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Like them or loathe them, political parties and elections are important. Elections constitute an essential element of modern democracy and defining moments for the distribution of political power. Read more

Overview

Like them or loathe them, political parties and elections are important. Elections constitute an essential element of modern democracy and defining moments for the distribution of political power. For their part, political parties help link politics and society, compete in elections and structure political processes within and between key political institutions. As Schattschneider famously observed in 1942, ‘Modern democracy is unthinkable save in terms of … parties’.

Yet political parties vary enormously in respect of their social rootedness, policies, size, organisation, internal distribution of power and candidate recruitment, but also, for example, in how they operate within and between legislatures and executives. Similarly there is a myriad of ways in which electoral systems can be structured, and considerable diversity in, for example, the frequency, nature, financing, style and competitiveness of elections. Moreover, both parties and elections have in recent years undergone significant change, not least as a result of technological innovation, and both remain major topics of at times heated public debate.

In short, political parties and elections significantly shape the nature, quality and legitimacy of contemporary politics. This Masters is concerned above all with investigating the rich diversity of political parties and elections in the contemporary world. Keele was the first UK university to offer a taught Maters in political parties and elections and this course benefits from Keele’s unusually high concentration of international research and teaching expertise in this area, much of it organised in the Keele European Parties Research Unit.

The course is taught over a 12 month period (September-September; January-January). It is available as a full-time and/or part-time mode of study. Students completing the course have gone on to a variety of careers in the public, private and voluntary sectors.

See the website https://www.keele.ac.uk/pgtcourses/politicalpartiesandelections/

Course Aims

The aim of the MA/MRes in Political Parties and Elections is to provide you with the factual knowledge and conceptual and analytical skills that will enable you to reflect critically on the manner in which political parties and elections operate in the modern world. In addition, it provides you with the opportunity to demonstrate originality and self-direction in generating and investigating research questions. More broadly, it aims to assist you to develop a range of cognitive and social skills relevant to your intellectual, vocational and personal development. In pursuing these aims, the course seeks to prepare you for a variety of professional careers, including those in governmental and nongovernmental organisations, the media and business, or for research beyond the Masters level.

Course Content

Taught masters programmes require satisfactory completion of at least 180 credits, made up of 6 taught module (120 credits) plus a 15,000 word dissertation (60 credits). The MA and MRes programmes differ in that the MA programme contains more subject-specific modules and less research training, while the MRes programme contains more research training, in preparation for a research career or for undertaking a research degree such as a PhD.

MA
• Power, Knowledge and the World (30 credits)
• Perspectives in Politics and International Relations (30 credits)
• Research in Action (15 credits)
• Three (15 credits) optional modules chosen from the list below
• 15,000 word dissertation on an approved topic in Political Parties and Elections (60 credits)

MRes
• Research Design and Process (20 credits)
• Two 15 credits optional modules chosen from the list below
• Perspectives in Politics and International Relations (30 credits)
• Quantitative Data Analysis I (20 credits)
• Qualitative Data Analysis (20 credits)
• 15,000 word dissertation on an approved topic in Political Parties and Elections (60 credits)

Options
Optional modules can be drawn from modules such as those listed below, although the precise list of available modules may vary from year to year.

• Approaches to European Integration: History and Practice
• Comparative Public Policy
• Comparative European Politics (recommended)
• Diplomatic Law
• Diplomatic Practice
• Dimensions of Environmental Politics
• Environmental Diplomacy
• Environmental Movements: North and South
• Parties and Democracy (recommended)
• Right-Wing Radical Parties (recommended)
• The Changing International Agenda
• The Politics of Global Security
• The Theory of Global Security
• US Environmental Politics and Policy

Teaching & Assessment

Postgraduate teaching and learning generally takes place in a combination of large seminars and smaller discussion groups. Our academics typically lead the sessions, encouraging discussion between all students. Sometimes students will give presentations, either individually or in groups.

There is a strong emphasis on independent learning and students are expected to work on their own to produce their essays and dissertation. Most modules are assessed by a diverse range of coursework (e.g., essays, critiques, reports, presentations), though some modules may also be assessed by seminar contributions and/or written exams. Students take three modules in each semester. The taught modules are completed by May, leaving the summer months for students to write their dissertation.

Additional Costs

Apart from purchasing textbooks for modules, there are no additional compulsory additional costs.

International

SPIRE is a thoroughly international school, and is particularly welcoming to international students, as well as providing plenty of opportunities for home students to broaden their horizons.

We have staff with educational backgrounds in a wide variety of countries, such as Canada, Bulgaria, Italy, Austria, Romania, and Turkey, who present their research all around the world. Students have the opportunity to hear visiting lecturers from various different countries, arranged through our ERASMUS partnerships.

International students will join established international communities at Keele, and will find plenty of support mechanisms in place to help them make the transition to study in the UK.

Find information on Scholarships here - http://www.keele.ac.uk/studentfunding/bursariesscholarships/

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The dynamic interactions between political parties and voters underpin the foundations of modern democratic politics. Read more
The dynamic interactions between political parties and voters underpin the foundations of modern democratic politics. Our new MSc in Elections, Public Opinion and Parties provides students with a thorough grounding in the empirical theories and methods used for exploring and explaining models of party competition, public opinion and voting behaviour.

The degree’s substantive component gives you insights into the reality of political representation and accountability, as well as how political leaders and the media shape and respond to public preferences. The methodological component provides you with valuable analytical and research skills that will prepare you for careers in government, political consultancy, NGOs and research organisations.

See the website https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/politicsandir/coursefinder/mscelections,publicopinionandparties.aspx

Why choose this course?

the Department of Politics and International Relations is a young, vibrant and rapidly-rising department and was ranked in the Top 10 small politics departments in the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE, 2008)

the course is taught by world-class scholars and informed by cutting-edge research

offers an advanced grounding in public opinion and political behavior at both a theoretical and empirical level

you will acquire valuable research methods skills that will equip you to carry out independent research and appraise both qualitative and quantitative research

you will acquire genuinely transferable skills that are highly prized in the job market

our international cohort of students will provide you with excellent opportunities to obtain global perspectives.

Department research and industry highlights

- The Centre for European Politics was officially launched by Lord Mandelson in September 2007, with the mission of producing research in two principal areas: the study of democracy in Europe, and Europe as an actor in world politics. Under the leadership of Co-Directors Dr Alister Miskimmon and Dr James Sloam, it has hosted a number of high-profile speakers, including Lord Mandelson, Professor Simon Hix (LSE), Roger Liddle (Policy Network), John Peet (The Economist), Sir Stephen Wall (former European policy advisor to Tony Blair), David Willetts MP (Shadow Secretary of State for Innovations, Universities and Skills) and Dr Vince Cable. Recent funded research projects include: a European Union Committee of the Regions consultancy on EU External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy; an EU- funded Workshop on the Review of the European Union Budget; and Teaching Democracy. Recent publications include Bendetto and Milio (eds) European Union budget reform: intuitions, policy and economic crisis (Palgrave 2012) and James Sloam 'New Voice, Less Equal: the Civic and Political Engagement of Young People in the United States and Europe', Comparative Political Studies 2012.

- The New Political Communication Unit's research agenda focuses on the impact of new media and communication technologies on politics, policy and governance. Core staff include Professor Andrew Chadwick, Professor Ben O'Loughlin, Dr Alister Miskimmon and Dr Cristian Vaccari. Recent books include Andrew Chadwick's The Hybrid Media System, Politics and Power (Oxford University Press 2013), Cristian Vaccari's Digital Politics in Western Democracies: A Comparative Study (John Hopkins University Press) and Alister Miskimmon, Ben O'Loughlin and Laura Roselle's Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order (Routledge, 2013). Andrew Chadwick edits the Oxford University Press book series Oxford studies in Digital Politics and Ben O'Loughlin is co-editor of the journal Media, War and Conflict. The Unit hosts a large number of PhD students working in the field of new political communication.

