The fields of science communication and public engagement are currently enjoying unprecedented growth. This is being driven by a greater need to demonstrate the impact of publicly funded research, the need for science to be valued, increased government scrutiny and a desire for a stronger evidence base for policy decisions. Many career opportunities are emerging at the interface between science and various stakeholder groups and ever more creative methodologies for science engagement are being explored.
Our part-time online distance learning programme provides an opportunity to gain a formal qualification in science communication without having to leave your job or move to a different location. You may elect to begin with the Post-Graduate Certificate in the first instance and then decide to study for a Diploma and/or a Master’s degree. You will engage with other students from around the world, from a variety of different academic and professional backgrounds and you will enjoy a rich learning experience while studying on the programme.
You will experience a variety of science communication and public engagement methodologies and issues. In the process, you will develop critical thinking and self-evaluation skills through reflective practice. Your learning in individual courses is transferable, ensuring interconnection across the programme, thus providing opportunities for deeper learning and for the application of key principles in different contexts.
The programme attracts students from across the globe, from a range of academic and professional backgrounds and provides a formal qualification for those working in science communication and public engagement or a conversion route for those interested in moving into this field.
Our online learning technology is fully interactive, award-winning and enables you to communicate with our highly qualified teaching staff from the comfort of your own home or workplace.
Our online students not only have access to Edinburgh’s excellent resources, but also become part of a supportive online community, bringing together students and tutors from around the world.
The programme can be studied to PG Certificate, PG Diploma or Masters level – if you are interested, in a formal qualification in science communication then sign up for our Post Graduate Certificate. You can then opt to continue to the Diploma and the Masters degree.
Year 1 (Certificate) - courses currently on offer include:
Year 2 (Diploma) - courses currently on offer include:
Year 3 (Masters)
To address the need for effective science communication and public engagement with science, there has been a significant rise in opportunities available for professionals with the specialist knowledge, skills and attributes necessary to pursue roles at the interface between scientific research and public.
These roles can be found in, for example, Higher Education Institutions, Research Centres, Museums, Science Centres, Learned Societies and consultancies for democratic decision-making. Examples of specific roles are engagement managers, information and education officers, policy and knowledge brokers, in addition to the traditional science communicator role.
The field of science communication and public engagement with science is currently enjoying unprecedented growth.
This is driven by a greater need to demonstrate the impact of publicly funded research, the need for research to be valued, increased government scrutiny and a desire for a stronger evidence base for policy.
Many career opportunities are emerging at the interface between scientific research and various public groups.
You will experience a variety of science communication and public engagement issues and methodologies. In the process, you will develop critical thinking skills and self-evaluation skills through reflective practice.
The learning gained from one course is transferable to other courses, thus ensuring interconnection across the programme.
This programme is affiliated with the University's Global Academies.
This MSc is a twelve-month programme, divided into three semesters. The final semester consists of a choice of research-or practice-based project. Students also complete placements in an organisational setting.
Teaching methods contain a blend of lectures, individual and small-group activities, and practice-based sessions. Teaching styles will be designed to ‘model’ the practices in science communication and public engagement.
Students will also complete two placements in public engagement workplaces.
The University of Edinburgh has excellent links with many organisations and placement opportunities include: National Museum Scotland, Edinburgh International Science Festival and placements in policy and education.
There has been a significant rise in opportunities available for scientists with the specialist knowledge, skills and attributes necessary to pursue roles at the interface between scientific research and the public.
These roles can be found in, for example, higher education institutions, museums, science centres, learned societies and consultancies for democratic decision-making.
Examples of specific roles include Engagement Managers, Information and Education Officers, Policy and Knowledge Brokers.
Science and technology has a key role to play in modern global and regional issues. To deal with them, decision makers and the general public need to be able to make evidence based choices. The MSc in Public Engagement and Science Communication will equip you with the skills (both communication and critical thinking) to effectively and efficiently explain complex issues in a way that is appropriate and relevant to the audience. In doing so, you'll have the skills to collaborate more effectively and lead in your future career.
This MSc is a cross faculty programme that taps into the most creative elements of science, drama and English to create a course that challenges science graduates to become engaging communicators. Along with the fundamentals of science communication, you'll have the opportunity to work with creative writers, theatre performers, and journalists to help you explore the medium you're most comfortable with and interested in. You'll also have the opportunity to gain real world experience through a work placement.
