA in Global Political Economy provides you with analytical skills and conceptual knowledge of key debates around the role of states and societies, companies and markets, global finance and international organisations in shaping globalisation in the 21st century.

The Global Political Economy Masters course focuses on contemporary issues and processes in global political economy in the context of the broader changes associated with 'globalisation,' change, crises and global governance. You will consider and become part of the conceptual and policy debates around issues such as:
-Economic growth and financial crises.
-International competition and economic diplomacy.
-Development, growth and inequality.
-States, international institutions and governance.
-The rise of new economic powers.
-Migration and cultural identity.

Core modules
-Global political economy: contemporary approaches (30 credits)
-Global capitalism: past, present, future (30 credits)
-GPE dissertation (60 credits)

Elective modules - choose 60 credits
Typical modules offered by the Department of International Politics:
-Understanding Security in the Twenty-First Century (15 credits)
-Development and World Politics (15 credits)
-Political Economy of Global Finance (15 credits)
-The Politics of Forced Migration (15 credits)
-Global Governance (15 credits)
-International Politics and the Middle East (15 credits)
-Global Financial Governance (15 credits)
-Strategy, Diplomacy and Decision-Making (30 credits)
-Economic Diplomacy (15 credits)
-Foreign Policy Analysis (15 credits)
-Religion in Global Politics (15 credits)

Typical modules offered by The City Law School:
-International Law and the Global Economy (30 credits)
-International Tax Law (30 credits)
-International Trade Law(30 credits)
-Money Laundering Law (30 credits)
-International Investment Law (30 credits)
-International Banking Law (30 credits)

In Term 3 you will complete your dissertation project.

Career prospects

This is a specialised degree enabling graduates who are often non-economists to engage competently and confidently with economic and financial developments and pursue professional careers in the public and the private sectors, including finance and banking, transnational corporations, civil service and international diplomacy, the media and development agencies.

In addition, graduates of this MA may continue their education into doctoral programmes.

Read less
Today's global economy is changing faster than ever. To be understood fully, it needs to be considered from a variety of different angles bringing together knowledge and insights from multiple schools of thought across economics, politics and law. Read more
Today's global economy is changing faster than ever. To be understood fully, it needs to be considered from a variety of different angles bringing together knowledge and insights from multiple schools of thought across economics, politics and law.

Why are rich countries rich and poor countries poor? How is the global economy structured? Who are the most powerful players, and can China continue to be the engine of growth?

Delving into these important questions and many others, our MSc in Global Political Economy takes a uniquely interdisciplinary approach, to broaden and deepen your skills in policy negotiation, and equip you for a wide range of careers in international organisations, government and NGOs.

Course detail

Highly practical in nature, the Global Political Economy course places a strong emphasis on real world content, drawing on the extensive experience of our cross-department teaching staff. The economics department at UWE Bristol has become known as a leading centre for pluralist economics education, and many of our tutors advise governments and conduct research for major international institutions such as The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO).

We also bring in guest speakers to guide and support your learning, and you will have access to relevant events in and outside the Faculty and University, alongside focused employability support.

The course is particularly suited to those who have studied international relations, politics, economics, business or law at undergraduate level. It is also suitable for those with relevant professional experience, who wish to deepen their understanding of the theories, ideas and concepts underpinning the global political economy.

Modules

Core modules:

• The Rise of the Global Economy
• The World Trade Organisation and the Global Trading System
• The Rise of the BRICS in Global Trade
• The Politics of Trade Negotiation
• Dissertation

Optional modules:

• Contemporary Policy Analysis
• Globalisation and the Law
• International Financial Crime
• Econometrics
• Political Economy
• Economic Theory and Policy
• Politics of Latin-American Underdevelopment
• Europe in the World
• Global Governance

Format

The Global Political Economy course is delivered through a variety of teaching and learning activities, including lectures, tutor-led and student-led group discussions, seminars, projects, case studies, simulation games, and field trips to conferences. Teaching is based on research literature, professional experience and significant use of debate and discussion.

Assessment

Assessment comprises formal tutor assessment, informal tutor assessment and informal peer review and feedback. We will test your knowledge, and intellectual, subject-specific and transferable skills, through a combination of exams, essays, case studies, presentations, projects and simulation games. We will also test your skills informally through class interaction during work on current academic research, case studies, practical exercises and experiential exercises.

Careers / Further study

This MSc in Global Political Economy provides you with the interdisciplinary analytical tools to tackle the big issues that economies and societies face in an increasingly integrated global economy. You will be equipped with skills and knowledge to go into a wide range of careers in international organisations, government and NGOs.

Successful students may also want to continue in their studies to PhD level, in fields such as economics, development economics, politics, the political economy, development studies, and international studies.

How to apply

Information on applications can be found at the following link: http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/study/applyingtouwebristol/postgraduateapplications.aspx

Funding

- New Postgraduate Master's loans for 2016/17 academic year –

The government are introducing a master’s loan scheme, whereby master’s students under 60 can access a loan of up to £10,000 as a contribution towards the cost of their study. This is part of the government’s long-term commitment to enhance support for postgraduate study.

Scholarships and other sources of funding are also available.

More information can be found here: http://www1.uwe.ac.uk/students/feesandfunding/fundingandscholarships/postgraduatefunding.aspx

Read less
New economic powers are rising. We face a growing number of challenges, including. -Climate change. -Financial instability. -Food, energy and security crises. Read more
New economic powers are rising. We face a growing number of challenges, including:
-Climate change
-Financial instability
-Food, energy and security crises

Can the global political economy cope with these issues? You’ll examine the emergence of the global political economy, what economic crisis means for capitalism, and the distribution of wealth and power. Our unique MA analyses the impacts of these contemporary transformations.

How will I study?

You take taught modules and options. You may also do a research placement. You will be assessed by term papers, and write a supervised 10,000-word dissertation.

Scholarships

Our aim is to ensure that every student who wants to study with us is able to despite financial barriers, so that we continue to attract talented and unique individuals.