Course content and structure

Core course units:
- Elections and Voting Behaviour You will be introduced to the main theories of voting behaviour. We will examine why people vote for different political parties and how their behaviour is shaped by the different mobilisation strategies of political parties and other institutional arrangements. We will consider how social divisions are translated in to political divisions, and how the mechanisms of accountability and representation operate in different political and economic contexts. To what extent do people vote along policy lines? To what extent do they vote along social lines? How have these changed over time?

- Public Opinion and political participation In this unit we will examine the various ways in which people try to influence the political process by participating in different types of political activity. We will examine formal types of participation, such as turnout as well as more direct forms of political action, such as participation in protests and social movements. In doing so we will look at how political behaviour has changed over time and consider the implications for representative democracy.

- Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods in Politics and International Relations You will be introduced to quantitative methods commonly used in the study of Politics and International Relations. You will acquire the skills to understand, critically analyse and carry out a range of quantitative techniques, using statistical software packages such as SPSS. No prior expertise in maths or statistics is required.

- Dissertation (MSc only) The dissertation gives you the opportunity to study an aspect of political behaviour in depth. You will be assigned a dissertation supervisor and the length of the piece will be 12-15,000 words.

Elective course units:
- British Political Parties This unit explains what British political parties stand for and how they function and interact with other parts of the political system. You will gain knowledge of the 'nuts and bolts'of the parties in question, and will also gain useful insights into the difficulties of political leadership, the centrality of political executives and the interdependence of executives with other parts of the political system.

- Public Policy This unit examines the policy making process in comparative context. You will gain knowledge about the actors involved in the policy making process: how policy is made and what impact it has on different policy domains in different institutional contexts.

- Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Politics and International Relations You will be provided with an introduction to core theories and qualitative approaches in politics and international relations. You will examine a number of explanatory/theoretical frameworks, their basic assumptions, strengths and weaknesses, and concrete research applications.You will consider the various qualitative techniques available for conducting search research, the range of decisions qualitative researchers face, and the trade-offs researchers must consider when designing qualitative research.

On completion of the course graduates will have:
- an advanced knowledge and critical understanding of key concepts, theoretical debates, and developments related to elections, public opinion, public policy and parties

- a sound knowledge of the texts, theories and methods used to enhance understanding of the issues, processes and phenomena associated with particular fields of inquiry

- an advanced knowledge and critical understanding of research methods within the disciplines of politics and international relations

- a solid foundation for progression to either a politics-related career, public policy careers, research or continued academic study.

Assessment

Assessment is carried out by a variety of methods including coursework, examinations and a dissertation.

Employability & career opportunities

Our graduates are highly employable and, in recent years, have entered many different politics and international relations-related areas, including roles as officials in local government, personnel officers and higher education lecturers. This course also equips you with a solid foundation for continued PhD studies.

How to apply

Applications for entry to all our full-time postgraduate degrees can be made online https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/studyhere/postgraduate/applying/howtoapply.aspx .

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-You would like to learn from the greatest concentration of Elections scholars in the country. -You want to access teaching based on high quality data from the prestigious British Election Study that we run. Read more
-You would like to learn from the greatest concentration of Elections scholars in the country
-You want to access teaching based on high quality data from the prestigious British Election Study that we run
-You are interested in cutting edge research-led teaching by internationally renowned specialists in the area of elections and democratic engagement

The democracy and elections pathway will appeal to students interested in aspects of formal and informal politics, party and non-party engagement, the elected and electors and in the relationship between the process of government and the normative foundations of democracy.

Teaching and learning

Part-time students complete the full-time programme over two years. There are NO evening or weekend course units available on the part-time programme.

You must first check the schedule of the compulsory modules and then select your optional modules to suit your requirements.

Updated timetable information will be available from mid-August and you will have the opportunity to discuss your module choices during induction week with your Course Director.

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-You would like to learn from the greatest concentration of Elections scholars in the country. -You want to access teaching based on high quality data from the prestigious British Election Study, which we run. Read more
-You would like to learn from the greatest concentration of Elections scholars in the country
-You want to access teaching based on high quality data from the prestigious British Election Study, which we run
-You are interested in strong methods training, which makes all the difference for future employability and future study

The democracy and elections pathway will appeal to students interested in aspects of formal and informal politics, party and non-party engagement, the elected and electors and in the relationship between the process of government and the normative foundations of democracy.

Teaching and learning

Part-time students complete the full-time programme over two years. There are NO evening or weekend course units available on the part-time programme.

You must first check the schedule of the compulsory modules and then select your optional modules to suit your requirements.

Updated timetable information will be available from mid-August and you will have the opportunity to discuss your module choices during induction week with your Course Director.

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At the School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, we conduct research and offer MPhil supervision in all major fields of politics, including. Read more
At the School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, we conduct research and offer MPhil supervision in all major fields of politics, including: international and global politics, governance and political organisations, and political theory.

We can offer you excellent supervision for your Politics MPhil, in a vibrant and supportive research environment.

We have a Politics Postgraduate Society, which organises:
-The 'New Voices' seminar series, with both internal and external presenters
-Round table discussions on topical issues
-Professional development workshops led by politics staff

You are encouraged to attend conferences to present papers, partial funding for this is available from the School.

Our main research themes are:

The politics of difference

We examine the issues thrown up by the social and political differences of humanity from a variety of perspectives including: analytical and continental political philosophy; comparative politics and international politics; post-colonialism. Our work includes research on:
-Multiculturalism and issues of identity
-Inequality and social justice
-Disability
-Competing discourses of national identity
-Ethnic-nationalism
-Political violence
-Socio-political exclusion and discrimination
-Global norms and cultural difference
-Free speech - toleration and recognition

Popular culture and political communication

Our research addresses various key issues including:
-Representation
-Aesthetics
-Identity
-Cultural political economy
-Memory
-Control

We also assess the processes and depiction of political struggles, such as:
-Armed conflict
-Everyday life
-Political organising and identity formation
-Elections

Political participation and elections

We examine the differing forms of political participation that link society to the political systems of the world. We look at both the formal electoral process and non-electoral politics (social movements, protest groups etc). Our research on the emergence of virtual political participation means that some of our work intersects with popular culture and political communication. We investigate:
-Citizen involvement and (dis)engagement
-Social capital
-Non-participation
-The role of civil society

Political ideologies and political thought

We focus on the history of political thought as well as how these ideas are embedded in programmes for political action. Our research incorporates both historical and contemporary political thought prominent in the Western tradition as well as Asian philosophy and post-colonial thinking. This is an interdisciplinary theme, serving as a bridge between empirical political science and political theory.

Global economic and environmental challenges

We study the importance of political ideas such as sustainable development and globalisation, as well as the struggle to define the core problems that society faces. These challenges pose questions to the nature and reform of global governance, and generate tensions between the state and transnationalising forces in global politics and political economy. Our work has already led to findings on:
-The implications for global justice
-The policy challenge for governments and non-governmental actors
-The empowerment of various actors

Democracy, the modern state and political organisations

Our work examines the role of interest groups, social movements, political parties, third-sector actors and charities, community organisations and postcolonial nationalism in relation to the modern state. We draw from ancient and modern political thought to understand the interpretation of democracy (including democratic rights and the foundations of democracy). Our research interrogates the forms democracy takes, including:
-Elite theories of democracy
-Deliberative democracy
-Cosmopolitan democracy
-Democracy in divided societies

Political economy of development

Our research focuses on the interaction of economic forces and principles with political power in the development of societal economics and welfare, as well as on theories of development and post-development. We cover a range of geographic areas in Africa, the Americas, Europe and Asia. We explore questions such as:
-The impact of the ongoing financial and economic crisis
-The role of communities and individuals in the face of global political economic forces
-The impact of the emerging economies (for example Brazil and China) on the global political economy

Critical geopolitics and security

Our research focuses on thinking critically about the political dynamics, consequences and discourses of historical and contemporary geopolitics. We cover both historical and contemporary questions of security, including:
-The territorialisation/de-territorialisation of identity and political agency
-Political cartography
-The role of fear and identity in shaping geopolitics
-Sovereignty and nationalism - the role and impact of the military
-Notions of terrorism and the war on terror
-The geographies of international boundaries
-The war on the trade in illegal substances
-The city and security
-The threat of biological weapons and infectious disease
-The vertical dimension in geopolitical and security studies
-Visual culture and world politics
-Technologies and architectures of security and insecurity
-The human body and security

