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THIS COURSE IS SUBJECT TO VALIDATION. https://www.keele.ac.uk/subjecttovalidation/. If you have ever spent some time in hospital, you are probably unaware that you were the beneficiary of medical devices that have been designed and developed by Medical Engineering Designers. Read more
THIS COURSE IS SUBJECT TO VALIDATION: https://www.keele.ac.uk/subjecttovalidation/

If you have ever spent some time in hospital, you are probably unaware that you were the beneficiary of medical devices that have been designed and developed by Medical Engineering Designers. Everything from the bed you lie on to the MRI scanner that shows your insides on a screen, to the blood pressure monitor, to the scalpel that cuts your skin is known as a Medical Device and will have had input from Medical Engineering Designers. Even if you have a blood pressure monitor at home, this is still a medical device and will have been designed by a Medical Engineering Designer. The aim of the MSc in Medical Engineering Design is to convert you into a Medical Engineering Designer so that you can work in this highly regulated design discipline.

The course is run by the School of Medicine (https://www.keele.ac.uk/medicine/) in collaboration with the Research Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine (https://www.keele.ac.uk/istm/).

Teaching takes place at the Guy Hilton Research Centre, a dedicated research facility located on the Royal Stoke University Hospital site, and also at the main University Campus. The School of Medicine is one of the top-ranked in the UK, and the research institute has an international reputation for world-leading research (https://www.keele.ac.uk/istm/newsandevents/istmnews2015/istmrefratingsmar2014.php) in medical engineering and healthcare technologies.

The Guy Hilton Research Centre offers state-of-the-art laboratories housing equipment for translational research including newly-developed diagnostic instruments, advanced imaging modalities and additive manufacturing facilities. Its location adjacent to the University Hospital ensures that students experience real-world patient care and the role that technology plays. Students also have access to advanced equipment for physiological measurement, motion analysis and functional assessment in other hospital and campus-based laboratories.

The School embraces specialists working in Royal Stoke University Hospital, County Hospital in Stafford and specialist Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital in Oswestry. You therefore have the opportunity to specialise in any of the varied clinical disciplines offered at these hospitals.

Download the MSc Medical Engineering Design Leaflet (https://www.keele.ac.uk/media/keeleuniversity/fachealth/fachealthmed/postgraduate/MSc%20in%20Medical%20Engineering%20Design%20web.pdf)

The School also runs MSc courses in Biomedical Engineering (https://www.keele.ac.uk/pgtcourses/biomed/) and in Cell and Tissue Engineering (https://www.keele.ac.uk/pgtcourses/biomed/), and an EPSRC and MRC-funded Centre for Doctoral Training, ensuring a stimulating academic environment for students and many opportunities for engaging with further study and research.

As a postgraduate student at Keele not only will you be joining a vibrant undergraduate community you will also be part of Keele's celebrated postgraduate family (the first student union dedicated to postgraduate students in the country). For more information on postgraduate life at Keele follow this link to the Keele Postgraduate Association (the link is http://www.kpa.org.uk).

Between March and September 2017 the University will be holding a number of Postgraduate Open Afternoons (https://www.keele.ac.uk/visiting/postgraduateopenafternoons/) to give prospective students the opportunity to visit the campus and learn more about Keele and postgraduate life in general. Please visit the Postgraduate Open Afternoons web page for more information.

Entry requirements:
Because this is a “conversion” course you need not have an engineering degree to apply. You must have a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics) based degree, but that could be anything from Biomedical Science, through Forensic Science, to Computer Science. Of course, if you have an engineering degree you can still apply.

We welcome applications with a first or second-class degree (or equivalent) in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics) discipline. We also welcome enquiries from people with other professional qualifications acceptable to the University.

We recommend applicants discuss their first degree with the course tutor before applying to ensure that this course meets personal aspirations.

For international applicants, an English language IELTS score of 6.5 is required.

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Sunderland is the only university in the north of England to offer an Overseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (OSPAP) that is accredited by the General Pharmaceutical Council. Read more
Sunderland is the only university in the north of England to offer an Overseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (OSPAP) that is accredited by the General Pharmaceutical Council.

Course overview

Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Overseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (OSPAP) is designed for those who are qualified pharmacists outside the European Economic Area and who are now looking to become registered pharmacists in the UK.

Our course is one of a small number of courses that are accredited by the General Pharmaceutical Council. Their accreditation is based on quality reviews that ensure Sunderland is meeting the required standards.

Completing the OSPAP postgraduate diploma allows for entry to the next stages of registering as a pharmacist in the UK: firstly, 52 weeks of supervised training in employment; secondly, a registration assessment.

Once all these stages are successfully completed, and assuming you have the necessary visa and work permit, you would be in a position to apply for roles as a practising pharmacist in the UK. There is virtually no unemployment of registered pharmacists in the UK.