Chancellor's International Scholarship (2017)
-25 scholarships of a 50% tuition fee waiver
-Application deadline: 1 May 2017

ESRC 1+3 and +3 Scholarships (2017)
-A number of ESRC-funded standalone PhD and PhD with Masters scholarships across the social sciences
-Application deadline: 30 January 2017

HESPAL Scholarship (Higher Education Scholarships Scheme for the Palestinian Territories) (2017)
-Two full fee waivers in conjuction with maintenance support from the British Council
-Application deadline: 1 January 2017

USA Friends Scholarships (2017)
-A scholarship of an amount equivalent to $10,000 for nationals or residents of the USA on a one year taught Masters degree course
-Application deadline: 3 April 2017

Faculty

Meet the people teaching and supervising on your course.

Careers

This MA is ideal for you if you wish to pursue a career in international organisations, development agencies or NGOs, or journalism. Or if you’d like to take up a role in the private sector that requires knowledge of the global political and economic system.

We also offer excellent background and training should you wish to pursue doctoral studies and/or an academic career. We are committed to helping to identify placements for our students.

Our graduates have gone on to pursue careers in:
-Government foreign, economics and trade ministries
-International organisations such as the UN
-NGOs such as Oxfam, CAFOD, Amnesty International and the Red Cross
-International development such as World Bank
-International media or journalism
-Academia and research institutes

Read less
Focusing on important contemporary issues such as globalisation, governance and inequality as well as other societal challenges, students of this programme will acquire a wide range of quantitative and qualitative research skills enabling a comprehensive assessment of the impact of such issues on the global political economy. Read more

Focusing on important contemporary issues such as globalisation, governance and inequality as well as other societal challenges, students of this programme will acquire a wide range of quantitative and qualitative research skills enabling a comprehensive assessment of the impact of such issues on the global political economy.

This cross-disciplinary Masters degree, with offerings from Management, Economics, Politics, Geography and Accounting, offers students an incredibly diverse and intellectually stimulating perspective on how each area directly impacts on the global political economy. And, utilising new international data sources and methods, students will also learn how to fully comprehend, analyse and address issues affecting the global political and economic landscape.

Ideal for students interested in a variety of careers including government, the private sector, think tanks, policy-making and charities. This new programme is accredited by the Economics & Social Research Council (ESRC) as part of the South West Doctoral Training Partnership (SWDTP) and provides students with the opportunity to achieve outstanding career credentials.

Programme Structure

This programme is available for study 12 months full-time or 24 months part time. The course is delivered collaboratively by the University of Exeter, University of Bristol and the University of Bath as part of the South West Doctoral Training Partnership (SWDTP). Students can elect to study optional modules at the Universities of Exeter, Bristol or Bath.

During the programme you will study modules (including the dissertation) totalling 180 credits.

Compulsory modules

Recent examples of compulsory modules are as follows; International Political Economy; Research Methods; Interdisciplinary Research Design; Dissertation; Quantitative Research Methods.

Optional modules

Some examples of recent modules are as follows; Macroeconomics; Principles of International Business; The Politics of Global Capitalism; Political Economy of Food and Agriculture; Leading, Managing and Developing People; Sustainable Enterprise Economy; Resourcing and Talent Management; International Human Resource Management; Consumption, Markets & Culture; Quantitative Research Techniques 2; International Trade and Regional Integration; Corporate Governance, Reporting and Regulation; Principles of International Taxation.



Read less
The Master of Research (MRes) in ‘Global Political Economy. transformations and policy analysis’ trains doctoral students who can assess the impacts of globalisation both in the short run and longer term using new international data sources and comparative methods. Read more

Overview

The Master of Research (MRes) in ‘Global Political Economy: transformations and policy analysis’ trains doctoral students who can assess the impacts of globalisation both in the short run and longer term using new international data sources and comparative methods.

On completion of this programme, students will:

- have a deepened and interdisciplinary understanding of social science discourses and methods for analysing global processes of change both generally and in specified policy areas.
- be knowledgeable of key contributions to thinking about social, economic and political aspects of the planet as an interdependent social system.
- have an understanding of how global and national policy processes interact.

The programme aims to equip students for careers as professional researchers in either academic or non-academic environments, by developing core research skills. Students will be encouraged to review and critically evaluate approaches to research and their application, and to identify and investigate their own original research questions.

- South West Doctoral Training Centre
This MRes is accredited by the Economics & Social Research Council (ESRC), specifically, as part of the larger South West Doctoral Training Centre (SWDTC). It is a collaborative, interdisciplinary programme, delivered by two universities (Bath and Bristol), building on the research strengths of each institution through the inclusion of collaborative units (delivered jointly by the two institutions).

The MRes can be taken as a course in its own right, or as part of the 1 + 3 (MRes + MPhil/PhD) pathway, which includes further collaborative elements with the University of Bristol.

Given the interdisciplinary nature of this programme, successful graduates could proceed onto an MPhil/PhD in one of several areas/departments, specifically:

- Department of Economics
- Department of Education
- School of Management
- Department of Social & Policy Sciences

If applying for an MRes/PhD (the 1 + 3 programme) applicants should indicate on the Application Form, their preferred MPhil/PhD route.

Progression from the MRes to the MPhil/PhD stage is dependent on achieving an acceptable level of achievement (typically an overall average of 60% on at least the taught component of the MRes).

Visit the website http://www.bath.ac.uk/study/pg/programmes/mres-glob-poli-econ-tran/

Programme structure

View programme catalogue (http://www.bath.ac.uk/catalogues/2015-2016/sp/sp-proglist-pg.html#CB) for further information.

About the department

The Department of Social & Policy Sciences (http://www.bath.ac.uk/sps/) includes academics from social policy, sociology, social work and international development.

The international excellence of our research (http://www.bath.ac.uk/sps/research/) was recognised by the award of the prestigious Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2011.