Theory of international relations

We take an active role in the global debate on the units, actors and structures that shape the dynamics of international politics. Our research covers the political consequences of the constitution of the international as a distinct kind of relation. We examine political concepts including:
-The world system
-International diplomacy
-Networks
-Notions of empire
-Regional integration
-Non-governmental actors
-The (nation) state

Governance in Britain and wider Europe

Our research investigates the dynamics driving public policy-making at national, EU and international levels. We focus on the challenges multi-level governance offers for concerns about legitimacy and accountability. This includes the changing relationship between the governing and the governed over matters of politics and policy. Our geographic scope includes the United Kingdom, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Russia, and the Mediterranean

Global justice and human rights

Our work in political philosophy reflects the increasing need to tackle issues at a global rather than a state-only level. We cover issues such as:
-The formulation and justification of human rights
-The competing claims of relativism, particularism, and cultural diversity
-The extension of ideas of distributive justice from states to humanity as a whole
-Proposals to secure global democracy
-The application of just war theory to modern conflicts and to humanitarian intervention
-Environmental justice, especially climate change

We tackle questions of justice from an issue perspective as well as surveys of nationalism, statism, and various non-cosmopolitan theories of global justice.

Political research and methods

We conduct qualitative and quantitative research reflecting both empirical and critical political methodologies. We use quantitative methods, including rational choice theory and experiments, to make sense of topics as diverse as party systems and transitional justice. Our aim is to push innovation in research methods in ethnography, hermeneutics and discourse analysis. We use concepts that challenge traditional notions of politics to investigate methods for research into new challenges, including:
-The rise of life sciences
-The focus on the relationship between the human body and security
-Emergent forms of subjectivity and politics

Research skills development

The University's Humanities and Social Sciences Graduate School provides a full range of research training in the social sciences, which meets the requirements of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). This training includes:
-Bibliographical techniques
-Philosophy of social science
-Quantitative and qualitative methods

The Graduate School also hosts postgraduate events, including open days, and supports personal development.

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Analysing the challenges facing 21st Century (non-)democracies. Read more

Master's specialisation in Comparative Politics

Analysing the challenges facing 21st Century (non-)democracies
Is immigration a threat to democracy? Is Europe witnessing a surge in populist sentiment? How can governments reform their welfare states to deal with the growing costs of an ageing population? Contemporary governments face these and other political challenges in an increasingly globalised world. In the Master's specialisation in Comparative Politics, you’ll examine the configuration of political power within countries as well as analyse how and why political responses to contemporary challenges vary across countries.
The specialisation provides students with strong theoretical foundations and substantive empirical knowledge in subjects such as representative and deliberative democracy, political parties, democratic reform, the welfare state, gender and immigration policy. Our emphasis on both theory and empirical knowledge provides the tools to critically analyse contemporary problems facing democracies, both within and outside of Europe. It will also train you to assess the effects of proposed policy solutions. You will be prepared for a career in leading positions in both the public and private sector.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/cp

Why study Comparative Politics at Radboud University

- Our international CP staff has a wide range of expertise, including, political parties, electoral politics, gender, inequality, welfare states, immigration and populism. Staff members integrate their latest research and those of their colleagues into their seminars.

- Our programme is consistently ranked number one by the most influential Dutch higher education rating organisations. The key to this success is our emphasis on small and interactive classes and the quality of our instructors.

- Radboud University boasts a strong international community.

- Staff members are actively involved in advising governments, societal and political organisations, incorporating practical experience and insights into their teaching.

Change perspective

The Comparative Politics Master’s will provide new insights into configurations of political power around the world. Politics is much more than elections; it’s also about grass roots mobilisation, mediatisation, and conflicts over values.

Admission requirements for international students

1. A completed Bachelor's degree in Political Science or a related discipline from a recognised, academic university.
A substantial part of the courses in your Bachelor’s degree should be in your preferred specialisation: International Relations, Political Theory, Comparative Politics or Public Administration (COMPASS).

2. Competency in Social Science Research Methodology (quantitative and qualitative)
Due to the strong academic nature of this programme, it is essential that students have the necessary basic research skills. Applicants with little or no Social Science Research Methodology in their previous education may get admission, provided they first complete an (oral) examination in research methodology. The oral exam can be held in person in Nijmegen or via Skype.

3. A proficiency in English
In order to take part in this programme, you need to have fluency in both written and spoken English. Non-native speakers* of English without a Dutch Bachelor's degree or VWO diploma need one of the following:
- a. TOEFL (iBT) Certificate: minimum overall score of 90, with subscores not lower than 18, or
- An IELTS score of >6.5 with subscores not lower than 6.0, or
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) ): minimum score of C, or
- Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE): minimum score of C.

Career prospects

Our graduates have the skills that employers want: sound research and analytical skills; excellent written and oral communication skills; and experience in working in teams and independently.
These skills and knowledge will prepare you for positions in policymaking, administration, and project management in the public and private sector, as well as in research settings. Our alumni have positions as policymakers in international organisations, political parties, government ministries, market authorities, the European Parliament and the European Commission. Our alumni also work as consultants for profit and non-profit organisations and as researchers at think-tanks and universities. They are also employed by banks and other financial institutions and by the media.

Our approach to this field

Comparative Politics at Radboud University focuses on the following aspects:

- Political conflict in the age of globalisation
Opening up the newspaper or turning on the television it would be hard to miss recent developments such as Catalan and Scottish demands for independence, challenges to authoritarian regimes (i.e. the Arab Spring), the persistence of populist parties (in Europe and elsewhere), debates on immigration, and demands by young people for employment and a better future (e.g. the indignados movement). We are interested in uncovering the social, economic, and political causes of such developments, while also questioning whether events such as these are destabilising or whether they will be accommodated into existing institutional structures.

- Alternative forms of representation
Democracies face unprecedented challenges in areas like migration, environmental degradation, and demographic change. However, democracies must also cope with electorates that are increasingly dissatisfied with government performance and legitimacy. Some citizens withdraw from political participation, some turn to populist and anti-establishment parties, while others become even more politically active. In comparative politics we utilise a variety of theoretical perspectives to analyse these trends, while we also seek to propose possible solutions to these problems.

- Political challenges to political reform
We study the politics of reform across a wide range of social policies, targeting inequalities while seeking to learn from the best comparative work available on the welfare state, gender equality, migration and integration and sexual equality.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/cp

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This course involves learning how to make new discoveries that will contribute to a better understanding of historical events and processes that shape societies. Read more
This course involves learning how to make new discoveries that will contribute to a better understanding of historical events and processes that shape societies.

Our views of past events shape, and give meaning to the present. The research Master’s in Historical Studies brings history researchers together with literary, art and cultural experts to construct critical histories of both the past, and the present. We recognise that historical enquiry has important transformative potential not just for our ideas about the past but also for present day societies. We also recognise that to validate our interpretations, we have to look beyond our own discipline. That is why our programme has a strong international element and a connection to the other humanities. You’ll gain insight into general humanities methods and theories as well as those specific for historical studies. This will greatly benefit your own research and future contributions to scholarly and social debates.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/hlcs/historical

Europe and its worlds’

The programme welcomes students with interest in all fields of historical research, but our own research primarily focuses on Europe and ‘its worlds’, including how Europe interacts with and differs from the rest of the world. Our research examines the full range of periods from antiquity to the present day. All of our research is performed in collaboration with scientists from other fields within the Institute for Historical, Literary and Cultural Studies (HLCS). We are joined in thirteen themed research groups.

Why study Historical Studies at Radboud University?