Alongside the taught modules, you'll conduct a piece of research into science communication, with the support of an academic supervisor and our social scientists. You'll learn through doing, and assignments will be based on real science communication activities. If you choose to write, you'll be encouraged to publish; if you take the drama modules, you will also take to the stage. This programme gives you the freedom to explore your creative ideas, whilst being guided and supervised by experienced science communicators.
Experiential learning and authentic assessments are central to the programme. You will practice and develop through applying your knowledge and talents in real world settings.
From the outset of the programme, you will be expected to develop ideas for your own public engagement activities. First trimester modules underpin this by setting the historical and philosophical scene, the present scene and the evaluation of future activities. You'll study:
The second trimester allows you to build on your plans and deliver them during placements or through your own initiative. Alongside these experiential modules, specific creative skill sets are developed via drama or creative non-fiction modules. Modules include:
The final dissertation allows you to investigate aspects of your own or others public engagement activities through a piece of novel, independent and relevant research.
* All modules are subject to availability.
This programme has been designed to enhance your profile, and make you more desirable by the traditional employers of science graduates.
Potential careers for skilled science communicators include journalism, teaching and broadcasting. However, communicators are employed by professional bodies, research councils, outreach teams in higher education and industry, visitors centres, politicians and festivals. Science communication also offers significant freelance work through festivals, school shows, journalism and broadcast media, making self-employment a serious and successful option for graduates.
Address urgent global issues, find just solutions for all communities.
The New School is at the forefront of addressing global environmental issues, thanks to Milano's Environmental Policy and Sustainability Management (EPSM) program. This program is designed to turn students' passion for environmental change and sustainability into careers with impact. Our students benefit from small, customized classes, a rigorous program of critical theory and practice, and close attention from a faculty engaged in research, scholarship, and cutting-edge professional practice. Our practice-based learning places students front and center alongside organizations working on the most pressing environmental issues of our time, from climate change and environmental justice to food systems and sustainable development.
Environmental Policy and Sustainability Management students also have access to the Tishman Environment and Design Center, a university-wide institute committed to bringing an interdisciplinary and environmental justice approach to contemporary environmental challenges. The Tishman Center's Student Scholars program provides a competitive grant that funds student-designed research and projects related to climate change, environmental, or sustainability issues. Students in the program also benefit from an array of courses and programs throughout the university, including the International Field Program, graduate courses across a variety of disciplines like economics and media studies, sustainable design at Parsons, and other Milano courses in management and policy.
While studying in New York City — a global hub for major environmental and sustainability organizations — our students tackle real-world challenges at government institutions, corporations, small, innovative start-ups, companies, and nonprofits throughout the city. The EPSM program culminates in a capstone project in which students bring their knowledge and critical perspectives to a real-world challenge. For a sample of recent capstone projects, visit the Milano School blog.
Students customize their course of study in consultation with a program advisor, focusing broadly on either environmental policy or sustainability management. The program also offers further areas of specialization, including the option for students to create their own specialization by taking elective courses from across the university. The program is flexible and convenient for working professionals as well as recent college graduates. Students can study full-time and complete the program in two years, or study part-time for three to five years. There are numerous external scholarships available to graduate students with an environmental focus.
The EPSM faculty works closely with each student to provide mentorship and guidance as they explore their professional development goals. Faculty with extensive professional experience help students learn about environmental and sustainability careers and provide connections to networks of peers and professional organizations that can lead to future opportunities. The Milano School also has specialized career services staff that advise students and graduates as they search for internships, fellowships, and employment opportunities.
Students will be prepared to work in a variety of sectors, including government, nonprofits, advocacy and social change organizations, policy and research institutes, as well as and corporate and other private sector firms. EPSM graduates hold such positions as Director of Environment and Sustainability at Information Technology Industry Council, Sustainability Project Manager for the City of Orlando, Chief Sustainability Officer for the town of North Hempstead, NY; Green Business Support Specialist at the Center for Eco Technology; and Project Manager at the Sustainable Development Solutions Center. Others have started their own businesses or consulting firms, or have gone on to pursue doctoral degrees. See where some of our alumni are working. These alumni stay connected through a robust online Alumni Network group and the program hosts an annual on-campus Alumni and Student Mixer to strengthen the connections our students have with professionals pursuing their passion in the environmental field.