We are committed to advancing learning and knowledge through teaching and research. Our Department collaborates with a wide range of users at the local, national, European and global levels.

Postgraduate programmes:
We offer a wide range of postgraduate programmes. Our postgraduate teaching strongly reflects our research and our links to policy-makers and development institutions at the national, European and global level.

Our Department also has an active MPhil/PhD research programme. We take great pride in fostering a friendly and supportive learning environment.

Seminar series:
We run a lively and well attended postgraduate research seminar series. Each of the Research Centres run seminar series and conferences associated with their research activities. The University of Bath also has a Research in the World public lecture series where key national and international academics are invited to speak.

Careers information:
We are committed to ensuring that postgraduate students acquire a range of subject-specific and generic skills during their training. Our graduates generally go on to work in a wide variety of organisations, for example:

- social research in universities and research institutes, government, business, voluntary organisations and international organisations
- public policy analysis at local, national and international levels
- public information and campaigning within organisations concerned with wellbeing, sustainability and social justice.

Main areas of research

We are an internationally-recognised research-intensive department with a strong focus on policy and practice and a commitment to contribute to social wellbeing and social justice.

We draw together academic staff with backgrounds in Social Policy, Sociology, Social Work and International Development and work closely with colleagues in Psychology, Economics, and Health.

We also have an active and vibrant community of research students (http://www.bath.ac.uk/sps/research/research-students/) undertaking their own research alongside our academic staff.

Find out how to apply here - http://www.bath.ac.uk/hss/graduate-school/taught-programmes/how-to-apply/

Read less
One of the key themes in contemporary international studies is the impact of economic globalisation. Read more
One of the key themes in contemporary international studies is the impact of economic globalisation. The International Studies (Global Political Economy) masters course provides specialised training in the key theories and concepts of advanced international studies, and in particular applies these to the globalisation of economic relations, culminating in autonomous learning and independent study in the form of a dissertation.

See the website http://www.brookes.ac.uk/studying-at-brookes/courses/postgraduate/2016/international-studies--global-political-economy-/international-studies-global-political-economy/

Why choose this course?

- Access to a dynamic, supportive and rapidly growing community of scholars undertaking internationally recognised research in international studies, and the opportunity to be part of a research-active group and attend a rich programme of research seminars with presentations from high-profile external guest speakers. .

- A reputation for excellence in teaching with strong links between course content and the work of our research-active academic staff.

- Covers issues such as the globalisation of economic relations and the potential challenges it poses for states and the governance of the international system. Also provides a range of specialist modules that allow you to focus on particular areas of interest.

- Links with International NGOs, many of whom are based in Oxford, such as Oxfam and Rights and Accountability in Development (RAID).

- Excellent learning resources both at Brookes and through Oxford's Bodleian Library as well as the extensive use of e-learning facilities to complement your time in the classroom.

- A five-day study trip to Brussels and The Hague gives students first-hand experience of how important international institutions, such as NATO and the EU, work. The cost of this is included in fees.

Teaching and learning

Research is fundamental to the International Studies programme and you will be taught by a team of research-active scholars who are all specialists and publish in their areas of expertise. We include aspects of our research in all our courses, teach specialist modules in our areas of expertise and supervise dissertations in our specialist subjects.

Diverse teaching methods are employed including lectures, tutor/group-led seminars, analysis of case studies, group work presentations, individual presentations, and individual and small group tutorials.

Approach to assessment

Assessment is conducted through a variety of assignments linked to the expected learning outcomes. Assignments will include essays, presentations, projects, reports and the dissertation. These will be spread over the year to provide constant feedback and assessment. One of the compulsory modules is also partially assessed by a written exam.

Field trips

You are required to go on a four-day study trip to Brussels and The Hague. The trip takes place just before the start of Semester 2 (in late January) and starts with visits to key institutions of the European Union and NATO. Then its moves to The Hague to visit a range of international organisations, including the International Criminal Court and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which was awarded the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize. This study trip enables you to get a first-hand experience of how these important international institutions work. The cost of the trip is included in the course fees.

How this course helps you develop

Oxford has much to offer scholars of international studies and as one of the world's great academic cities, it is a key centre of debate, with conferences, seminars and forums taking place across a range of related topics within the University and within the city of Oxford.

Careers

The programme will appeal to students who have a broad interest in international affairs, and to those whose future work is likely to involve the public sphere in an international and global context. It is relevant to careers in media and general management, as well as in the civil service, intergovernmental organisations and non-governmental organisations. It will also appeal to those wanting to progress to a research degree.

“Knowledge of issues such as international development, global gender and employment and civil society would be extremely beneficial to any potential employee or volunteer…”
Helen Saunders, Opportunity International

Since Oxfam was founded in the city in the 1940s, Oxford has attracted a diverse range of voluntary organisations and now has one of the highest concentrations of non-governmental organisations outside London, making it the perfect place to begin a career in the third sector.

- Professional Advice
Staff working in the Oxford Brookes Careers and Employment Centre can help you to make the most of the transferable skills that employers are looking for. During your time here you will have the opportunity to attend student employability workshops, job fairs and employer presentations. In addition a dedicated workshop is held for all students on the taught postgraduate programme. This provides specific support and advice about the career opportunities afforded by studying International Studies.

- Progression to PhD
Research is fundamental to the Department and is reflected in our strong research profile. A significant number of our students choose to pursue a career in academia and the programme is an excellent foundation for those wanting to proceed to do a PhD.

Research highlights

The programme is taught by n international team of leading scholars from across the globe. Our vibrant research culture is driven by a thriving and collaborative community of academic staff and doctoral students.

Staff involved in teaching on the programme have, in recent years, been awarded a number of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) grants.

Dr Michael Lister co-led a project entitled 'Anti-Terrorism, Citizenship and Security in the UK', which examined the extent to which citizens of the United Kingdom feel that their security has been enhanced (or even diminished) by contemporary anti-terrorism measures.