- There is a strong focus on academic training in historiography methods and theory: you’ll learn how to use current conceptual tools and techniques for organising historical evidence as well as how to sift through and analyse a large number of important primary and secondary sources for your research.
- In your first year, you take several courses with students from the other HLCS research Master’s in Literary Studies, and in Art and Visual Culture. This unique construction will allow you to view your own field from the perspective of the other humanities.
- A personal tutor will guide you throughout the entire programme. He/she will give you advice on how to tailor our programme to best suit your interests, act as a sounding board for your research ideas, and help you make the right connections in the academic arena.
- You’ll receive thorough preparation for eventual PhD research, including the writing of a publishable scholarly article and a proposal for a PhD project.
- This programme strongly encourages you to go abroad for at least a semester. Students can use our connections to other universities (IRUN network) and research institutes to find a place that meet their academic interests.

Our research in this field

Any research done by students of the Master’s in Historical Studies will be supervised by a researcher at the Institute for Historical, Literary and Cultural Studies (HLCS) in Nijmegen. HLCS research focuses around the theme Europe and its Worlds and questions whether ‘Europe’ consists of different ‘worlds’ (in terms of culture and social conditions). Research looks at how it is addressed, how it differs from the rest of the world, and how it interacts with other parts of the world. Researchers from a variety of humanities disciplines collaborate in thirteen different thematic groups to explore the spaces, cultural practices, beliefs, texts and ideas related to Europe and its World.

- Thematic research groups
There is a historian in almost all of these thematic groups. Although all the groups could be of interest to a historical researcher, our experience is that the following generate a lot of interest among the Historical Studies students:

- The Making of War. History and Memory of Crisis, War and Recovery
This group focuses on research to critically map, describe, and evaluate the dynamic and comprehensive meaning of World War II to Europe and the world.

- Repertoires of Representation
This group studies the historical variations of political representation, articulation and presentation.

- The Ancient World
This group focuses on Greco-Roman Antiquity and its influence on later Western and Eastern cultures.

- Tourism, Travel and Text
The research of this group looks at the traveller/tourist, the act of travelling itself (the journey), and the travel destination (conservation or even creation of heritage in relation to the destinations of travel).

Master’s thesis topics in Historical Studies:
For their Master’s thesis research, students can work together with researchers from one of the HLCS research groups or choose a topic in a non-related area.
A small sample of thesis topics that you could research in this programme:
- The Pope under Pressure: Papal Propaganda during Times of Severe Crisis 1494-1549
- The Dutch Communist Party and the question of Apartheid. Analysing the CPN’s position in relation to South Africa’s Apartheid and the anti-Apartheid movement in the Netherlands
- Christian Suburbs: Conceptions of Constantinople’s Religious Topopgraphy at its Limits, 330-1204
- Dogmatic democracy. Direct elections for the European parliament debated, 1958-1961
- 'Komt voor de deur op straat'. A spatial analysis of eighteenth-century Amsterdam violence

Academia and beyond

This programme is primarily intended to prepare its students for an academic career, in particular as PhD researchers. About half of our graduates find such a position in the Netherlands or abroad. The other half also often find academic positions with research orientated duties. Examples include:
- Researcher at a cultural or scientific organisation or research centre
- Assistant of a senior researcher
- Teacher at an institution for higher education
- Policy-making official in the fields of culture and science
- Editor in the field of historical or cultural scholarship
- Staff member of a publishing company or and text agency, usually with regard to scientific, historical or cultural journals
- Curator of a cultural heritage institution or in the museological sector
- Consultant for a political party

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/hlcs/historical

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The course provides you with a strong grounding in the analysis of international politics. There’s a focus on the role of major organisations in a global environment. Read more

Why this course?

The course provides you with a strong grounding in the analysis of international politics. There’s a focus on the role of major organisations in a global environment.

The programme trains you in different theoretical and methodological approaches from modern political science. You’ll evaluate their usefulness in explaining international political processes and organisational practices.

You’ll gain knowledge of global and regional problems including economic, security and environmental threats.

You’ll have the opportunity to do a research placement through the Erasmus programme - from Finland to Italy, and from Portugal to Slovakia.

See the website https://www.strath.ac.uk/courses/postgraduatetaught/internationalrelations/

You’ll study

The course consists of core and optional classes and a dissertation. The core classes provide an introduction to theories of international politics and to the actual workings of major world organisations, such as the EU.

Core classes:
These classes are as follows:
- International Institutions & Regimes
- Contemporary International Relations
- European Governance
- Principles of Research Design

Optional classes:
Choose from:
- Quantitative Methods I
- Quantitative Methods II
- Qualitative Methods
- Policy Analysis
- Comparative Public Policy
- European Political Economy
- Contesting Global Governance

Facilities

Established in 2010, the School of Government & Public Policy integrates the Department of Government with three research centres:
- European Policies Research Centre
- Centre for the Study of Public Policy
- Centre for Elections & Representation Studies

English language requirements

If you’re a national of an English speaking country recognised by UK Border Agency or you have successfully completed an academic qualification (at least equivalent to a UK bachelor's degree) in any of these countries, then you do not need to present any additional evidence.

For others, the School requires a minimum overall IELTS score of 6.5, with no individual component below 5.5. Pre-sessional courses in English are available.

If you are from a country not recognised as an English speaking country by the United Kingdom Border Agency (UKBA), please check English requirements before making your application.

Pre-Masters preparation course

The Pre-Masters Programme is a preparation course for international students (non EU/UK) who do not meet the entry requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Strathclyde. The Pre-Masters programme provides progression to a number of degree options.

To find out more about the courses and opportunities on offer visit isc.strath.ac.uk or call today on +44 (0) 1273 339333 and discuss your education future. You can also complete the online application form, or to ask a question please fill in the enquiry form and talk to one of our multi-lingual Student Enrolment Advisers today.

Learning & teaching

All classes are taught in seminars. You'll receive training with a strong empirical focus, supervision in small group seminars as well as individual sessions.

Classes average 20 contact hours with additional computer laboratory sessions.

If you’re studying part-time you’ll attend classes across two academic years. You’ll then work on a dissertation over 10 months.

Indicative Readings:
- Held, D and McGrew, A (2007) Globalization/Anti-globalization: Beyond the Great Divide. Polity Press.
- Kaul, I, Grunberg, I and Stern, M.A. (1999) Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. Oxford University Press.
- Reus-Smit, C & Snidal, D (2010) The Oxford Handbook of International Relations. Oxford University Press.
- Willetts, P (2011) Non-governmental Organizations in World Politics: The Construction of Global Governance. Routledge.

Assessment

You’ll be assessed by a variety of methods including:
- essays
- options papers
- group projects

These account for two thirds of the total assessment. Your dissertation, produced over the summer, accounts for one third of the total assessment.

Find information on Scholarships here http://www.strath.ac.uk/search/scholarships/index.jsp

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The Department of Political Science offers opportunities for advanced study in the major fields of political science. It is a major centre for the study of Canadian politics with a strong core of faculty actively engaged in research touching on Canadian themes. Read more

Program Overview

The Department of Political Science offers opportunities for advanced study in the major fields of political science. It is a major centre for the study of Canadian politics with a strong core of faculty actively engaged in research touching on Canadian themes. The Department is a leading centre for the study of parties and elections in Canada. It has a long tradition of the study of federalism and the normative dimensions underlying Canadian politics. Much current work focuses on issues of public policy.

The University is one of North America's leading centres for Asian studies and the Department is an important element of that research strength with faculty members specializing in the study of China, Japan, India, Korea, and Southeast Asia. Several department members are associated with the Institute of Asian Research on campus and play an active role in the editorial work of the journal Pacific Affairs, which is housed on campus.

The Department has highly regarded expertise in the area of international relations. Department faculty are affiliated with the UBC Center of International Relations, which is awarded yearly grants by the Department of National Defence as a centre of expertise under its Military and Strategic Studies Program. Department faculty are also active in the interdisciplinary Liu Institute for the Study of Global Issues.

In addition, the Department has recognized expertise in the study of democratization and democratic institutions from a variety of perspectives. The Centre for the Study of Democratic Institutions is a focal point for research in the Department.

The Department also promotes research and teaching in political theory, political economy, research methodologies and public policy. Individual faculty members' interests cover a broad spectrum of political systems (including Russia, Latin America, the United States, and Australia in addition to those noted above) and embrace a variety of methodological approaches.