Internships enable students to acquire firsthand knowledge and skills that complement their degree. Full-time students who enter the program without related work experience and those planning a career change are required to complete a noncredit professional internship (400–900 hours).
Curating Science will enable you to develop an independent academic and curatorial practice at the intersection of histories, philosophies and social studies of science, science communication and museum studies.
You will engage with current debates in science communication and interpretive practice in museums, including cutting-edge art-science practices that are reimagining ways of knowing and being in the 21st Century. Alongside this, you will be encouraged to develop innovative practices of dialogic and participative engagement, developing their own ways of convening public spaces for debate.
You will undertake a range of active learning activities from developing displays, programmes and events to developing digital content and designing their own research projects. You will be supported throughout by an interdisciplinary academic staff team drawn from museum and curatorial studies and the histories and philosophies of science, as well as professionals from our partner institutions.
Students can specialise in their own areas of interest, through choosing from an array of optional modules that explore contemporary curatorial strategies, technologies and media, cultural memory, histories of medicine, audiences, participation and engagement. You will have the option of undertaking a negotiated placement with a museum or heritage organisation.
All students on the MA in Curating Science will take three core modules.
The History and Theory of Modern Science Communication allows students to explore how science, technology and medicine have been communicated to a wider public in the past. Students will identify how the processes and purposes of science communication has changed over the last two centuries and debate the consequences for science communication of the introduction of new media, ranging from the radio to the internet. The module addresses these questions by surveying the development of science communication since 1750, and by examining the changing theoretical perspectives that have underpinned these developments. Students will learn to re-examine the processes of contemporary science communication in the light of a deeper understanding of this history.
Interpreting Cultures is underpinned by action learning and puts contemporary curation in an international context. From the outset, students work on an interpretation intervention with one of the archives and collections on campus (such as The Stanley & Audrey Burton Gallery; Special Collections; Treasures of the Brotherton; Marks and Spencer Company Archive; ULITA ― an Archive of International Textiles; Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine). This intensive experience of project planning, management, collaboration and team working prepares students for the option of undertaking a negotiated work placement in the second semester or optional modules exploring audiences, participation or engagement.
Through our Advanced Research Skills modules, students are equipped to undertake assessments and ultimately develop their own research project. The modules build to a symposium in Semester 2 where students present initial research findings towards a dissertation on a research topic of interest.
In addition, students choose from a range of optional modules offered by the School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies and the School of Philosophy, Religion and History of Science. These include the opportunity to complete a placement or consultancy project role in either curational approaches or engagement.
You will be taught by leading researchers and experienced practitioners in their fields, and you’ll benefit from a range of teaching and learning methods. They include lectures and seminars, gallery and museum visits, as well as hands-on experience of specific collections in library sessions.
We use a range of assessment methods including essays, presentations, assignments and literature reviews among others, depending on the modules you choose.
Through a combination of theory and practice, the programme produces graduates who are able to develop professional careers in the museums and heritage sector whilst retaining a critical and reflexive eye on their own practice and that of the institutions in which they work. It will equip you with a good understanding of the issues and approaches to science communication and curation, interpretation and engagement, as well as practical work experience ― a combination which is very valuable to employers.
To get a flavour of the kinds of career trajectories our graduates of allied MAs have taken see the ‘news’ section of the Centre for Critical Studies in Museums, Galleries and Heritage and the alumni pages of the School website.
We encourage you to prepare for your career from day one. That’s one of the reasons Leeds graduates are so sought after by employers.
The Careers Centre and staff in your faculty provide a range of help and advice to help you plan your career and make well-informed decisions along the way, even after you graduate. Find out more at the Careers website.
In Semester 2 you will have the option to undertake a negotiated work placement to gain first-hand experience of curating science.
We have close links with many of the major cultural institutions and organisations in the region, meaning there are plenty of opportunities for you to explore. If you have a particular ambition in mind for your placement, we usually try to find a role that suits you.
Students on allied MAs have completed placements in organisations such as Leeds City Museum, Leeds Art Gallery, Harewood House, the Henry Moore Institute, National Science and Media Museum, York City Art Gallery, National Railway Museum, Impressions Gallery, The Tetley, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Lotherton Hall, Abbey House Museum and the Royal Armouries.