Findings from Dr Mikko Kuisma’s ESRC-funded research project called 'Welfare State Practices and the Constitution of the Citizen: Nordic Models of Capitalism in an Age of Globalisation' have been published in a number of outlets including Policy Network, a leading international progressive politics think tank.

Dr Stephen Hurt was successful in a bid to the ESRC Research Seminars Competition together with colleagues from the Universities of Birmingham, Sheffield and Warwick, Chatham House and the Institute for Public Policy Research. The focus of the series is British policy to Africa and in particular the legacies of attempts by successive Labour administrations to transform this and the impact more recently of a Conservative-led coalition government operating in a context of financial austerity. The series will conclude with a parliamentary briefing at the House of Commons, hosted by the Africa All Party Parliamentary Group.

Meanwhile, Dr Rico Isaacs has conducted research funded by the British Academy into the effectiveness of Election Observation Missions (EOMs) in ensuring freer and fairer elections in the former Soviet Union. EOMs have been central to the Organisation for Cooperation and Security in Europe’s (OSCE) strategy to promote democracy in former Soviet states.

Read less
This programme is one of five interdisciplinary pathways that are delivered as part of the South West Doctoral Training Partnership (SWDTP). Read more
This programme is one of five interdisciplinary pathways that are delivered as part of the South West Doctoral Training Partnership (SWDTP).

This pathway explores the dynamics of global transformation and policy implications, as well as their interrelations with national and regional institutional and social responses to the changing global political and economic order.

The pathway encourages you to analyse the diverse experiences and impact of economic globalisation and examine relationships between global governance and inequality. It will also help you understand that analysis and resolution of many of the key problems confronting humanity in the 21st century require new and interdisciplinary academic approaches, innovative methods and policy agendas, creative thinking and transnationally comparative datasets.

Programme structure

Core units
-Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Design
-Global Transformations - Issues and Trajectories
-Introduction to Qualitative Research
-Introduction to Quantitative Research

Optional units
These can be taken at the University of Bristol, Bath or Exeter. Units can change from year to year but may include the following:

At Bristol:
-International Political Economy
-East Asia and Global Development
-East Asia, Europe and Global Integration
-Sino-US Relations in Global Politics
-Power, Hegemony and the Ordering of the Global Political Economy
-Theories of Development
-Environmental Politics
-International Law VI: International Law and Human Rights
-International Law of Trade and Aid

At Bath:
-The Politics of Policy: Actors, Arenas and Conflict in International Perspective
-International Development and Poverty
-Wellbeing and Human Development: Concepts, Measurements and Policy
-Welfare Economics and Distributive Justice

At Exeter:
-The Politics of Global Capitalism
-Managing in a multinational context
-Sustainable Enterprise Economy

Dissertation
Over the summer you will complete a research-based dissertation of up to 15,000 words, individually supervised by a member of staff from the school.

Read less
The MA Global Political Economy explores how the distribution of economic resources is subject to multiple and often competing political pressures, and how the effects of these pressures are experienced differently throughout the world. Read more
The MA Global Political Economy explores how the distribution of economic resources is subject to multiple and often competing political pressures, and how the effects of these pressures are experienced differently throughout the world. It is clear that the political economy has to be understood in global terms, and our academics are redefining the discipline by bringing together ideas, approaches and methods from a diverse range of disciplines to critically analyse emergent issues and problems.
On this degree you will apply innovative ways of thinking to contemporary policy problems, developing critical insights on issues such as unstable capitalism, inequalities and poverty, migration, environmental degradation and climate change, rapid technological change, and emergent new powers. In doing so, you will acquire an understanding of the interplay of economy, polity, society and culture. You will also develop a detailed appreciation of the interplay between actors and structures at different levels of the global system: from the grass-roots and local levels, through community to the nation state, to the global system and its institutions.

The core themes covered in this programme are:
• Globalisation
• Poverty
• Capitalism and crisis
• Sustainable development
• Governance

Read less
How do global economic and political forces shape the lives and future of citizens, business, and civil society? Of political conflict and government? Your Master programme in Political Economy will teach you to answer these questions. Read more

How do global economic and political forces shape the lives and future of citizens, business, and civil society? Of political conflict and government? Your Master programme in Political Economy will teach you to answer these questions. The programme covers the ground from ‘economics for non-economists’ to understanding how the ‘rules of the game’ are shaped, to thinking about ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ of an open global economy and how that gives rise to ‘new’ conflicts and to a surge of anti-globalisation political movements. You will in global and comparative terms address the critical issues facing the developed and developing worlds, from Asia to Europe to the Americas - contemporary challenges such as migration, the struggle for development, or better financial market governance.

Our starting point is that the relationship between ‘politics’ and ‘the economy’ is a two-way street: political contestation shapes economic outcomes and their governance, while economic developments generate political conflicts. The causes and consequences of the on-going economic malaise have brought this highly political ‘who-gets-what’ nature of ‘the economy’ back out into the open. We also confront the social dimension of key political challenges by exploring issues such as social inequalities and corporate power so as better to understand how this plays out in different party political or non-democratic environments. These dynamics cut across a rich terrain of contemporary issues and taps into your interest in both the practical and the ‘big issue’ side of global affairs, crossing over with public policy expertise and business strategy, among which:

  • Powerful emerging economies in Africa and Asia are ‘on the move’, business lobbies push their preferences, and the success of the developing world is a growing challenge to the dominance of the advanced economies in global and regional governance.
  • Technological change and the Internet revolution are transforming the corporate sector, labour markets, and government. New patterns of mass-elite communication and social movement mobilisation are emerging. The world is a shrinking but more politically contentious place than previously thought.
  • Citizens feel vulnerable in the face of cross-border trade, investment, financial markets, and labour market risks. Fearing immigration, rising inequalities, and a changing welfare state, many opt for more ‘populist’ political movements of the radical left or right. 

Our programme also teaches you that the dynamics of change differ starkly across countries: the hopes of a precarious development process poses challenges to authoritarianism in the developing world, while declining trust in business and political elites undermines ‘mainstream’ politics in established democracies.

