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Masters Degrees (Ecosystems)

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Communities and Ecosystems deals with the ecology of units of interacting individuals, in populations, communities and ecosystems. Read more

Master's specialisation in Communities and Ecosystems

Communities and Ecosystems deals with the ecology of units of interacting individuals, in populations, communities and ecosystems. The biodiversity is analysed and functionally related to the hydrology, nutritional status and landscape configuration of the ecosystem. Ecogenomics tools are applied to obtain information on unknown components such as microbial composition or evolutionary history of populations. This information together gives insight in how different communities (plants, animals, micro-organisms) within an ecosystem are interrelated and interdependent, and how they determine the resilience of the community to environmental stress. This fundamental knowledge is applied in proven applications in nature and water management.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/biology/ecosystems

Admission requirements for international students

1. A completed Bachelor's degree in Biology or related area

2. Proficiency in English
In order to take part in this programme, you need to have fluency in both written and spoken English. Non-native speakers of English without a Dutch Bachelor's degree or VWO diploma need one of the following:
-A TOEFL score of >575 (paper based) or >232 (computer based) or >90(internet based)
- A IELTS score of >6.5
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE) or Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE), with a mark of C or higher

Career prospects

This programme provides you with the qualifications you need to start working on your PhD and in the field of communication, business and management or education. Biologists often continue their research careers in universities, research institutes, pharmaceutical companies and public health authorities. On graduation, our students very quickly take up positions as researchers or analysts in government departments, research organisations and medical or pharmaceutical companies.
What biologists do:
- Researchers at universities or in companies
- Supervisors of clinical trials
- Consultants
- Lecturers
- Policy coordinators
- Teachers

Where biologists work:
- Research/education
- Health care
- Business services
- Industry
- Government
- Trade

Our approach to this field

Communities and Ecosystems deals with the ecology of units of interacting individuals, in populations, communities and ecosystems. The biodiversity is analysed and functionally related to the hydrology, nutritional status and landscape configuration of the ecosystem. Ecogenomics tools are applied to obtain information on unknown components such as microbial composition or evolutionary history of populations. This information together gives insight in how different communities (plants, animals, micro-organisms) within an ecosystem are interrelated and interdependent, and how they determine the resilience of the community to environmental stress. This fundamental knowledge is applied in proven applications in nature and water management.

Our research in this field

- Rich programme
This M.Sc. programme not only puts the interactions between organisms into context, it also integrates all levels of organisation from the molecule and the cell up to ecosystems and the landscape. This combination of experience results in a rich and coherent MSc. programme of Master's courses and exciting internships with state-of-the-art research. It prepares you for a career in science, both fundamental and applied, but also provides the necessary knowledge for innovative evidence-based applications in nature and water management.

- Personal tutor
Our top scientist are looking forward to take you with them on a challenging and inspiring scientific journey. This programme offers you many opportunities to follow your own interests under the guidance of a personal tutor. Radboud University offers you a multitude of research fields to choose from in close collaboration with the
- academic hospital UMCN St. Radboud;
- Institute for Water and Wetlands Research;
- Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences;
- Donders Institute.

This allows you to specialise in a field of personal interest.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/biology/ecosystems

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Memorial University's Master of Science in Boreal Ecosystems and Agricultural Sciences program is a rigorous, hands-on study of resources and agriculture in the context of boreal ecosystems. Read more
Memorial University's Master of Science in Boreal Ecosystems and Agricultural Sciences program is a rigorous, hands-on study of resources and agriculture in the context of boreal ecosystems. The program focuses on the science and economics of plant, soil, land, and water resources. The program integrates brand-new labs in the Boreal Ecosystems Research Facilities, and through a combination of course, lab, and field work, and a required thesis, helps prepare students for any number of careers in environmental and agricultural industries.

Grenfell Campus is renowned for its environmental programming which enables students in its programs to draw upon a wide range of faculty with diverse environmental interests. Located in western Newfoundland, Grenfell is ideally placed to provide hands-on experiences in a diverse boreal environment. This includes wetlands, boreal forest, the atlantic ocean, numerous river systems, and sub-arctic tundra. With approximately 1,300 students, the university campus is an ideal size to allow students to work closely with faculty in pursuit of their studies.

The MSc program requires a selection of core courses and courses for specialization, followed by a mandatory thesis.

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Many challenges facing society depend on the interaction between ecological systems, the environment and human wellbeing. Yet our current understanding of these complex systems is mostly insufficient for science-based intervention. Read more

Course Overview

Many challenges facing society depend on the interaction between ecological systems, the environment and human wellbeing. Yet our current understanding of these complex systems is mostly insufficient for science-based intervention. Imperial College’s Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment Initiative is based at its Silwood Park campus; an internationally recognised centre of excellence for ecology research, and aims to fill this gap with a unique and innovative Masters in Research course.

This MRes gives students the opportunity to work on active projects alongside leading academics from many different disciplines, allowing them to create real-world impact during the course of their research.

The course will provide students with a cutting-edge interdisciplinary programme, providing high-level research training in the latest developments in the conservation of ecosystems and the environment, covering the physical, life, and social sciences, as well as an understanding of how to ensure that research has real-world impact. This will best prepare students for a career in Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment research and possible PhD studies.

Research Project

Students complete 9 months of project-based research training. The projects are designed to give practical experience of desk-based or field research and provide the opportunity to learn a wide range of skills that build upon those taught earlier in the course.