Are you driven to make an impact on the world around you? Civic engagement, digital media, political discourse, data and democracy, social justice, youth participation—whatever your cause, Emerson’s Civic Media: Art and Practice (CMAP) Master of Arts program will prepare you for a life and career of improving the world through media, technology, and activism. This intensive one-year residential program, housed in Emerson’s Engagement Lab, will help you become a leader in the knowledge economy, ready to pursue a wide range of paths, including:
From local neighborhoods to international contexts and even the developing world, no matter where you want to be, your degree will position you as an innovative leader in the burgeoning field of civic media.
Civic Media: Art and Practice (CMAP) is a one-year intensive applied research MA program housed in Emerson’s Engagement Lab. In contrast to traditional coursework, you’ll connect with potential community stakeholders from the outset and work with those organizations as you formulate your thesis project.
The CMAP program responds to the burgeoning landscape of media and technology with a program that is applied, embedded in communities, and represents a deviation from the traditional way a graduate higher education program works. The program is design-oriented and requires the building of technologies, games, public art installations, participatory storytelling platforms, and other processes and practices that support the ambitions of the cohort.
We understand the components of CMAP as follows:
CMAP pulls all of the core concepts and ideas of civic media into an intensive one-year program, during which students will:
There is an increasing number of jobs in civic media within the public, private, and non-profit sectors. Students in the program gain experience working with a variety of community-based organizations and will be prepared for jobs such as:
Past graduates of CMAP currently work in various industries and organizations where they apply the skills and knowledge gained from the program, including the Obama Foundation, Global Family Research Project, Harvard Kennedy School, and more.
Through combining arts management with heritage studies, students will develop a sophisticated understanding of the changing political, policy and practice contexts within which the arts and heritage sectors operate today.
Core modules explore the nature of heritage and how meanings of objects, artworks and buildings change in different contexts. You will examine the challenges faced by arts managers and cultural leaders, and the changes that have led some museums to move towards the role of the ‘manager’ rather than the ‘curator’.
You will choose from optional modules to tailor your degree to your interests or career plans – including the opportunity to undertake a work placement or consultancy project role in either arts management or heritage. Previous students have undertaken placements focused on collections, digitisation work, digital interpretation and community engagement.
Supported by our Centre for Critical Studies in Museums, Galleries and Heritage, you will benefit from our partnerships with major arts and cultural organisations to find out what it means to work in this challenging sector.
You will study in the heart of a cultural hub for this diverse and vibrant region. Leeds is home to a wide variety of world-leading and innovative arts and heritage organisations, from the Royal Armouries, Opera North, West Yorkshire Playhouse and Northern Ballet through to nine council-run museums, galleries and heritage sites and many contemporary art spaces.
We are also close to everything the rest of Yorkshire has to offer, from The Hepworth Wakefield to the National Science and Media Museum, Yorkshire Sculpture Park and the Brontë Parsonage Museum. We have close links with many of these cultural institutions to support your practical learning.
This exciting programme has been developed in close collaboration with the School of Performance and Cultural Industries and allows students to undertake core and optional courses in both Schools. Students become members of the Centre for Critical Studies in Museums, Galleries and Heritage and enjoy the opportunities that membership offers.
All MA students in the School take two core modules.
In Arts Management and Cultural Leadership, students will examine theoretical concepts in the emerging field of arts management and the challenges faced by arts managers and cultural leaders. Dialogue with our arts and cultural partners will give an insight into the exciting possibilities opened up by bringing theory and practice together. Students can deepen their learning in this area through optional modules that explore a variety of key issues, such as audience engagement and impact, cultural entrepreneurship, and contemporary cultural strategies, technologies and media.
In Heritage Studies: Key Words, students will develop a critical exploration of heritage through the ways in which people have sought to preserve, understand and pass on their cultures. This is underpinned through combining a sustained theoretical engagement with key ideas which animate heritage – place, community, memory, archive, future – with embedded skills development in heritage and museum interpretative and curatorial practice (which are a core set of sector skills). Students can build on these skills through optional modules such as exploring anthropology and representation, cultural memory and material culture.
Through our Advanced Research Skills modules, students are equipped to undertake assessments and ultimately develop their own research project. The modules build to a symposium in Semester 2 where students present initial research findings towards a dissertation on a research topic of interest.