Student profile

This track is above all a response to vocal demand from students. It draws on a long political economy tradition at the UvA that is second-to-none in Europe. Those of you with a public policy, comparative politics or international relations background often seek to specialise in the economic policy domain yet outside the confines – often ideologically and methodologically constraining – of traditional approaches in economics and business departments. Many who have taken economics, business, or law seek the way our programme ‘brings politics back in’. Many from the humanities can bring their linguistic, cultural and historical knowledge to the programme’s exploration of political-economic interaction. 

Career Prospects

Political Economy taps your interest in issues of practical concern in the economy, business, and policy worlds where expertise leads to elite job opportunities. Above all we help you to think and analyse critically and independently where others merely learn to follow. There is strong demand in the society at large for the training we offer. The programme equips graduates to compete successfully with management, public policy, and economics-trained students for relevant jobs in ministries, think-tanks or consultancy, companies, municipalities, International Organisations, and the media. There is little that a good political economist cannot do. For more information, see the webpage on career prospects.

Why study Political Economy in Amsterdam?

The programme is based at the University of Amsterdam, a major research university, and in one of the highest-ranking departments in continental Europe. The Graduate School of Social Sciences (GSSS) provides a vibrant and international academic community and promotes strong academic and transferable skills development. PE candidates develop a real ‘esprit de corps’ in their year in Amsterdam as we provide you with both academic and professional skills. Our research-oriented MSc in Political Economy taps into your interest in both the practical and the ‘big issue’ side of global affairs, crossing over with public policy expertise and business strategy.

  • How do markets work and how do they intersect with the institutions and governance that have emerged over time, from the local to the global? What are firms, workers, and governments trying to do as they interact and clash? Why is economic integration in some countries heavily politicized and in other countries accepted as a matter of fact?
  • What are the responsibilities of rich societies to the poor, to the environment, to future generations? Is the new radicalism of the ‘losers of globalisation’ a revitalisation of or a threat to democracy?
  • How do the aspirations of ‘ordinary people’ in developed and developing societies fit with the ‘rules of the game’ determined by economic and political elites, and whose interests ought to prevail? Do global markets undermine national democratic choice?

Degree certificate

Political Economy is a track of the accredited degree programme Political Science. After successful completion of this programme, you will receive a legally accredited Master’s degree in Political Science and the title Master of Science (MSc).



Read less
This programme examines political, economic, and socio-cultural transformations in the Global South and interrogates the dynamics, challenges and opportunities confronting its societies – with a specialist focus on how globalisation, international economic interdependence and the internationalisation of political structures and processes are changing politics globally. Read more

This programme examines political, economic, and socio-cultural transformations in the Global South and interrogates the dynamics, challenges and opportunities confronting its societies – with a specialist focus on how globalisation, international economic interdependence and the internationalisation of political structures and processes are changing politics globally.

You’ll learn about the experiences and viewpoints of people and nations of the Global South regarding development issues. You’ll also review strategies, programmes and policies in development, including organisations and donors promoting development, and assess the progress made by different development actors towards key international development goals.

You’ll explore debates and controversies at the centre of contemporary development challenges and analyse both the theories and realities of development, to understand the different approaches, practices and discourses involved.

Research insight

MA Global Development has a close working relationship with the Global Development and Justice research group that aims to examine central debates within the field of global development from an interdisciplinary perspective.

The Global Development and Justice research group is also actively involved, amongst others, in the Centre for Global Development, a university-wide network that promotes cross-disciplinary approaches to the field, as well as the Leeds Centre for African Studies.

Course content

Core modules examine key issues surrounding global development, such as markets, inequality, democratisation, gender, health, education, human rights, conflict, violence and crime – with an additional compulsory module focusing on your specialism.

You’ll also learn about various aspects of development practice, like the theoretical and analytical principles of Project Cycle Management. Additionally, you’ll hone your research and writing skills and then showcase them in your compulsory dissertation – an independent piece of research on a topic of your choice.

These modules will equip you to analyse, understand and discuss the major changes, problems and opportunities facing societies and people in the Global South. You’ll study some of the broader social, political, and economic causes of the problems, and the achievements and setbacks that people have experienced in their efforts to tackle them at the global, national and local levels and improve their societies and lives. You’ll learn to analyse, understand, and discuss development in the Global South in the 2010s in all its dynamism, complexity and significance.

The wide-ranging list of optional modules means that you can explore a diverse range of related subjects of interest to you, including natural resources struggles, global health, gender and globalisation, education, international political economy or issues related to Africa and China.

If you are a part-time student, you can choose how to spread your studies across two years. However, we recommend that you at least take your compulsory modules in your first year, and you have to take the compulsory dissertation module in your second year.

Course structure

Compulsory modules

  • Global Inequalities and Development 30 credits
  • International Political Economy 30 credits
  • POLIS MA Dissertation 60 credits

Optional modules

  • The Global Politics of Health: Power and Inequity 30 credits
  • Gender, Globalisation and Development 30 credits
  • Political Economy of Resources and Development 30 credits
  • The Rise of China 30 credits
  • The Politics of the Israel-Palestine Conflict 30 credits
  • Global Justice 30 credits
  • Africa in the Contemporary World 30 credits
  • Conflict, Complex Emergencies and Global Governance 30 credits
  • Development Management Techniques 15 credits
  • Education in Development 30 credits
  • Research Methodology for Development 15 credits

For more information on typical modules, read Global Development and International Political Economy MA Full Time in the course catalogue

For more information on typical modules, read Global Development and International Political Economy MA Part Time in the course catalogue

Learning and teaching

Modules are conducted through a mix of lectures, seminars and workshops. Tutors also provide you with individual advice on written work and you should begin to develop expertise in improving your work through face-to-face discussion with your tutors, formative assessment and through detailed feedback. You’ll be expected to carry out a good deal of independent, detailed and considered study.

All part-time students attend exactly the same classes as full-time students which usually take place between 9am and 5pm; there are no evening classes.