This MRes comprises projects which can be based in the lab of any Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment member (with guidance and support from any participating department in College or in the University of an International Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment member), and are designed to provide students with experience of contributing to essential research which will provide real-world impact on an active project. Fully desk-based projects are also available.

Course Structure

The course involves 8 weeks of full time teaching of core skills and 9 months of project-based research training.

Taught Elements

* Environmental and biological data sources and GIS
* Statistics and programming
* Understanding and modelling changes in the physical environment
* Understanding and modelling changes in biological systems
* Understanding and modelling changes in social-ecological systems
* Understanding and modelling policy responses to grand challenges
* Communicating your message, including scientific writing and engaging with stakeholders

Additionally, MRes students are able to attend many transferable skills courses that include:

* A one week induction course, including a series of seminars in Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment research
* Attendance at workshops and guest lectures within the Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment initiative
* A one-week summer school on ‘Grand Challenges in Ecosystems and the Environment’
* Training in complementary skills, personal development and business
* Weekly reading groups
* Preparing a CV

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This course provides you with an exceptional grounding in marine environmental research. You’ll develop your understanding of key concepts and issues. Read more
This course provides you with an exceptional grounding in marine environmental research. You’ll develop your understanding of key concepts and issues. You’ll also develop the skills and qualities required for a career in academia or industry.

Through a combination of taught and research modules, our course develops your understanding of:
-The roles of science, policy, technology and economic development in the marine environment
-Marine environmental issues, their origins and possible solutions
-The principal processes maintaining and altering structure, function and ecosystem services of coastal waters
-The key concepts and methodologies used in ecosystem, environmental management and conservation science
-The context, purpose and implementation of resource mapping and evaluation
-The theory, principles, concepts and practices in marine governance

Our staff have over 30 years of research and teaching experience, both in the UK and overseas. Their expertise spans the natural and social sciences in coastal-marine science and management.

Our taught modules will ground your understanding of marine ecosystem dynamics, research methodologies and environmental governance. You will develop your research skills by designing and completing a supervised project.

Major sites for projects include the:
-Red Sea
-Maldives
-Bahamas
-Northumberland coast (UK)

The project will develop a detailed knowledge of your chosen research topic by drawing on the research communities within the School of Marine Science and Technology. These include:
-Marine Biology, Ecosystems and Governance (MBEG)
-Oceans and Climate (OC)

These research groups have had notable successes in their work on:
-Coral reefs (Prof John Bythell, Prof Alasdair Edwards, Prof Nicholas Polunin)
-Physical oceanography and climate modelling (Prof Andrew Willmott, Dr Miguel Maqueda)
-Marine spatial mapping and systems planning (Dr Clare Fitzsimmons)
-Marine protected areas and management (Prof Nicholas Polunin, Prof Selina Stead)
-Food webs (Prof Nicholas Polunin)

They are also active in:
-Marine mammal monitoring (Dr Per Berggren)
-Citizen science and outreach (Dr Jane Delaney)
-Deep sea ecology and marine time series (Dr Ben Wigham)

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The Conservation Management of African Ecosystems programme is a unique, double Masters Programme implemented jointly with the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology in Arusha, Tanzania. Read more
The Conservation Management of African Ecosystems programme is a unique, double Masters Programme implemented jointly with the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology in Arusha, Tanzania. A key feature of the programme will be, following a taught component in Glasgow, the opportunity to carry out an in-depth research project over 15 months in one of the major conservation areas of Tanzania. Successful students will qualify with a Masters degree from the University of Glasgow and a Masters degree from the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology.

● The Programme will provide insight into the principles of conservation management, biodiversity measurement, applied ecology, the human dimension of conservation and the epidemiology of diseases that threaten endangered species.
● It will develop students’ competence in study design, data analysis, scientific writing and communication skills in a quantitative and scientific context appropriate to enable independent research and publication of high quality outputs, as well as communicating to a broader range of audiences (eg. for government policy making and public outreach) and will train students in a range of specialised skills, techniques, practices and analyses required for state-of-the-art research and management in conservation biology.
● The Programme will provide the opportunity to study in-depth a choice of current issues in conservation management through an extended research project that involves setting their own results in the wider context through critical evaluation of the evidence base in that field, assimilation and synthesis of information relevant to their specific study, with reference to the latest literature and identification of the strengths and weaknesses in their own approach and results.
● The University of Glasgow has a wide range of experience, expertise and long-term cooperation with partners in northern Tanzania. This Programme offers students the opportunity to benefit from well-established teaching and support at the Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine at the University of Glasgow, and combine that with research work in one of the major conservation areas of Tanzania.

Programme Structure

The programme consists of two semesters of taught courses based at Glasgow: see ‘Core and optional courses’ below.

Following the Glasgow taught courses the student will travel to Tanzania to undertake training and research at one of the major conservation areas in Tanzania. During this time they will be registered with the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology in Arusha, northern Tanzania.

A final three months of the research period will be linked to the University of Glasgow but, by common agreement with the supervisors, the student may remain in Tanzania for this period, or study back at Glasgow.

Successful completion of the full course will lead to the award of two Masters Degree: one from the University of Glasgow, and one from the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology. The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, will recognise the credits from the taught courses at Glasgow as part of the NMAIST Masters degree. An exit point following successful completion of the taught parts of the course without completion of the research component may be awarded a PgDip from the University of Glasgow.