In addition, students choose from a range of optional modules offered by the School of Fine Art, History of Art and Cultural Studies and the School of Performance and Cultural Industries. These include the opportunity to complete a placement or consultancy project role in either arts management or heritage. Previous students have undertaken placements focused on collections, digitisation work, digital interpretation and community engagement.
We use a range of teaching and learning methods to allow students to benefit from the expertise of our staff. These include weekly seminars, group learning sessions, tutorials and lectures.
Students will also benefit from the expertise of visiting speakers, visits off campus and practical experience. Independent study is also vital to this course, allowing students to develop individual skills and prepare for taught sessions
We use a range of teaching and learning methods to help you benefit from the expertise of our staff. These include weekly seminars, group learning sessions, tutorials and lectures. You’ll also benefit from the expertise of visiting speakers, visits off campus and practical experience. Independent study is also vital to this programme, allowing you to develop your individual skills and prepare for taught sessions.
Depending on the modules you choose, you may experience a range of different assessment methods. These usually include essays of around 7,000 words, individual and group presentations, in-course assessment and project work. You may also be asked to complete a reflective log for your projects, allowing you to look back and critically assess your own practice.
All students have a choice of two optional modules. A number of these modules have a work or enterprise component to gain first-hand experience of contemporary museum and gallery practice. If you have a particular ambition in mind for a work placement, we try to find a role that suits you.
Public sociology is a distinctive approach to the discipline, in which sociological knowledge theory, analysis and social practice is directly connected to the experiences of particular ‘publics’, normally understood as community groups, interest groups, campaigns or other civil society organisations. The essence of public sociology is that it is a discipline that speaks to, and for, audiences and communities beyond the parameters of the academic discipline and makes meaningful contributions to ongoing debates around public issues and concerns.
This new MSc Public Sociology has been developed to address the current lack of postgraduate Public Sociology programmes in the UK and to deliver expert training in the theories, research methods and practices of this developing field. It provides the opportunity to engage with diverse public groups and to reflect critically on how sociology can contribute to their work for social justice and change.
This challenging programme is aimed at sociology graduates who are looking to specialise in public sociology as well as people engaged in community work, social welfare, public engagement or campaigns, who wish to learn how sociological theory and research can meaningfully contribute to their work. You will study what is distinctive about public sociology and the methods of engagement and research of the discipline.
You will attend lectures and seminars, work in groups as well as carry out independent learning. You will be expected to participate in discussions, collaboratively develop ideas and engage with experiential learning. It is particularly expected that you will be engaged with a ‘public’, either through personal experience, employment or voluntary commitment, in order to reflect on the sociological contribution to that work. We offer a range of stimulating assessment methods, including blogs, reflections on practice, live debates, group work with presentations as well as essays and field reports. A project or dissertation in collaboration with a community group will be a significant component of the work for this MSc. A central part of the course experience is the regular engagement with publics and sharing the insights of others on the course, as well as the experiences of public sociologists with diverse community and campaigning experience. Public sociology is a contextual discipline responding to a globalisation, thus the programme draws on the experiences of public sociologists throughout the world and involves teaching by academics from a range of disciplines in which public sociology is relevant.
Each module will require you to attend classes and carry out independent work. Most modules consist of two to three hours of class time each week of the semester and will involve input, critical reading, debate and reflection on experience. Where possible, all teaching takes place over two days per week. Your specific timetable will depend on whether you study full or part-time.
In addition you will be required to complete at least 20 credits as an elective from a range of options or by self-study.
Register as an associate student to study single modules in areas of interest. Contact [email protected] for more information.
Graduates in public sociology will be suitably qualified for a range of careers involving public engagement in the public or third sector or non-governmental organisations.
*Subject to validation
This programme gives you the opportunity to study the main contexts of contemporary science and technology; gain a broad base in science policy, communication, sociology and engagement; enjoy flexibility in specialisation; and work in an interdisciplinary environment with research experts.
The programme provides broad-based training in three disciplines: science policy and governance; science communication, engagement, and evaluation; and sociology of modern science and technology. This programme encourages specialised investigation. It also encourages interdisciplinary integration. Our degree works in dialogue with our sister MSc programme in History and Philosophy of Science, which adds historical and analytical depth to our offer.