The UBC Library is one of North America's major university research libraries and is a depository for UN, Canadian, and BC Government publications, as well as many US Government documents. The Asian Research Library is a particularly important research centre. The Department and UBC Library hold joint memberships in the Inter-University Consortium for Political Research and the International Survey Library Association. The UBC Data Library has the largest collection of machine-readable material in Canada.

Quick Facts

- Degree: Master of Arts
- Specialization: Political Science
- Subject: Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities
- Mode of delivery: On campus
- Program components: Coursework + Thesis required
- Faculty: Faculty of Arts

Research focus

Fields of study in the Political Science program include:
- Canadian Politics: federalism, the Canadian electoral system, the constitution, the courts, electoral reform, parliamentary institutions, political parties, Canadian public policy, Canadian political thought, voting behaviour
- Comparative Politics: democratization and democratic institutions, state-society relations, comparative public policy, comparative political economy, constitutional design and comparative political institutions, executive politics, separation of powers, governance, non-governmental organizations, and immigration politics
- International Relations: International Relations Theory, International Political Economy, International Security, International Law and Organization, International Norms, Human Security, the politics of international law, and global governance
- Political Theory: democratic theory, liberalism, constitutionalism, human rights, feminism, multiculturalism, nationalism, identity politics, critical theory, history of political thought

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The taught postgraduate masters programme in International Studies provides specialised training in the key theories and concepts of advanced international studies and international relations, including the application of these to real world issues. Read more
The taught postgraduate masters programme in International Studies provides specialised training in the key theories and concepts of advanced international studies and international relations, including the application of these to real world issues. The MA and PGDip awards also provide training in social scientific methods.

The programme will appeal to you if you have a broad interest in international affairs, and if your future work is likely to involve the public sphere in an international and global context. It is relevant to careers in media and general management, as well as in the civil service, intergovernmental organisations and non-governmental organisations. It will also appeal if you are wanting to progress to a research degree.

See the website http://www.brookes.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/international-studies/

Why choose this course?

- Access to a dynamic, supportive and rapidly growing community of research scholars undertaking internationally recognised research in international studies, and the opportunity to be part of a research active group and attend a rich programme of research seminars with presentations from high profile external guest speakers.

- A reputation for excellence in teaching with ever stronger links between course content and the work of our research-active academic staff.

- A flexible and exciting range of postgraduate courses as well as interdisciplinary opportunities provided through collaboration with our colleagues in Business and Law.

- Excellent learning resources both at Brookes and through Oxford's Bodleian Library as well as the extensive use of e-learning facilities to complement your time in the classroom.

- Links with International NGOs, many of whom are based in Oxford, such as Oxfam and Rights and Accountability in Development (RAID).

- A five-day study trip to Brussels and The Hague provides first-hand experience of how important international institutions, such as NATO and the EU, work. The cost of the trip is included in fees.

Teaching and learning

Research is fundamental to the International Studies programme and you will be taught by a team of research-active scholars who are all specialists and publish in their areas of expertise. We include aspects of our research in all our courses, teach specialist modules in our areas of expertise and supervise dissertations in our specialist subjects.

Diverse teaching methods are employed throughout the different pathways, including lectures, tutor/group-led seminars, analysis of case studies, group work presentations, individual presentations, and individual and small group tutorials.

Approach to assessment

Assessment is conducted through a variety of assignments linked to the expected learning outcomes. Assignments will include essays, presentations, projects, reports and the dissertation. These will be spread over the year to provide constant feedback and assessment. One of the compulsory modules is also partially assessed by a written exam.

Field trips

Each year students are required to go on a five-day study trip to Brussels and The Hague. The trip takes place just before the start of Semester 2 (in late January) and starts with visits to key institutions of the European Union and NATO. Then its moves to The Hague to visit a range of international organisations, including the International Criminal Court and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which was awarded the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize. This study trip enables students to get a first-hand experience of how these important international institutions work. The cost of the trip is included in the course fees.

How this course helps you develop

Oxford has much to offer scholars of international studies and as one of the world's great academic cities, it is a key centre of debate, with conferences, seminars and forums taking place across a range of related topics within the University and within the city of Oxford.

Careers

The programme will appeal to students who have a broad interest in international affairs, and to those whose future work is likely to involve the public sphere in an international and global context. It is relevant to careers in media and general management, as well as in the civil service, intergovernmental organisations and non-governmental organisations. It will also appeal to those wanting to progress to a research degree.

“Knowledge of issues such as international development, global gender and employment and civil society would be extremely beneficial to any potential employee or volunteer…”
Helen Saunders, Opportunity International

Since Oxfam was founded in the city in the 1940s, Oxford has attracted a diverse range of voluntary organisations and now has one of the highest concentrations of non-governmental organisations outside London, making it the perfect place to begin a career in the third sector.

- Professional advice
Staff working in the Oxford Brookes Careers and Employment Centre can help you to make the most of the transferable skills that employers are looking for. During your time here you will have the opportunity to attend student employability workshops, job fairs and employer presentations. In addition a dedicated workshop is held for all students on the taught postgraduate programme. This provides specific support and advice about the career opportunities afforded by studying International Studies.

- Progression to PhD
Research is fundamental to the Department and is reflected in our strong research profile. A significant number of our students choose to pursue a career in academia and the programme is an excellent foundation for those wanting to proceed to do a PhD.

Research highlights

The programme is taught by a truly international team of leading scholars from across the globe. Our vibrant research culture is driven by a thriving and collaborative community of academic staff and doctoral students.

Staff involved in teaching on the programme have, in recent years, been awarded a number of Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) grants.

Dr Michael Lister co-led a project entitled 'Anti-Terrorism, Citizenship and Security in the UK', which examined the extent to which citizens of the United Kingdom feel that their security has been enhanced (or even diminished) by contemporary anti-terrorism measures.

Findings from Dr Mikko Kuisma’s ESRC-funded research project called 'Welfare State Practices and the Constitution of the Citizen: Nordic Models of Capitalism in an Age of Globalisation' have been published in a number of outlets including Policy Network, a leading international progressive politics think tank.

Dr Stephen Hurt was successful in a bid to the ESRC Research Seminars Competition together with colleagues from the Universities of Birmingham, Sheffield and Warwick, Chatham House and the Institute for Public Policy Research. The focus of the series is British policy to Africa and in particular the legacies of attempts by successive Labour administrations to transform this and the impact more recently of a Conservative-led coalition government operating in a context of financial austerity. The series will conclude with a parliamentary briefing at the House of Commons, hosted by the Africa All Party Parliamentary Group.

Meanwhile, Dr Rico Isaacs has conducted research funded by the British Academy into the effectiveness of Election Observation Missions (EOMs) in ensuring freer and fairer elections in the former Soviet Union. EOMs have been central to the Organisation for Cooperation and Security in Europe’s (OSCE) strategy to promote democracy in former Soviet states.

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We are living through an era of tumultuous change in how politics is conducted and communicated. The great digital disruption of the early 21st century continues to work its way through media systems around the world, forcing change, adaptation, and renewal across a whole range of areas. Read more
We are living through an era of tumultuous change in how politics is conducted and communicated. The great digital disruption of the early 21st century continues to work its way through media systems around the world, forcing change, adaptation, and renewal across a whole range of areas: political parties and campaigns, interest groups, social movements, activist organisations, news and journalism, the communication industries, governments, and international relations.

In the New Political Communication Unit at Royal Holloway, University of London, we believe the key to making sense of these chaotic developments is the idea of power—how it is generated, how it is used, and how it shapes the diverse information and communication flows that affect all our lives.

This unique new Masters degree, which replaces the MSc in New Political Communication, is for critically-minded, free-thinking individuals who want to engage with the exciting intellectual ferment that is being generated by these unprecedented times. The curriculum integrates rigorous study of the very best academic research with an emphasis on making sense of political communication as it is practiced in the real world, in both "old" and "new" media settings.