Core and optional courses

Please refer to the website for full options http://www.gla.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/conservationmanagementafricanecosystems/#/coreandoptionalcourses

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Sustainable food production is increasingly important as the human population grows. we need to produce more food, more sustainably. Read more
Sustainable food production is increasingly important as the human population grows: we need to produce more food, more sustainably. This MSc, taught by world-class researchers, provides a unique opportunity for you to gain a rigorous scientific background if you are aiming for a career in habitat management, crop production, plant physiology, ecological research, scientific communication or agricultural policy.

Cutting-edge programme topics include sustainable agricultural intensification and food production; agri-environment schemes; organic farming; land sparing; genetically modified crops; emerging crops; effects of climate change and mitigation measures; interactions between managed species and the environment; ecosystem services including pollination; pest/disease control; and maximising production while minimising environmental impacts.

The programme covers a broad but highly applied subject area; the focus ranges from the molecular to the global level. You will also develop transferable skills including statistics, data handling, scientific writing, and research methods. This programme may provide a springboard to PhD research or lead to a career in industry, including management and technical career paths, policy, conservation, charities or NGOs, or ecological consultancy.

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The programme includes the following profiles. This profile introduces students into the study of animal and plant development, microbiology, cell signaling pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, cancer biology, virology and immunology. Read more
The programme includes the following profiles:

Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology

This profile introduces students into the study of animal and plant development, microbiology, cell signaling pathways, cytoskeleton dynamics, cancer biology, virology and immunology. Courses of this profile span multiple levels of biological organization, from whole organisms down to the molecular level. Students choosing this profile not only receive up-to-date knowledge on these topics but also acquire the laboratory skills required to engage in cutting-edge research.

Environment, Biodiversity and Ecosystems

This profile allows students to gain experience in the research methods used to study the evolution and ecology of organisms found in terrestrial, freshwater and coastal ecosystems. A staff of experts teaches up-to-date knowledge on individual organisms, populations, species communities and ecosystems, backed up by their active research experience in taxonomy and phylogeny, vertebrate and invertebrate ecology, evolutionary ecology, biogeography, plant ecology, plant-animal interactions, and nature management. In addition, students are introduced into ecological research by means of practical field training and excursions in Belgium and abroad.

Herpetology

This unique profile addresses biology students with a passion for amphibians and reptiles. An international team of visiting scientists organizes lectures on diversity, ecology, physiology, behavior, evolution and conservation biology and prepares students for a professional career in herpetology. Ecological and herpetological field courses in European and tropical countries form an important part of this programme. As a student, you will be in a stimulating environment, with fellow students and top-experts sharing your passion. For more information, have a look at http://www.herpetology.be.

Human Ecology

This profile focuses on the interaction between humans and their natural environment. The increasing impact of the human population on ecosystems worldwide stresses the urgent need for researchers with a multidisciplinary background, that engage in developmental plans for a durable use and management of natural resources. The profile Human Ecology addresses an international audience of students and offers a course programme that, besides scientific topics, also addresses technological, socio-economical and political aspects. For more information, have a look at http://www.humanecology.be.

EMMC Tropical Biodiversity and Ecosystems

The world faces a crisis risking extinction of species through global warming. Due to impact of e.g., changes in land use and destruction of habitats, tropical rain forests, mangrove forests and coral reefs are disappearing and with them ecosystem functions, goods and services on which human populations are dependent. In order to conserve nature, to manage or even to restore tropical biodiversity and ecosystems, we must understand patterns of tropical biodiversity, study how organisms interact with their environment and how they respond to perturbations and change. Next to research, this is dealt with in this unique masters programme. http://www.tropimundo.eu

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Exploring the principles of marine ecology and management, the dynamics of marine ecosystems and how human activity affects the marine environment. Read more
Exploring the principles of marine ecology and management, the dynamics of marine ecosystems and how human activity affects the marine environment.

Overview

The relationships between coastal and marine ecosystems and human activity make for fascinating study.

With a worldwide consensus that the marine environment needs better management there is a growing demand for people who have been trained in marine resource management. This MSc will equip you to work for a wide range of marine environmental organisations or to progress to a PhD.

Course Content

Our MSc in Marine Environmental Management provides exceptional teaching across a range of marine management modules. You'll be introduced to different marine ecosystems, key species and the impact of humans, now and in the past.

You'll get a chance to examine contemporary marine issues, including:
-Problems associated with fishing including: over-fishing, bycatch, habitat destruction and illegal fishing
-Aquaculture
-How a multitude of human activities affect marine ecosystems
-Marine protected areas.

You'll undertake two research dissertations: one based in York, the other with an external organization.

Modules
For the Masters you will need to take a 80 credits of taught modules as well as 50 credits for your dissertation and 50 credits for your summer placement. There are two core modules, giving 30 of your 80 required taught credits:
-Fisheries Ecology and Management (10 credits)
-Research Skills and Statistical Methods (20 credits)

You'll also choose 50 credits from a range of optional modules:
-Marine Ecosystems (10 credits)
-Ocean and Coastal Science (10 credits)
-Spatial Analysis (10 credits)
-Maldives (10 credits) - requires at least 12 students to run and incurs additional cost
-Current Research in Marine Conservation (10 credits)
-Environmental Impact Assessment (10 credits)
-Ecotoxicology (10 credits)
-Biodiversity Conservation and Protected Areas (10 credits)
-Environmental Governance (10 credits)

Your 5,000 word dissertation is chance to explore in depth a research project in an area that interests you. You can design your own dissertation in consultation with potential supervisors or you can chose from a list compiled by the department.