MSc students undertake modules to the value of 180 credits.
The programme consists of one core module (15 credits), four optional modules (60 credits), three ancillary modules (45 credits) and a dissertation (60 credits)
Postgraduate Diploma students undertake modules to the value of 120 credits: one core (15 credits), four optional (60 credits), and three ancillary (45 credits), studied over one year.
Postgraduate Certificate students undertake modules to the value of 60 credits. The programme consists of one core module (15 credits), and three optional modules (45 credits), studied over one year.
Students must take three modules from a prescribed list of options including:
All MSc students undertake an independent research project which culminates in a dissertation of 10,000–12,000 words.
Teaching and learning
The programme is delivered through a combination of seminars, lectures, tutorials and research supervision. Student performance is assessed through coursework such as long and short essays, advocacy work, and project work.
Further information on modules and degree structure is available on the department website: Science, Technology and Society MSc
For a comprehensive list of the funding opportunities available at UCL, including funding relevant to your nationality, please visit the Scholarships and Funding website.
Our programme provides essential training and study for students wishing to pursue PhD level study in several fields, and also provides appropriate training and qualifications sought by individuals pursuing careers in areas such as education, museum and archival curatorship, or administration and policy-making in science, engineering and health care.
Recent career destinations for this degree
The programme offers a range of transferable skills and networking opportunities. No matter whether your career plan looks towards the public or private sector, we can help you build a portfolio of skills and contacts that will give your CV the edge. Highlights of the programme include:
Careers data is taken from the ‘Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education’ survey undertaken by HESA looking at the destinations of UK and EU students in the 2013–2015 graduating cohorts six months after graduation.
There is no UK academic department quite like UCL Science & Technology Studies. The department combines award-winning teaching with award-winning public engagement.
We are research active over an enormous range of topics. Our teaching builds on research not only in our subject specialties but also in the fundamentals of teaching and learning.
Our programme makes unique use of London’s attractions and resources. We have close links with the Science Museum, the National Maritime Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Wellcome Library, and UCL Museums & Collections. We also use the city as a classroom, with custom-made walking tours, site visits, and special excursions.
This course focuses on the Catholic theological tradition, within the more general context of Christian theology. Durham has a strong interest in and engagement with contemporary Catholicism, with a Centre for Catholic Studies and the Bede Chair in Catholic Theology.
Optional Modules in previous years have included:
2-3 choices from:
Plus up to 1 choice from:
Most MA teaching is delivered through small group seminars and tutorials. These exemplify and encourage the various skills and practices required for independent scholarly engagement with texts and issues. Teaching in the Department of Theology &
Most MA teaching is delivered through small group seminars and tutorials. These exemplify and encourage the various skills and practices required for independent scholarly engagement with texts and issues. Teaching in the Department of Theology & Religion is ‘research led’ at both BA and MA levels, but particularly at MA level. Research led teaching is informed by staff research, but more importantly it aims to develop students as independent researchers themselves, able to pursue and explore their own research interests and questions. This is why the independently researched MA dissertation is the culmination of the MA programme. Such engagement with texts and issues is not only an excellent preparation for doctoral research, it also develops those skills of critical analysis, synthesis and presentation sought and required by employers.
Many MA classes will contain a ‘lecture’ element, conveying information and exemplifying an approach to the subject-matter that will enable students to develop a clear understanding of the subject and improve their own ability to analyse and evaluate information and arguments. Seminars enhance knowledge and understanding through preparation and interaction with other students and staff, promoting awareness of and respect for different viewpoints and approaches, and developing skills of articulacy, advocacy and interrogation. Through small group discussions and tutorials, feedback is provided on student work, with the opportunity to discuss specific issues in detail, enhancing student knowledge and writing skills.
The Dissertation module includes training in generic research skills, from the use of the Library to issues in referencing and bibliography. The subject specific core module introduces students to questions of interpretation and argument in the disciplines encompassed by theology and religion, and helps them to develop their own interests and questions that will issue in the MA dissertation. The latter is a piece of independent research, but it is fostered and guided through individual tutorials with a supervisor, with whom students meet throughout the academic year.
A significant number of our graduates find employment in academic institutions (universities and seminaries) around the world. Others go into teaching, church ministry, the caring professions, and many other professional fields.