While not a practice-based course, the MSc Media, Power, and Public Affairs is perfect for those who wish to build a career in the growing range of professions that require deep and critical insight into the relationship between media and politics and public communication more generally. These include advocacy, campaign management, political communication consultancy, journalism, government communication, policy analysis, public opinion and semantic polling, and public diplomacy, to name but a few. Plus, due to its strong emphasis on scholarly rigour, the MSc in Media, Power, and Public Affairs is also the perfect foundation for a PhD in political communication.

You will study a mixture of core and elective units, including a generous choice of free options, and write a supervised dissertation over the summer. Teaching is conducted primarily in small group seminars that meet weekly for two hours, supplemented by individual tuition for the dissertation.

This course is also offered at Postgraduate Diploma level for those who do not have the academic background necessary to begin an advanced Masters degree. The structure of the Diploma is identical except that you will not write a dissertation. If you are successful on the Diploma you may transfer to the MSc, subject to academic approval.

See the website https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/politicsandir/coursefinder/mscpgdipmediapowerandpublicaffairs.aspx

Why choose this course?

- be taught by internationally-leading scholars in the field of political communication

- the curriculum integrates rigorous study of the very best academic research with an emphasis on making sense of political communication as it is practiced in the real world, in both "old" and "new" media settings

- perfect for those who wish to build a career in the growing range of professions that require deep and critical insight into the relationship between media and politics and public communication more generally

- a unique focus on the question of power and influence in today’s radically networked societies.

On completion of the programme, you will have:
- advanced knowledge and critical understanding of key concepts, theoretical debates, and developments in the field of political communication

- advanced knowledge of the texts, theories, and methods used to enhance understanding of the issues, processes, and phenomena in the field of political communication

- advanced knowledge and critical understanding of research methods in the social sciences

- a solid foundation for a career in the growing range of professions that require deep and critical insight into the relationship between media and politics and public communication more generally, or for a PhD in any area of media and politics.

Department research and industry highlights

- The New Political Communication Unit’s research agenda focuses on the impact of new media and communication technologies on politics, policy and governance. Core staff include Professor Andrew Chadwick, Professor Ben O’Loughlin, Dr Alister Miskimmon, and Dr Cristian Vaccari. Recent books include Andrew Chadwick’s The Hybrid Media System: Politics and Power (Oxford University Press, 2013), Cristian Vaccari’s Digital Politics in Western Democracies: A Comparative Study (Johns Hopkins University Press), and Alister Miskimmon, Ben O’Loughlin, and Laura Roselle’s, Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order (Routledge, 2013). Andrew Chadwick edits the Oxford University Press book series Oxford Studies in Digital Politics and Ben O’Loughlin is co-editor of the journal Media, War and Conflict. The Unit hosts a large number of PhD students working in the field of new political communication.

Course content and structure

You will study four core course units (chosen from a total of six options), two elective units, and write a dissertation over the summer. Course units include one of three disciplinary training pathway courses, a course in research design, analysing international politics, and specialist options in international relations.

Students studying for the Postgraduate Diploma do not undertake the dissertation.

Core course units:
Media, Power, and Public Affairs: You will examine the relationship between media, politics and power in contemporary political life. This unit focuses on a number of important foundational themes, including theories of media effects, the construction of political news, election campaigning, government communications and spin, media regulation, the emergence of digital media, the globalisation of media, agenda setting, and propaganda and the role of media in international affairs. The overarching rationale is that we live in an era in which the massive diversity of media, new technologies, and new methodologies demands new forms of analysis. The approach will be comparative and international.

Internet and New Media Politics:
 Drawing predominantly, though not exclusively, upon specialist academic journal literatures, this course focuses on a number of important contemporary debates about the role and influence of new technologies on the values, processes and outcomes of: global governance institutions; public bureaucracies; journalism and news production; representative institutions including political parties and legislatures; pressure groups and social movements. It also examines persistent and controversial policy problems generated by digital media, such as privacy and surveillance, the nature of contemporary media systems, and the balance of power between older and newer media logics in social and political life. By the end of the course students will have an understanding of the key issues thrown up by the internet and new media, as well as a critical perspective on what these terms actually mean. The approach will be comparative, drawing on examples from around the world, including the developing world, but the principal focus will be on the politics of the United States and Britain.

Social Media and Politics: This course addresses the various ways in which social media are changing the relationships between politicians, citizens, and the media. The course will start by laying out broad arguments and debates about the democratic implications of social media that are ongoing not just in academic circles but also in public commentary, political circles, and policy networks—do social media expand or narrow civic engagement? Do they lead to cross-cutting relationships or self-reinforcing echo chambers? Do they hinder or promote political participation? Are they useful in campaigns or just the latest fashion? Do they foster effective direct communication between politicians and citizens? Are they best understood as technologies of freedom or as surveillance tools? These debates will be addressed throughout the course by drawing on recent empirical research published in the most highly rated academic journals in the field. The course will thus enable students to understand how social media are used by citizens, politicians, and media professionals to access, distribute, and co-produce contents that are relevant to politics and public affairs and establish opportunities for political and civic engagement.

Media, War and Conflict:
The post-9/11 global security situation and the 2003 Iraq war have prompted a marked increase in interest in questions concerning media, war and conflict. This unit examines the relationships between media, governments, military, and audiences/publics, in light of old, new, and potential future security events.

Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Politics and International Relations:
 You will be provided with an introduction to core theories and qualitative approaches in politics and international relations. You will examine a number of explanatory/theoretical frameworks, their basic assumptions, strengths and weaknesses, and concrete research applications. You will consider the various qualitative techniques available for conducting research, the range of decisions qualitative researchers face, and the trade-offs researchers must consider when designing qualitative research.

Dissertation (MSc only): The dissertation gives you the opportunity to study an aspect of Media, Power, and Public Affairs in depth. You will be assigned a dissertation supervisor and the length of the piece will be 12,000 words.

Elective course units:
Note: not all course units are available every year, but may include:
- Politics of Democracy
- Elections and Parties
- United States Foreign Policy
- Human Rights: From Theory to Practice
- Theories and Concepts in International Public Policy
- Contemporary Anglo-American Political Theory
- Transnational Security Studies
- Conflict and Conflict Resolution in the Middle East
- The Law of Cyber Warfare
- Comparative Political Executives
- European Union Politics and Policy
- International Public Policy in Practice
- Sovereignty, Rights and Justice
- Theories of Globalisation
- Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods in Politics and International Relations

Assessment

Assessment is carried out by coursework and an individually-supervised dissertation.

Employability & career opportunities

Advocacy, campaign management, political communication consultancy, journalism, government communication, policy analysis, public opinion and semantic polling, public diplomacy, PhD research.

How to apply

Applications for entry to all our full-time postgraduate degrees can be made online https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/studyhere/postgraduate/applying/howtoapply.aspx .

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Our MSc in Politics provides an advanced grounding in contemporary political science, focusing on empirical and normative democratic theory, political institutions, public policy and citizenship across different political systems and diverse social contexts.The MSc brings together many of the existing strengths of the department in different parts of the world. Read more
Our MSc in Politics provides an advanced grounding in contemporary political science, focusing on empirical and normative democratic theory, political institutions, public policy and citizenship across different political systems and diverse social contexts.The MSc brings together many of the existing strengths of the department in different parts of the world.

The programme can be tailored to specific regional interests through option courses in West Europe and North America, East Europe, Africa, India, and the Middle East. The degree will provide you with a firm academic foundation in the study of comparative politics and a base of knowledge for careers in fields such as policymaking, development, and NGOs.

See the website https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/politicsandir/coursefinder/mscpolitics.aspx

Why choose this course?

- the Department of Politics and International Relations is a young, vibrant and rapidly-rising department and was ranked in the Top 10 small politics departments in the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE, 2008)

- the course is taught by world-class scholars and informed by cutting-edge research

- offers an advanced grounding in international public policy while allowing you to specialise in particular issues or regions of interest.

- taught by academics, current and retired public policy practitioners

- our international cohort of students will provide you with excellent opportunities to obtain genuinely global perspectives.