Before you submit your dissertation you'll give a presentation that summarises your work and allows you to get some feedback on your progress.

Careers

This course is for people who want to work in marine conservation or marine resource management. Potential employers will value the experience you'll get on your placement. The MSc is also an ideal basis for progression to a PhD.

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The MSc Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management (MAM) is a two year programme, which comprises of 120 credits (ECTS). Students learn to manage living resources in all types of water bodies, natural or man-made. Read more

MSc Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management

The MSc Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management (MAM) is a two year programme, which comprises of 120 credits (ECTS). Students learn to manage living resources in all types of water bodies, natural or man-made. The programme provides understanding of the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms and water bodies.

Programme summary

Oceans, seas, estuaries and lakes are major providers of ecosystem goods and services such as food, tourism and coastal protection. In many cases, exploitation levels have bypassed the carrying capacity of these ecosystems, leading to devastating effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. To preserve marine biodiversity and its ecosystem functions, innovative and sustainable solutions are necessary. Therefore, there is a need for young professionals who know how to take an integrative approach to marine ecosystems management.

The MAM programme starts with courses that give a common basis on aquaculture and marine resource management. In these courses, you will learn the principles of marine ecology and the governance of marine systems, the biology and ecology of aquatic organisms and the role of science in public policy processes. Within the Aquaculture and Marine Resource master programme, you can choose one of three specialisations: Aquaculture, Marine resources and ecology, Marine Governance. Graduates are skilled in techniques and methods for analysing and solving biological environmental problems in aquatic systems by looking at the organisms and the communities including ecological, management and social aspects.

Specialisations

All students acquire a thorough understanding of processes governing life in any type of water body. In addition, students can choose to put more emphasis on any of the following aspects: ecology, natural resource management, capture fisheries or aquaculture. Depending on the specialisation the topics differ.

Aquaculture
This specialisation deals with the culture of numerous aquatic organisms (such as finfish, shrimp, shellfish, ornamental fish, corrals, sponges and algae) in a wide range of culture environments (from sea enclosures to semiextensive ponds and high-tech recirculation systems). Production methods should be sustainable, guarantee the health and wellbeing of the culture organisms, be economically viable, socially accepted, and result in safe and healthy products. This can only be achieved through knowledge and skills in aquatic production ecology based on knowledge of biological, physical and chemical integrity of water bodies and insight in economic and social driving factors.

Marine Resources and Ecology
This specialisation focuses on the sensitivity of marine communities in relation to human interventions, including climate change, fisheries and habitat destruction. You will learn to address limiting factors in order to be able to contribute to an improved biodiversity, environmental quality and sustainability of marine ecosystems. To do so, it requires insight into the ecological processes that form the basis for marine food chains, the interaction between species and the functioning of the different ecosystems.

Marine Governance
The main focus of this specialisation lies on the sustainable governance and economics of marine and coastal systems. The goals and strategies of commercial enterprises, non-governmental and governmental organisations and international institutions are analysed, and their effects are evaluated in relation to both organisations and ecosystems involved.

Your future career

The interest in sustainable management of the seas and coasts is booming, while there are only few professionals available with an integrated and specialised training in this field. Numerous types of specialists are needed, including technical specialists, researchers, consultants and project leaders in commercial, governmental and non-governmental organisations.

Alumna Pascalle Jacobs.
"I had already graduated as a terrestrial ecologist before I started the Master Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management. I started the MSc Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management mainly because I saw a lot of potential in marine research. I did my thesis at IMARES and after my graduation they gave me the opportunity to work there as a PhD on a research project. In my research, I look at if and to what extent big amounts of young mussels attached to ropes or nets (mussel seed collectors) change the environment. These young mussels eat a lot so one of my research questions is if this grazing affects the amount of food available for other animals."

Related programmes:
MSc Animal Sciences
MSc Biology
MSc Environmental Sciences
MSc Forest and Nature Conservation.

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Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Read more
Society urgently needs experts with a multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and Earth System sciences. Climate change and issues of air quality and extreme weather are matters of global concern, but which are inadequately understood from the scientific point of view. Not only must further research be done, but industry and business also need environmental specialists with a strong background in natural sciences. As new regulations and European Union directives are adopted in practice, people with knowledge of recent scientific research are required.

Upon graduating from the Programme you will have competence in:
-Applying experimental, computational and statistical methods to obtain and analyse atmospheric and environmental data.
-Knowledge applicable to solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.
-Making systematic and innovative use of investigation or experimentation to discover new knowledge.
-Reporting results in a clear and logical manner.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The six study lines are as follows:
Aerosol Physics
Aerosol particles are tiny liquid or solid particles floating in the air. Aerosol physics is essential for our understanding of air quality, climate change and production of nanomaterials. Aerosol scientists investigate a large variety of phenomena associated with atmospheric aerosol particles and related gas-to-particle conversion using constantly improving experimental, theoretical, model-based and data analysis methods. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the most recent theoretical concepts, measurement techniques and computational methods applied in aerosol research.