Assessment

Each module is assessed separately, through assessments that range from long essays to projects and assignments, offering you the opportunity to work in your particular field of interest within each topic area. You will also carry out a dissertation into a research area of your choice.

Career opportunities

This programme is aimed at students who would like to pursue either a professional career or further research in international development and related fields, and generally have a desire to put their education into practice in the Global South.

You’ll gain a wide range of professional skills on top of your subject knowledge. You’ll have an understanding of project design and management in a development context, as well as being able to analyse quantitative and qualitative data. You’ll be able to construct clear arguments, critically assess different options for action, analyse policy documents, write research reports and give presentations. You’ll also be trained to make decisions in complex and unpredictable situations.

Our programme equips you for various career paths. Compatible careers include working in international development agencies, international organisations, governments, politics, NGOs, research organisations, policy making, companies, media, and academia.

Graduates have gone on to work in, for instance, non-governmental organisations in the UK or overseas, research and consultancy firms, international organisations (such as the UN), the Civil Service, the media, or have continued with further study (e.g. PhD research).

We encourage you to seek practical work experience in the international development field, and advise you on how to go about it.

Careers support

We encourage you to prepare for your career from day one. That’s one of the reasons Leeds graduates are so sought after by employers.

The Careers Centre and staff in your faculty provide a range of help and advice to help you plan your career and make well-informed decisions along the way, even after you graduate. Find out more at the Careers website.



Read less
About the MSc programmes. The MSc in International Political Economy (IPE) offers a multidisciplinary perspective on international economic and power relations, essential to understanding an increasingly globalised world. Read more

About the MSc programmes

The MSc in International Political Economy (IPE) offers a multidisciplinary perspective on international economic and power relations, essential to understanding an increasingly globalised world.

The study of international political economy is the study of interactions between markets and politics; the influence of markets on politics and the influence of policy on markets. The core of IPE is international money and international finance, and there is a particular focus on the 2008 financial crisis, its causes and its consequences. Other central topics include international trade and investment, which looks at the drivers of market globalisation and factors which shape the flow of trade and investment, and the international political economy and the environment, specifically, what impedes a genuine agreement on climate change.

You may also be interested in the research stream of this programme, which is designed as a preparation for future research work. You do not need to decide whether you prefer the research stream or the non-research stream of this programme at the time that you apply – you can decide this when you submit your option choices in the Michaelmas term, normally in mid-October.

RESEARCH

The MSc International Political Economy (Research) offers a multidisciplinary perspective on international economic and power relations, essential to understanding an increasingly globalised world.

The study of international political economy is the study of interactions between markets and politics; the influence of markets on politics and the influence of policy on markets. The Research stream in particular is designed as a preparation for future research work if you are entering the field from another related discipline, or if you wish to focus particularly on methodological training.

The core focus of the programme is international money and international finance, and there is a particular focus on the 2008 financial crisis, its causes and its consequences. Other central topics include international trade and investment, which looks at the drivers of market globalisation and factors which shape the flow of trade and investment, and the international political economy and the environment, specifically, what impedes a genuine agreement on climate change.

You may also be interested in the non-research stream of this programme, which differs in its programme structure. You do not need to decide whether you prefer the research stream or the non-research stream of this programme at the time that you apply – you can decide this when you submit your option choices in the Michaelmas term, normally in mid-October. However please note this may impact your eligibility for ESRC funding.

Graduate destinations

The programme has provided excellent prospects for early-career graduates seeking entry to graduate programmes at top global firms, as well as for experienced graduates looking to reposition themselves for more senior roles. We have alumni in banking and financial journalism and in major consulting companies such as Ernst & Young, as well as in a wide range of governmental and non-governmental organisations throughout the world. A good number of our graduates also continue on to research degrees and the academic profession

Further information on graduate destinations for this programme



Read less
The Political Economy of the Middle East MA is an interdisciplinary course that introduces students to political economy from a wide range of academic disciplines. Read more

The Political Economy of the Middle East MA is an interdisciplinary course that introduces students to political economy from a wide range of academic disciplines. The course has a strong emphasis on helping students think critically, creatively and effectively about promoting social justice, equality, democracy, sustainability and social change through political economy.

Key benefits

  • Unique in combining the study of political economy and Middle Eastern studies.
  • Enables you to analyse the political economy of the Middle East from a variety of different perspectives.
  • Provides a strong intellectual and methodological foundation for further research.
  • Develop your communication skills by presenting and disseminating research in written and oral forms, to classmates, tutors, and the wider academic community.
  • Vibrant research community, designated as a Centre of Excellence in Middle Eastern Studies.

Description

Issues of Political Economy in the Middle East are currently at the forefront of global media, policy and public discourses and there is a wide range of both governmental and nongovernmental organizations that will be looking for individuals with strong training in the area. The MA course Political Economy of the Middle East uses the Middle East as a vital arena to think through broader issues of the political economy and development, and conversely uses political economy as a substantive area of empirical and theoretical work through which to understand the Middle East.

Our course offers you an in-depth analysis of major scholarly debates in the political economy of the region through the required module Political Economy of the Middle East: Theory & Practice. It also allows you to pursue your own developing interests by choosing from a wide range of specialist modules.

This course is ideal for graduates with a degree in international relations, economics, politics, international political economy and Middle Eastern studies. We also welcome recent graduates from other disciplines in the humanities, the social sciences and law, as well as those from a professional background.

Course format and assessment

Teaching

For every 20-credit module, we will typically provide you with 20 hours of lectures and seminars (two hours of teaching per week), and we will expect you to undertake 180 hours of independent study. For your dissertation, we will provide you with a course in Dissertation Methods which totals 20 hours of contact spread over two terms and up to four hours of one-to-one supervision. You will typically undertake 586 hours of independent study and project work.

As part of their two-year schedule, part-time students typically take the required Political Economy of the Middle East: Theory & Practice module and two optional modules in Year 1, and two optional modules and the dissertation module in Year 2.