Department research and industry highlights

- The Centre for European Politics was officially launched by Lord Mandelson in September 2007, with the mission of producing research in two principal areas: the study of democracy in Europe, and Europe as an actor in world politics. Under the leadership of Co-Directors Dr Alsiter Miskimmon and Dr James Sloam, it has hosted a number of high-profile speakers, including Lord Mandelson, Professor Simon Hix (LSE), Roger Liddle (Policy Network), John Peet (The Economist), Sir Stephen Wall (former European policy advisor to Tony Blair), David Willets MP (Shadow Secretary of State for Innovations, Universities and Skills) and Dr Vince Cable. Recent funded research projects include: a European Union Committee of the Regions consultancy on EU External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy; an EU-funded Workshop on the Review of the European Union Budget; and Teaching Democracy. Recent publications include, Bendetto and Milio (eds) European Union budget reform: institutions, policy and economic crisis (Palgrave, 2012) and James Sloam, 'New Voice, Less Equal: the Civic and political Engagement of Young People in the United States and Europe', Comparative Political Studies 2012.

- The Centre for Global and Transnational Politics is devoted to the multi-disciplinary exploration of global and transnational processes. Led by its Co-Directors Professor Chris Rumford and Professor Sandra Halperin, its central concern is to theorise and conceptualise the substance of, and connections between and among, political processes that operate at all levels or scales: the local, national, international, transnational, and global. Professor Rumford and Professor Halperin edit the Routledge Series in Global and Transnational Politics and host the Global Studies Association and a BISA Working Group of Global and Transnational Politics in the Centre.

- The New Political Communication Unit’s research agenda focuses on the impact of new media and communication technologies on politics, policy and governance. Core staff include Prof Andrew Chadwick, Prof Ben O’Loughlin and Dr Cristian Vicarri. Recent publications include Chadwick’s The Hybrid Media System (Oxford University Press, 2013) and Alister Miskimmon, Ben O’Loughlin and Laura Roselle, Strategic Narratives: Communication Power and the New World Order (Routledge, 2013). As well as hosting a large number of PhD students working in new political communication, Chadwick edited the Oxford University Press Series Oxford Studies in Digital Politics and O’Loughlin is co-editor of the journal, Media, War and Conflict.

- The Contemporary Political Theory Research Group was founded in October 2009, as a result of the development of political theory at postgraduate level and growth in academic staff numbers having created the critical mass it required. The group organizes its activities collectively, and its work focuses on issues around contemporary pluralism, liberalism, democratic theory and radical politics. It brings together staff working in contemporary Continental philosophy, normative political theory, and American pragmatism, and its postgraduate members include two students on the College’s most prestigious studentship, the Reid Award. The group also has ties to the College’s Philosophy Team and the interdepartmental Humanities and Arts Research Centre

Course content and structure

Core course units:
- The Politics of Democracy You will be provided with a sound understanding of contemporary thinking about democracy and political participation through the analysis of liberal democracy and its political institutions. The unit will draw upon a variety of contemporary and historical sources with particular reference to the political systems of Britain and the USA.

- Comparative Political Executives This unit explores the political executives of established democratic systems, focusing on institutions – presidents, prime ministers, cabinets and so on – and how they function and interact with other parts of the political system. You will gain knowledge of the ‘nuts and bolts’ of the executives in question, and will also gain useful insights into the difficulties of political leadership, the centrality of political executives and the interdependence of executives with other parts of the political system.

- European Union Politics and Policy This course provides students with an insight into the development and governance of the European Union as a political system. Particular attention is placed on the functions of the EU’s executive, legislative and judicial institutions as well as on a number of key policy areas in which the European Union’s sovereignty has developed in recent years. The course provides students with a solid theoretical background in understanding both the institutional politics and public policy of the EU.

- Political Parties
Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods in Politics and International Relations You will be introduced to quantitative methods commonly used in the study of Politics and International Relations. You will acquire the skills to understand, critically analyse, and carry out a range of quantitative techniques, using statistical software packages such as SPSS.
Introduction to Qualitative Methods in Politics and International Relations You will be provided with an introduction to core theories and qualitative approaches in politics and international relations. You will examine a number of explanatory/theoretical frameworks, their basic assumptions, strengths and weaknesses, and concrete research applications. You will consider the various qualitative techniques available for conducting search research, the range of decisions qualitative researchers face, and the trade-offs researchers must consider when designing qualitative research.

- Dissertation (MSc only) The dissertation gives you the opportunity to study an aspect of Politics in depth. You will be assigned a dissertation supervisor and the length of the piece will be 12-15,000 words.

Elective course units:
- Internet and New Media Politics Drawing predominantly upon specialist academic journal literatures, this unit focuses on a number of important contemporary debates about the role and influence of new technologies on the values, processes and outcomes of: global governance institutions; public bureaucracies; representative institutions including political parties and legislatures; pressure groups and social movements.

- Elections and Voting Behaviour

- Social Media and Politics

- Public Opinion and political participation

- Human Rights: From Theory to Practice

- Advanced Quantitative Methods

On completion of the course graduates will have:
- an advanced knowledge and critical understanding of key concepts, theoretical debates, and developments related to public policy, democracy, politics, international relations and governance

- a sound knowledge of the texts, theories and methods used to enhance understanding of the issues, processes and phenomena associated with particular fields of public policy, politics and international relations

- an advanced knowledge and critical understanding of research methods within the disciplines of politics and international relations

- a solid foundation for progression to either a politics-related career, public policy careers, research or continued academic study.

Assessment

Assessment is carried out by a variety of methods including coursework, examinations and a dissertation.

Employability & career opportunities

Our graduates are highly employable and, in recent years, have entered many different politics and international relations-related areas, including roles as officials in local government, personnel officers and higher education lecturers. This course also equips you with a solid foundation for continued PhD studies.

How to apply

Applications for entry to all our full-time postgraduate degrees can be made online https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/studyhere/postgraduate/applying/howtoapply.aspx .

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Why should we obey the law? Why don’t democratic countries go to war with each other? Why don’t young people vote? Why do oil-rich countries have poor human rights records? These are the kinds of questions addressed in our Graduate Diploma in Politics, which provides a thorough training in all major areas of political science, and is based in the top politics department in the country. Read more
Why should we obey the law? Why don’t democratic countries go to war with each other? Why don’t young people vote? Why do oil-rich countries have poor human rights records? These are the kinds of questions addressed in our Graduate Diploma in Politics, which provides a thorough training in all major areas of political science, and is based in the top politics department in the country.

Our Graduate Diploma in Politics is a nine-month full-time course which provides a bridge between undergraduate and postgraduate study. Our course is for you if you already have an undergraduate degree, but not in politics, and therefore need further study before taking politics at Masters level.

You develop your knowledge and understanding of the major theoretical and conceptual foundations of political science, and master the necessary quantitative methods for your study of politics.

You also choose from a range of optional modules on topics including:
-Mass media and democracy
-Forecasting global trends
-Ethics and public policy
-International security
-Public opinion

Our Department of Government is one of the most prestigious in Europe, with an outstanding record of teaching, research and publication. We are rated top in the UK for research (REF 2014), and have consistently been the highest-rated politics department in the country since national assessments began. Ranked top 10 in the world for political science and international relations according to the Centre for World University Rankings (2017).

Our expert staff

Some of the biggest names in the field work at Essex, giving you unparalleled access to some of the best minds in politics. Our staff are advising the CIA on counter-terrorism, training politicians and civil servants in democratising countries, and commentating on political events in national and international media.

Our academic staff work on topics ranging from international conflict and violence to British elections, and from the obligations of the younger generation to why authoritarian leaders welcome natural disasters.

You join an active and prolific research team, with the opportunity to work alongside a member of staff on their research instead of completing a dissertation; some of these projects have even resulted in joint staff/student publications.

Specialist facilities

-Laboratories of networked computers featuring extensive software for political analysis
-ESSEXLab provides opportunities for experimental lab research
-Student societies for politics, debating, and Model UN
-We organise the Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis
-A programme of seminars and events run by the department

Your future

All Essex politics graduates have the distinction of a qualification from one of the world’s leading politics departments.

As well as enabling you to go on to a Masters course of your choice in politics, this course will also develop key employability skills including analytical reasoning, research design, quantitative methods, data analysis and essay-writing.