Geophysics of the Hydrosphere
Hydrospheric geophysics studies water in all of its forms using physical methods. It includes hydrology, cryology, and physical oceanography. Hydrology includes the study of surface waters such as lakes and rivers, global and local hydrological cycles as well as water resources and geohydrology, the study of groundwater. Cryology focuses on snow and ice phenomena including glacier mass balance and dynamics, sea ice physics, snow cover effects and ground frost. Physical oceanography covers saline water bodies, focusing on describing their dynamics, both large scale circulation and water masses, and local phenomena such as surface waves, upwelling, tides, and ocean acoustics. Scientists study the hydrosphere through field measurements, large and small scale modelling, and formulating mathematical descriptions of the processes.

Meteorology
Meteorology is the physics of the atmosphere. Its best-known application is weather forecasting, but meteorological knowledge is also essential for understanding, predicting and mitigating climate change. Meteorologists study atmospheric phenomena across a wide range of space and time scales using theory, model simulations and observations. The field of meteorology is a forerunner in computing: the development of chaos theory, for example, was triggered by the unexpected behaviour of a meteorological computer model. Meteorology in ATM-MP is further divided into dynamic meteorology and biometeorology. Dynamic meteorology is about large-scale atmospheric dynamics, modelling and observation techniques, whereas biometeorology focuses on interactions between the atmosphere and the underlying surface by combining observations and modelling to study the flows of greenhouse gases and energy with links to biogeochemical cycles, for example. As a graduate of the meteorology line, you will be an expert in atmospheric phenomena who can produce valuable new information and share your knowledge.

Biogeochemical Cycles
Biogeochemistry studies the processes involved in cycling of elements in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by integrating physics, meteorology, geophysics, chemistry, geology and biology. Besides natural ecosystems, it also studies systems altered by human activity such as forests under different management regimes, drained peatlands, lakes loaded by excess nutrients and urban environments. The most important elements and substances studied are carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, water and phosphorus, which are vital for ecosystem functioning and processes such as photosynthesis. Biogeochemistry often focuses on the interphases of scientific disciplines and by doing so, it also combines different research methods. It treats ecosystems as open entities which are closely connected to the atmosphere and lithosphere. You will thus get versatile training in environmental issues and research techniques. As a graduate of this line you will be an expert in the functioning of ecosystems and the interactions between ecosystems and the atmosphere/hydrosphere/lithosphere in the context of global change. You will have knowledge applicable for solving global challenges such as climate change, air pollution, deforestation and issues related to water resources and eutrophication.

Remote Sensing
Remote sensing allows the collection of information about the atmosphere, oceans and land surfaces. Various techniques are applied for monitoring the state and dynamics of the Earth system from the ground, aircraft or satellites. While Lidar and radar scan from the surface or mounted on aircraft, instruments on polar orbiting or geostationary satellites permit measurements worldwide. In atmospheric sciences remote sensing has found numerous applications such as observations of greenhouse and other trace gases, aerosols, water vapour, clouds and precipitation, as well as surface observations, for example of vegetation, fire activity, snow cover, sea ice and oceanic parameters such as phytoplankton. Synergistic satellite data analysis enables the study of important processes and feedback in the climate system. Remote sensing advances climate research, weather forecasting, air quality studies, aviation safety and the renewable energy industry. As a graduate of the remote sensing line you will have broad expertise in the operational principles of remote sensing instruments as well as methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation.

Atmospheric Chemistry and Analysis
Atmospheric chemistry studies the composition and reactions of the molecules that make up the atmosphere, including atmospheric trace constituents and their role in chemical, geological and biological processes, including human influence. The low concentrations and high reactivity of these trace molecules place stringent requirements on the measurement and modelling methods used to study them. Analytical chemistry is the science of obtaining, processing, and communicating information about the composition and structure of matter and plays an essential role in the development of science. Environmental analysis consists of the most recent procedures for sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis and learning how to choose the best analytical methods for different environmental samples. Physical atmospheric chemistry studies focus on the reaction types and reaction mechanisms occurring in the atmosphere, with emphasis on reaction kinetics, thermodynamics and modelling methods. As a graduate of this line you will have understanding of the chemical processes of the atmosphere and the latest environmental analytical methods, so you will have vital skills for environmental research.

Programme Structure

The basic degree in the Programme is the Master of Science (MSc). The scope of the degree is 120 credits (ECTS). As a prerequisite you will need to have a relevant Bachelor’s degree. The possible major subjects are Physics, Meteorology, Geophysics, Chemistry, and Forest Ecology. The programme is designed to be completed in two years. Studies in ATM-MP consist of various courses and project work: lecture courses, seminars, laboratory work and intensive courses.

Your first year of studies will consist mainly of lecture courses. During the second year, you must also participate in the seminar course and give a presentation yourself. There is also a project course, which may contain laboratory work, data analysis, or theoretical or model studies. You will have to prepare a short, written report of the project. There are also several summer and winter schools as well as field courses for students in the Programme. Many of the courses take place at the Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Southern Finland. The intensive courses typically last 5–12 days and include a concise daily programme with lectures, exercises and group work.

Career Prospects

There is a global need for experts with multidisciplinary education in atmospheric and environmental issues. Governmental environmental agencies need people who are able to interpret new scientific results as a basis for future legislation. Industry, transportation and businesses need to be able to adapt to new regulations.

As a Master of Science graduating from the Programme you will have a strong background of working with environmental issues. You will have the ability to find innovative solutions to complex problems in the field of environmental sciences, climate change and weather forecasting. Graduates of the Programme have found employment in Meteorological Institutes and Environmental Administration in Finland and other countries, companies manufacturing instrumentation for atmospheric and environmental measurements and analysis, and consultancy companies. The Master's degree in ATM-MP also gives you a good background if you intend to proceed to doctoral level studies.