Assessment

We assess Political Economy of the Middle East: Theory & Practice through essay and class participation. You may also be assessed by essays, Q&As and class participation. The nature of assessment varies by module. Your dissertation will be a 10,000-word thesis on a topic of your choosing, and you may take it in the UK or overseas.

Career prospects

This course provides you with the enhanced skills and qualifications which will allow you to excel in future employment and research in an increasingly important field. Our students have transferred the skills they have developed to careers in development organisations, the corporate or financial sector, the diplomatic service, international NGOs, civil society organisations or journalism. Some students have gone on to further research in the Department of Middle Eastern Studies, or another department.



Read less
This programme offers a combined competency in economics and politics, enriched with the study of law. Read more
This programme offers a combined competency in economics and politics, enriched with the study of law. Additionally, it allows for a specialisation in a subfield such as development, environmental policy, migration, conflict and security, political strategy and European public policy, and so equips you with cutting-edge qualifications.

The exposure you are given to policy practice at the international institutions based in Brussels - together with high-quality education - prepares you for a challenging and fulfilling career in international and domestic public policy, diplomacy, non-governmental organisations, as well as in the private sector.

Visit the website https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/58/international-political-economy

- Extended programme
The extended programme allows students the opportunity to study their subject in greater detail, choosing a wider range of modules, and also provides the opportunity to spend one term at the Canterbury campus. The extended programme is ideal for students who require extra credits, or would like to have more time to pursue an internship.

About the Brussels School of International Studies

The Brussels School of International Studies (BSIS) is a multidisciplinary postgraduate School of the University of Kent. We bring together the disciplines of politics, international relations, law and economics to provide in-depth analysis of international problems such as conflict, security, development, migration, the political economy and the legal basis of a changing world order.

We are a truly international School: our students are drawn from over 50 countries. The strong international composition of our staff and student body contributes significantly to the academic and social experience at BSIS. Being located in Brussels allows us to expose students to the working of major international organisations, such as the EU and NATO, and to the many international and non-governmental organisations based here. Students also have the opportunity to undertake an internship with one of these organisations.

Course structure

We are committed to offering flexible study options at the School and enable you to tailor your degree to meet your needs by offering start dates in September and January; full- and part-time study; split-site options, and allowing students to combine two fields of study leading to the award of a degree that reflects both disciplines.

Specialisations

The MA in International Political Economy allows students to choose secondary areas of specialisation from the range of programmes offered at BSIS (http://www.kent.ac.uk/brussels/studying/index.html). Thus, a focused programme of study can be constructed by studying International Political Economy in the context of International Relations; Conflict and Security; International Law and other subject areas we cover.

This leads to the award of an MA degree in, for example, 'International Political Economy with International Law'.

Standard and extended versions

The LLM is offered in both a standard version (90 ECTS credits) and an extended version (120 ECTS credits) and in each case students may take the programme with or without a secondary specialisation. Those on the extended version will take more modules to gain extra credit.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

- provide you with a research-active teaching environment which gives you a good grounding in the study of study of social science in general and international political economy (IPE) in particular

- offer a critical perspective of the interplay between structures and actors in the global economy, political systems and processes, individuals and the institutions of civil society

- ensure that you acquire a solid understanding of methodologies for the study of social science in general, and in the application of those understandings to the study of international political economy in particular

- ensure that you acquire a solid understanding of major theoretical approaches to international political economy, the historical development of the contemporary global economy, and the application of theoretical and historical knowledge to the analysis and understanding of contemporary issues and cases in the field

- ensure that you acquire the necessary skills for advanced assessment of contemporary problems in IPE and their solutions

- develop you general research skills and personal skills (transferable skills).

Research areas

Our research interests span a broad spectrum of the discipline, with particular strengths in the fields of conflict analysis and resolution, political theory and European politics. The strength of the School’s research culture is reflected in the numerous books and articles published and in the existence of its three core research groups: Conflict, Security and Human Rights; Comparative Politics; and Political and Social Thought. We also host four University-recognised research centres: the Conflict Analysis Research Centre (CARC), the Global Europe Centre (GEC), the Centre for Critical Thought (CCT), and the Centre for Federal Studies (CFS).

All members of staff can supervise theses leading to research degrees. We encourage potential research students to refer to our postgraduate research handbook (pdf) for detailed information.

In 2011, the University successfully applied for ESRC recognition as a provider of doctoral training in political science and international studies (and other areas of the social sciences) as part of a consortium. As a result, we are now part of the South East ESRC Doctoral Training Centre, making us one of the key training outlets in our subject in the UK.

Careers

The School of Politics and International Relations has a dedicated Employability, Placements and Internships Officer who works with students to develop work-based placements in a range of organisations. Centrally, the Careers and Employability Service can help you plan for your future by providing one-to-one advice at any stage of your postgraduate studies.

Many students at our Brussels centre who undertake internships are offered contracts in Brussels immediately after graduation. Others have joined their home country’s diplomatic service, entered international organisations, or have chosen to undertake a ‘stage’ at the European Commission, or another EU institution.

Our graduates have gone on to careers in academia, local and national government and public relations.

Kent has an excellent record for postgraduate employment: over 94% of our postgraduate students who graduated in 2013 found a job or further study opportunity within six months.

Find out how to apply here - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/apply/

Read less
The origins, structure and politics of the contemporary global market economy are at the heart of the study of International Political Economy. Read more
The origins, structure and politics of the contemporary global market economy are at the heart of the study of International Political Economy. The global political and economic order is ever-changing under such influences as development, inequality, environmental change and the global economic crisis and recovery.

This programme covers the theoretical foundations of International Political Economy, including the origins, structure and politics of the contemporary global market economy. It also explores changes to the global political and economic order, and a range of issues that are central to the study of contemporary International Political Economy.