Our graduates go on to enjoy influential careers in British, European and international politics. This includes working as an MP, being the Speaker of the House of Commons and employment as political lobbyists or staff assistants to MPs and MEPs.

Our graduates have also gone on to work for the following high-profile organisations:
-The Civil Service
-Local government
-The World Bank
-The United Nations
-NATO
-YouGov and YouGov America

Our academic reputation is illustrated by the fact that many of our graduates now teach or research at universities, colleges of higher education and schools. For example, recent graduates are now research fellows and academic staff at: Mannheim, Germany; ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Duke University, USA; NATO/SHAPE, Belgium; and University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

We also work with the university’s Employability and Careers Centre to help you find out about further work experience, internships, placements, and voluntary opportunities.

Example structure

-Conflict Analysis
-Measuring Public Opinion (optional)
-Political Analysis: Introduction to OLS (optional)
-Ethics and Public Policy
-Principles of Social Justice
-American Political Institutions (optional)
-Contemporary Theories of Justice (optional)
-Development, State Building and Conflict (optional)
-Domestic Politics and International Relations
-Electoral Behaviour
-Environmental Politics (optional)
-Future Global Trends: Forecasting Scenarios
-Human Rights and Global Justice (optional)
-International Negotiation (optional)
-International Security Studies (optional)
-Mass Media and Democracy (optional)
-Placement-Linked Project
-Political Economy (optional)
-Political Economy of International Development
-Political Parties in Britain and Europe (optional)
-Project: Collaborative Faculty - Student Research Experience (optional)
-Project: Politics (optional)
-Quantitative Political Analysis (optional)
-Authoritarianism (optional)
-The Analysis of Conflict and Peace (optional)
-Seminar in Legislative Politics (optional)
-Representation and Policy-Making (optional)

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When angry at a particular government policy, some people sit in their armchair and complain, others write letters and organise committees, some participate in social media campaigns, while others still protest or even riot in the street. Read more
When angry at a particular government policy, some people sit in their armchair and complain, others write letters and organise committees, some participate in social media campaigns, while others still protest or even riot in the street. Politicians care about public opinion, so how do we explain these choices? How are reactions shaped by people’s social background, their economic circumstances, their personality, or even their genetic inheritance? Can politicians and the media influence public opinion and if so, how?

MA Public Opinion and Political Behaviour explores the interaction between the mass public and political elites in advanced industrial democracies. You are introduced to the latest theoretical debates about the nature, significance and measurement of public opinion, exploring when and how these opinions translate into political participation, from voting behaviour and signing petitions to suicide bombing.

You also look at the main theoretical approaches in the study of politics, combined with a selection of optional modules including:
-Quantitative data analysis in political explanations
-Survey measurement and question design
-Political parties in Britain and Europe
-Measuring public opinion
-Democracies in Europe

Our Department of Government is one of the most prestigious in Europe, with an outstanding record of teaching, research and publication. We are rated top in the UK for research (REF 2014), and have consistently been the highest-rated politics department in the country since national assessments began. Ranked top 10 in the world for political science and international relations according to the Centre for World University Rankings (2017)

Our expert staff

Some of the biggest names in the field work at Essex, giving you unparalleled access to some of the best minds in politics. Our staff are advising the CIA on counter-terrorism, training politicians and civil servants in democratising countries, and commentating on political events in national and international media.

Our key academic staff for this course are Professor Paul Whiteley, who works on British elections, and Professor Lawrence Ezrow, who works on party ideology and strategy.

You join an active and prolific research team, with the opportunity to work alongside a member of staff on their research instead of completing a dissertation; some of these projects have even resulted in joint staff/student publications.

Specialist facilities

-Laboratories of networked computers featuring extensive software for political analysis
-The ESSEXLab provides opportunities for experimental lab research
-Student societies for politics, debating, and Model UN
-We organise the Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis
-A programme of seminars and events run by the department

Your future

All Essex politics graduates have the distinction of a qualification from one of the world’s leading politics departments.

Our course can lead to a career in the polling industry, market research, British and European Politics or the private sector. You will develop key employability skills including analytical reasoning, survey design, polling, research design, and report writing.

Recent graduates have gone on to work for the following high-profile organisations:
-The Civil Service
-Local government
-The World Bank
-The United Nations
-NATO
-YouGov and YouGov America

We also offer supervision for PhD and MPhil in the following fields: government; ideology and discourse analysis; international relations; political behaviour; and politics.

Our academic reputation is illustrated by the fact that many of our graduates now teach or research at universities, colleges of higher education and schools. For example, recent graduates are now research fellows and academic staff at: Mannheim, Germany; ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Duke University, USA; NATO/SHAPE, Belgium; and University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

We also work with the university’s Employability and Careers Centre to help you find out about further work experience, internships, placements, and voluntary opportunities.

Example structure

-Advanced Research Methods
-Public Opinion and Political Behaviour
-Theory and Explanation in Political Science
-MA Dissertation
-International Security Studies (optional)
-Political Parties in Britain and Europe (optional)
-Contemporary Theories of Justice (optional)
-Environmental Politics (optional)
-Political Explanation (optional)
-Theories of International Relations (optional)
-Conflict Resolution (optional)
-Political Economy (optional)
-Political Theory (optional)
-Research Seminar in Political Theory and Methods (optional)
-Research Design (optional)
-Comparative European Politics (optional)
-Ideology and Political Discourse (optional)
-Survey Measurement and Question Design

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This course is for you if you need to improve your English language skills and subject knowledge of politics before going on to a Masters course. Read more
This course is for you if you need to improve your English language skills and subject knowledge of politics before going on to a Masters course. You improve your language fluency and academic vocabulary, develop your academic skills, and gain experience of western methods of teaching and learning so that you can progress onto a relevant Masters course in our Department of Government.

At Essex, you can progress onto our MA Politics.

Our International Academy offers some of the best routes for international students to enter higher education in the UK. Our innovative courses and programmes have proved very successful with international students and have also attracted UK students because of the distinctive learning environment we offer.

If you are an international student, you may find that the education system in the UK is slightly different from other countries and, sometimes, that the transition to the British system can be challenging. Our courses help you to settle in and adapt to life in the UK.

Alongside improving your academic English skills, you also develop your knowledge and understanding of the major theoretical and conceptual foundations of the discipline of political science, and of quantitative methods for studying politics.

Our Department of Government is one of the most prestigious in Europe, with an outstanding record of teaching, research and publication. We are rated top in the UK for research (REF 2014), and have consistently been the highest-rated politics department in the country since national assessments began.

Our expert staff

Some of the biggest names in the field work at Essex, giving you unparalleled access to some of the best minds in politics. Our staff are advising the CIA on counter-terrorism, training politicians and civil servants in democratising countries, and commentating on political events in national and international media.

Our academic staff work on topics ranging from international conflict and violence to British elections, and from the obligations of the younger generation to why authoritarian leaders welcome natural disasters.

You join an active and prolific research team, with the opportunity to work alongside a member of staff on their research instead of completing a dissertation; some of these projects have even resulted in joint staff/student publications.

Specialist facilities

By studying within our International Academy, you will have access to all of the facilities that the University of Essex has to offer:
-We provide computer labs for internet research; classrooms with access to PowerPoint facilities for student presentations; AV facilities for teaching and access to web-based learning materials
-Our new Student Services Hub will support you and provide information for all your needs as a student
-Our social space is stocked with hot magazines and newspapers, and provides an informal setting to meet with your lecturers, tutors and friends

You also benefit from our excellent politics facilities:
-Laboratories of networked computers featuring extensive software for political analysis
-ESSEXLab provides opportunities for experimental lab research
-Student societies for politics, debating, and Model UN
-We organise the Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis
-A programme of seminars and events run by the department

Example structure

-Comparative Political Analysis
-Critical Reading and Seminar Skills
-English for Academic Purposes
-Political Analysis: Introduction to OLS
-Advanced English for Academic Purposes
-Extended English for Academic Purposes Project
-Political Parties in Britain and Europe

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