Internationalization

The Programme offers an international study environment with more than 30% of the students and teaching staff coming from abroad.

The ATM-MP is part of a Nordic Nordplus network in Atmosphere-Biosphere Studies, which gives you good opportunities to take courses currently in fourteen Nordic and Baltic universities. There are also several Erasmus agreements with European universities. The PanEurasian Experiment (PEEX) project provides you with opportunities to carry out part of your studies especially in China and Russia.

Research Focus

All the units teaching in the Programme belong to the National Centre of Excellence (FCoE) in Atmospheric Science – From Molecular and Biological processes to the Global Climate (ATM), which is a multidisciplinary team of the Departments of Physics, Forest Sciences and Chemistry at the University of Helsinki, the Department of Applied Physics at the University of Eastern Finland (Kuopio) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

The main objective of FCoE ATM is to quantify the feedbacks between the atmosphere and biosphere in a changing climate. The main focus of the research is on investigating the following topics:
1. Understanding the climatic feedbacks and forcing mechanisms related to aerosols, clouds, precipitation and biogeochemical cycles.
2. Developing, refining and utilising the newest measurement and modelling techniques, from quantum chemistry to observations and models of global earth systems.
3. Creating a comprehensive understanding of the role of atmospheric clusters and aerosol particles in regional and global biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen and their linkages to atmospheric chemistry.
4. Integrating the results in the context of understanding regional and global Earth systems.

In addition to the research focus of FCoE, current research in hydrospheric geophysics at Helsinki University has an emphasis on cryology, with a focus on the effect of aerosols on Indian glaciers, the impact of climate change on the Arctic environment, the dynamics of the Austfonna ice cap in Svalbard, and the winter season in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

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The two year MSc Biology concerns understanding the complexity of biological systems, at scales ranging from single molecules to whole ecosystems, provides a unique intellectual challenge. Read more

MSc Biology

The two year MSc Biology concerns understanding the complexity of biological systems, at scales ranging from single molecules to whole ecosystems, provides a unique intellectual challenge. The biosciences aim to understand living systems and to help preserve biodiversity and our environment and simultaneously produce sufficient healthy and safe food.

Programme summary

Biological issues are at the forefront of the technological progress of modern society. They are central to global concerns about how we effect and are affected by our environment. Understanding the complexity of biological systems, at scales ranging from single molecules to whole ecosystems, provides a unique intellectual challenge. The MSc Biology allows students to get a broad overview of the latest developments in biology, ranging from genes to ecosystems. They learn to critically discuss the newest scientific developments in the biological sciences. Within their area of specialisation, students deepen their knowledge and skills in a certain subject. To prepare for a successful international career, we strongly encourage our students to complete part of their programme requirements abroad.

Specialisations

The MSc Biology offers nine specialisations:

Animal Adaptation and Behavioural Biology
This specialisation focuses mainly on subjects as adaptation, mechanisms involved in these adaptations and behaviour of animals.

Bio-interactions
In this specialisation, you obtain knowledge about interactions between organisms. You learn to understand and interpret interactions on different levels, from molecular to ecosystem level.

Molecular Ecology
In this specialisation, you learn to use molecular techniques to solve ecological questions. You will use, for example, molecular techniques to study the interaction between a virus and a plant.

Conservation and Systems Ecology
This specialisation focuses initially on fundamental processes that play a key role in ecology. You learn to interpret different relations, for example, the relation between chemical (or physical processes) and bioprocesses. Furthermore, you learn to analyse different ecosystems. You can use this knowledge to manage and conserve these ecological systems.

Evolution and Biodiversity
The systematics of biodiversity in an evolutionary perspective is the central focus of this specialisation. Subjects that will be addressed in this specialisation are: evolution, genetics, biosystematic research and taxonomic analysis.

Health and Disease
This specialisation focuses on regulatory mechanisms that have a central role in human and animal health.

Marine Biology
Choosing this specialisation means studying the complexity of the marine ecosystem. Moreover, you learn about the impacts of, for instance, fishery and recreation on this ecosystem or the interaction between different species in this system.

Molecular Development and Gene Regulation
This specialisation focuses on gene regulations and the different developmental mechanisms of organisms.

Plant Adaptation
This specialisation focuses on the adaptations that different plants gained in order to adjust to various conditions. You learn to understand the regulation processes in plants that underlie these adaptations.

Your future career

Many graduates from the MSc Biology study programme enter careers in fundamental and applied research or go on to become PhD students. Some find a position as communication officer, manager or policymaker. Compared with other Dutch universities, many biology graduates from Wageningen University find a position abroad.

Alumna Iris de Winter.
"I work as a PhD student at Wageningen University. In my research, I aim to understand the effect of human disturbance on the parasites prevalence in lemurs. I also look at the potential risks of the transmission of diseases and parasites from lemurs to humans, but also vice versa, from humans (and their livestock and pets) to wild lemur population. I alternate my fieldwork in Madagascar with parasite identification, analyses and writing manuscripts in the Netherlands. With this research, I hope to gain more insight in the factors that increase parasite prevalence in natural systems and hereby to improve the protection of both lemurs and their natural habitat."

Related programmes:
MSc Molecular Life Sciences
MSc Animal Sciences
MSc Plant Sciences
MSc Forest and Nature Conservation
MSc Biotechnology
MSc Plant Biotechnology
MSc Aquaculture and Marine Resource Management
MSc Organic Agriculture.