It covers:

The theoretical foundations of International Political Economy (IPE)
The origins, structure and politics of the contemporary global market economy
Changes to the global political and economic order
A range of issues central to the study of contemporary IPE, including international economic organisations and regimes
Development
Poverty and inequality
Gender
Environmental sustainability

One of the real strengths of our masters programmes is the wide range of available modules, giving students the ability to tailor their course of study to their own academic interests.

Who is the programme for?

This programme is for students from all over the world who are interested in the problems, challenges and opportunities presented by globalisation, and for students wanting to gain an advanced knowledge of the theories and practice of international political economy, from a range of different disciplinary and empirical perspectives.

About the School of Government and Society

The School of Government and Society is one of the leading UK and International centres for governance, politics, international development, sociology, public management, Russian and European studies.

Established in 2008, the School comprises three Departments: Politics and International Studies (POLSIS); International Development (IDD) and Local Government Studies (INLOGOV).

POLSIS: The Department of Political Science and International Studies (POLSIS), one of the largest and most academically vibrant departments of Political Science and International Studies in the UK. In the latest Research Excellence Framework (REF) Politics and International Studies at Birmingham was ranked the 6th best in the power rankings highlighting the large number of staff in POLSIS producing world-leading and internationally excellent research.

IDD: Be part of global effort to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Contribute to conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction. Help build capacity of nations and communities to adapt to climate change. Study with us to gain the skills and knowledge essential for working in international development in the 21st Century.

INLOGOV: The Institute of Local Government Studies (INLOGOV) is the leading academic centre for research and teaching on local governance and strategic public management. We enrich the world of local public service with research evidence and innovative ideas, making a positive difference.

Funding and Scholarships

There are many ways to finance your postgraduate study at the University of Birmingham. To see what funding and scholarships are available, please visit: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/postgraduate/funding

Open Days

Explore postgraduate study at Birmingham at our on-campus open days.
Register to attend at: http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/postgraduate/visit

Virtual Open Days

If you can’t make it to one of our on-campus open days, our virtual open days run regularly throughout the year. For more information, please visit: http://www.pg.bham.ac.uk

Read less
This programme will provide you with a firm grounding in political analysis and a critical insight into the real politics behind the headlines. Read more

This programme will provide you with a firm grounding in political analysis and a critical insight into the real politics behind the headlines.

You will explore the variety, dynamism and relevance of political theory in the modern world, gaining an insight into political thought and practical application of political ideas.

You will consider the various ways in which theory is vital to understanding a range of urgent and pressing problems (such as terrorism, global poverty, social cohesion, immigration, censorship, war and the environment) in contemporary politics and address the practical implications of these ideas.

Throughout the course you will build a portfolio of in-depth study of many of the defining events and dynamics of modern society, across Europe, North America, Africa and Asia, providing an understanding of the world that will prove invaluable in further academic study or a range of postgraduate careers.

The Political Theory and Cultural Values Research Group is an active team of enthusiastic academics, pursuing cutting-edge research into a wide variety of strands of political thought.

The Political Theory Centre is part of the White Rose Association for Political Philosophy, linking you into the complementary political theory teams at York and Sheffield Universities.

Links with the Leeds Centre for Democratisation afford excellent opportunities for discussing the application of many of the ideas studied on the programme. Political theorists form part of a large department of political studies, including International Relations and Development, which additionally provide an auspicious context for the study of applied theory.

Course content

Through compulsory and optional modules, this programme will offer you:

  • the chance to engage in in-depth critical analysis of political thought
  • the opportunity to examine the nature of freedom, justice and equality
  • a firm grounding in political analysis
  • a critical insight into the defining events and dynamics of modern society
  • a rigorous grounding in the dominant paradigms of political science
  • the chance to personalise your programme.

You will also be able to hone your research and writing skills in your compulsory dissertation – an independent piece of research on your chosen topic.

The wide-ranging list of optional modules means that you can explore a diverse range of related subjects of interest to you.

If you are a part-time student, you will study over a longer period and take fewer modules in each year.

Course structure

Compulsory modules

  • Political Theory in Action 30 credits
  • Advanced Political Analysis 30 credits
  • POLIS MA Dissertation 60 credits

Optional modules

  • The Global Politics of Health: Power and Inequity 30 credits
  • Conflict, Complex Emergencies and Global Governance 30 credits
  • Political Economy of Resources and Development 30 credits
  • European Defence and Security Analysis 30 credits
  • The Rise of China 30 credits
  • American Foreign Policy 30 credits
  • Contemporary Politics of the Middle East 30 credits
  • The Politics of the Israel-Palestine Conflict 30 credits
  • International Political Economy 30 credits
  • International Relations and the Environment 30 credits
  • Global Justice 30 credits
  • Research Methods 30 credits
  • Political Theory in Action 30 credits

For more information on typical modules, read Politics (Political Theory) MA Full Time in the course catalogue

For more information on typical modules, read Politics (Political Theory) MA Part Time in the course catalogue

Learning and teaching

Teaching is tailored for interactive small-group work, and uses a combination of lecture and seminar-discussion modes.

Teaching on political theory modules is predominantly seminar discussion-based, while other modules include more lecture-oriented material.

You will be expected to do a significant amount of preparatory reading before each session, and emphasis will be on student-led discussion to build critical and reflective confidence in a group environment.

Assessment

Modules are assessed by varying combinations of exam and coursework, depending on the module.

Career opportunities

The emphasis on applied use of political thought, particularly from a transformative perspective, means the critical analytical skills learnt here are of use in a wide range of employment sectors, including the civil service, public sector organisations and the third sector.

Many graduates go on to complete PhDs in Political Theory, having had the opportunity to strengthen their command of a certain area of political thought during their Masters studies.

Careers support

We encourage you to prepare for your career from day one. That’s one of the reasons Leeds graduates are so sought after by employers.

The Careers Centre and staff in your faculty provide a range of help and advice to help you plan your career and make well-informed decisions along the way, even after you graduate. Find out more at the Careers website.



Read less

Show 10 15 30 per page



Cookie Policy    X