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How do humans, animals and plants adapt to changing environments?. Concerns about how organisms and the environment affect each other is an issue of modern global society. Read more

Overview

How do humans, animals and plants adapt to changing environments?
Concerns about how organisms and the environment affect each other is an issue of modern global society. How humans, animals and plants adapt to their environment is the central question in Nijmegen's Master's in Biology. The mechanisms that lie underneath this adaptation are studied at all levels, ranging from the smallest living entities, such as molecules and cells to larger entities such as ecosystems, and entire populations.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/biology

Specialisations within the Master's in Biology

You can choose one of the following specialisations:
- Adaptive organisms
- Communities and Ecosystems
- Microbiology
- Water and Environment

Rich programme

This MSc. programme does not only put the interactions between organisms into context, but also integrates all levels of organisation from molecule and cell up to ecosystems and landscapes. This combination results in a rich and coherent programme of Master's courses and exciting internships with state-of-the-art research. It prepares you for a career in science, both fundamental and applied, and also provides the necessary knowledge for innovative evidence-based applications in nature and water management.

Personal tutor

Our top scientists are looking forward to guiding you on a challenging and inspiring scientific journey. This programme offers you many opportunities to follow your own interests under the guidance of a personal tutor. Radboud University offers you a multitude of research fields to choose from in close collaboration with the
- academic hospital UMCN St. Radboud;
- Institute for Water and Wetlands Research;
- Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences;
- Donders Institute.

This allows you to specialise in a field of personal interest.

The Nijmegen approach

The first thing you will notice as you enter our Faculty of Science is the open atmosphere. This is reflected by the light and transparent building and the open minded spirit of the people working, exploring and studying there. It is no wonder students from all over the world have been attracted to Nijmegen. You study in small groups, in direct and have open contact with members of the staff. In addition, Nijmegen has excellent student facilities, such as high-tech laboratories, libraries and study ‘landscapes'.

Studying by with the ‘Nijmegen approach' is a way of living. We will equip you with tools which are valuable for the rest of your life. You will be challenged to become aware of your intrinsic motivation. In other words, what is your passion in life? With this question in mind we will guide you to translate your passion into a personalized Master's in Biology.

Quality Label

This programme was recently rated number three in the Netherlands in the Keuzegids Masters 2013 (Guide to Master's programmes) in the category Biologie (Biology).

Career prospects

This programme provides you with the qualifications you need to start working on your PhD and/or work in the field of communication, business and management or education. Biologists often continue their research careers in universities, research institutes, pharmaceutical companies and public health authorities. On graduation, our students very quickly take up positions as researchers or analysts in government departments, research organisations and medical or pharmaceutical companies.

What biologists do:
- Researchers at universities or in companies
- Supervisors of clinical trials
- Consultants
- Lecturers
- Policy coordinators
- Teachers

Where biologists work:
- Research/education
- Health care
- Business services
- Industry
- Government
- Trade

Our approach to this field

How do humans, animals and plants adapt to a changing environment?
Concerns about how organisms and the environment affect each other is an issue of modern global society. How humans, animals and plants adapt to their environment is the central question in Nijmegen's Master's in Biology. The mechanisms that lie underneath this adaptation are studied at all levels, ranging from the smallest living entities, such as molecules, cells and pollen to larger entities such as ecosystems, river courses and entire populations.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/biology

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Food production has tripled in the last forty years, but one billion people still go hungry every year. On average 30% of all food produced is wasted in the pathway from ‘field to fork’. Read more

Programme description

Food production has tripled in the last forty years, but one billion people still go hungry every year. On average 30% of all food produced is wasted in the pathway from ‘field to fork’. With the global human population set to rise from seven to over nine billion by 2050, we urgently need sustainable solutions that will allow us to increase the global food supply while preserving the integrity of agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems.

Our trees and forests face new plant health threats which in turn threaten areas of great natural beauty and diversity, and affect both rural and urban landscapes. Our unique MSc Sustainable Plant Health will give you the opportunity to develop your understanding of the vital role of plant health, applying your skills by conducting laboratory and field studies.

This programme is primarily aimed at graduates wishing to pursue a career in plant protection in agriculture, horticulture, forestry or urban settings, and also careers in policy development and implementation, plant health inspection, academic and industrial research, consultancy and conservation management, and private industry.

Programme structure

This 12 month programme involves two semesters of classes followed by an individual research project. Students will take 80 credits of compulsory courses, with the opportunity to choose two optional courses. Field trips will also form a crucial part of this course.

Compulsory courses typically will be*:

Fundamentals of Plant Health
Forensic Plant Health
Plant Health in a Global Context
Research Skills and Field Trip
Dissertation

Option courses may include* (select two):

Atmospheric Quality and Global Change
Ecosystem Services 1: Ecosystem Dynamics and Functions
Foundations in Ecological Economics
Frameworks to Assess Food Security
Human Dimensions of Environmental Change and Sustainability
Principles of Environmental Sustainability
Soil Ecology and Taxonomy
Soil Protection and Management
Applications in Ecological Economics
Case Studies in Sustainable Development
Ecosystem Services 2: Ecosystem Values and Management
Environmental Impact Assessment
Forests and Environment
Integrated Resource Planning
Interrelationships in Food Systems
Land Use/Environmental Interactions
Soil Science Concepts and Application
Sustainability of Food Production
Understanding Environment and Development

*Please note: courses are offered subject to timetabling and availability and are subject to change each year.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this course our graduates will have gained:
•Specialist knowledge and understanding of plant health, and its evaluation, impact and management
•Skills to detect and identify agents detrimental to plant health
•An understanding of the nature and diversity of plant health interactions
•The ability to develop strategies for plant health management taking into account their impact on agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems
•Knowledge of the relevance of plant health to sustainability and food security
•Improved analytical skills and critical thinking

Career opportunities

Plant health scientists are employed in a range of vocations: environmental consultancy, research, overseas development, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, urban planning, policy development, plant inspection and management. Long term career prospects are strong as agricultural scientists will continue to be needed to balance increased output with protection and preservation of ecosystems.

Our graduates will gain particularly valuable skills due to our programme's unique approach looking at impacts across ecosystems. They also benefit from the applied nature of the course allowing them to use their practical skills in a range of field trip environments with expert supervision.

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Interactions between plants, fungi and the environment from an evolutionary and historical perspective, with organisational levels ranging from genes to ecosystems, are explored in this programme. Read more

Environmental Biology

Interactions between plants, fungi and the environment from an evolutionary and historical perspective, with organisational levels ranging from genes to ecosystems, are explored in this programme.

You will study the fundamental life processes of plants and fungi at different organisational levels, from molecules and cells to entire plants and ecosystems. The goal of these studies is to understand how plants and fungi function in populations and ecosystems and adapt to continuously changing - often hostile - environments.

Tracks

Within the Environmental Biology Master, you can select a specialized track from the following:
-Plant Biology;
-Fungal Biology;
-Ecology and Natural Resource Management;
-Biomarine Sciences & Palaeoecology;
-Behavioral Ecology.

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Tropical ecosystems provide important resources locally and globally, and coral reefs are the most diverse of marine ecosystems threatened by human activities. Read more
Tropical ecosystems provide important resources locally and globally, and coral reefs are the most diverse of marine ecosystems threatened by human activities.

Our unique multidisciplinary course, MSc Tropical Marine Biology, is designed to deliver advanced tropical marine biology theory and to facilitate the development of a comprehensive range of practical and professional skills required by today’s employers.

As a student of our School you will benefit from the breadth of research carried out by our internationally recognised academics, and will engage with current research activities both in the UK and abroad. You also have opportunity to put theory into practice and study coral reef conservation first hand during the School’s annual field trip to Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia.

Explore topics including:
-Hands-on experience of coral reef conservation on our pioneering underwater lectures in Indonesia
-The biotechnological ‘treasure chest’ of marine microbes, algae and invertebrates
-Tropical oceans, seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs
-Coral reef resource management

During the summer term, you will embark on your own extensive research project under the supervision of researchers at the forefront of their fields. This can be conducted within our in-house Coral Reef Research Unit, or alongside one of our research partners from across the globe, addressing key questions on the functioning of and threats to tropical marine ecosystems.

Two-thirds of our research is rated “world-leading” or “internationally excellent” (REF 2014), and you learn from and work alongside our expert staff.

Professional accreditation

To expand your skillset and boost your employability, we provide you with £125 to spend on externally accredited learning, such as certification as a Marine Mammal Surveyor, participation in Sea Survival courses or gaining the skills and background knowledge needed to drive a powerboat.

Our expert staff

As one of the largest schools at our University, we offer a lively, friendly and supportive environment with research-led study and high quality teaching. You benefit from our academics’ wide range of expertise on important national and international problems using cutting-edge techniques.

Key academic staff for this course include: Dr Leanne Appleby Hepburn, who works on community ecology of coral reefs; Professor Dave Smith, who is researching tropical marine biology and conservation; Dr Michael Steinke, who is working on biogenic trace gases in marine environments; Dr Tom Cameron, who specialises in aquatic community ecology; and Dr Etienne Low-Decarie, who is investigating ecological and evolutionary responses to global change.

The University of Essex has a Women's Network to support female staff and students and was awarded the Athena SWAN Institutional Bronze Award in November 2013 in recognition of its continuing work to support women in STEM.

Specialist facilities

Recent investment has provided modern facilities for imaging biological systems, aquatic community ecology, photosynthesis and eco-physiology. On our course you have the opportunity to:
-Work in an open and friendly department, with shared staff-student social spaces
-Conduct your research alongside academics and PhD students in shared labs
-Our local marine biology field centre, with direct access to the Colne estuary, a recently designated marine conservation zone (MCZ). -Develop your practical skills through mapping habitats, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and boat handling
-Learn to use state-of-the-art research facilities

Your future

As the world's environmental problems increase, the demand for qualified marine biologists continues to grow, and postgraduate study is often a requirement for becoming a researcher, scientist, academic journal editor and to work in some public bodies or private companies.

Many of our Masters students progress to study for their PhD, and we offer numerous studentships to support our students in their studies.

Our graduates go on to a range of careers. Some work with governmental and non-governmental environmental agencies, organisations, consultancies and voluntary organisations, or go on to conduct doctorate research. Many overseas students return to comparable posts in their home country.

We work with our university’s Employability and Careers Centre to help you find out about further work experience, internships, placements, and voluntary opportunities.

Example structure

-Tropical Marine Resources
-Tropical Marine Systems
-Methods in Tropical Marine Biology
-Professional Skills in Tropical Marine Biology
-Research Project: MSc Tropical Marine Biology

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