You can also apply to undertake a Masters research project in addition to your postgraduate diploma. Pharmacy is a particular area of strength at the University of Sunderland and our Department has been teaching the subject since 1921.

Course content

The content of this course reflects the accreditation requirements of the General Pharmaceutical Council.

Modules on the course include:
-Pharmacy, Law, Ethics and Practice (60 Credits)
-Clinical Therapeutics (60 Credits)
-Research Methods for Pharmaceutical Practice and Masters Research Project (60 Credits)

Teaching and assessment

We use a wide variety of teaching and learning methods which include lectures, debate sessions, online learning packages, tutorials and seminars.

Compared to an undergraduate course, you will find that this Masters requires a higher level of independent working. Assessment methods include end-of-year examinations, practical assessments as well as assignments throughout the year.

Facilities & location

This course is based in the Sciences Complex at our City Campus, which boasts multi-disciplinary laboratories and cutting-edge equipment thanks to multi-million pound investments.

Facilities for Pharmaceutics
We have pharmaceutical-related equipment for wet granulation, spray drying, capsule filling, tablet making, mixing inhalation, film coating and freeze drying.

As well as standard pharmacopoeial test methods, such as dissolution testing, friability and disintegration, we also offer highly sophisticated test methods. These include rheometry, thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy), tests for powder flow, laser diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, image analysis and laser confocal microscopy.

Facilities for Medicinal Chemistry
Our state-of-the-art spectroscopic facility allows us to confirm the structures of new molecules that could be potential pharmaceutical products and to investigate the structures of potential medicinal substances that have been isolated from plants.

We are equipped with Liquid Chromatography-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectroscopy (LCNMR/MS) platforms; this is an exceptional facility for a university. We also have low and high resolution mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis equipment.

Our facilities allow you to gain hands-on experience of a wide range of analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and infra-red spectroscopy, which are of great importance in determining both ionic/metal content of pharmaceuticals and simple chemical structures.

You will also gain experience of revolutionary protein and DNA separation techniques, as well as Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography for separating unknown chemical mixtures.

Facilities for Pharmacology
Our highly technical apparatus will give you first-hand experience of the principles of drug action and the effects of drugs on pharmacological and cellular models. As a result, you gain a better understanding of the effects of drugs on specific receptors located throughout the human body and related physiological effects.

Simulation technology
You’ll have the opportunity to apply your training in a realistic setting with our two advanced simulation technology ‘SimMan’ models.
Each of our £57,000 SimMan mannequins has blood pressure, a pulse and other realistic physiological behaviour. The models can be pre-programmed with various medical scenarios, so you can demonstrate your pharmacological expertise in a realistic yet safe setting. Our academic team is also actively working with the SimMan manufacturers to develop new pharmacy simulations.

Pharmacy Practice
One of the most important skills of pharmacists is to communicate their expertise in a manner that the public can understand and accept.

The University has invested in a purpose-built model pharmacy complete with consultation suite. This allows you to develop skills in helping patients take the correct medicine in the right way, with optional video recording of your interaction with patients for the purposes of analysis and improvement.

In addition, we can accurately simulate hospital-based scenarios in a fully equipped ward environment where medical, nursing and pharmacy students can share learning.

University Library Services
We’ve got thousands of books and e-books on pharmaceutical and biomedical science, with many more titles available through the inter-library loan service. We also subscribe to a comprehensive range of print and electronic journals so you can access the most reliable and up-to-date academic and industry articles.

Some of the most important sources for your studies include:
-Embase, which is a complex database covering drug research, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, toxicology, clinical and experimental human medicine, health policy and management, public health, occupational health, environmental health, drug dependence and abuse, psychiatry, forensic medicine and biomedical engineering/instrumentation
-PubMed, which contains life science journals, online books and abstracts that cover fields such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine and health care
-Science Direct, which offers more than 18,000 full-text journals published by Elsevier
-Web of Science, which covers a broad range of science areas

Learning Environment
Sunderland Pharmacy School has a rich heritage in scientific studies and our degree courses are extremely well respected in the industry. We are fully plugged into relevant medical and pharmaceutical industry bodies, with strong links and an exchange of ideas and people. Our vibrant learning environment helps ensure a steady stream of well-trained pharmacists whose most important concern is patient-centred pharmaceutical care.

Employment & careers

On completing this course you can register and practise in the UK as a qualified pharmacist. An entry-level pharmacist usually starts within Band 5 of the NHS pay rates (up to around £28,000). Advanced pharmacists, consultants, team managers and managers of pharmaceutical services are rated as Bands 8-9 and can earn up to £99,000. Currently there is virtually no unemployment of qualified pharmacists. Typical starting salaries for community pharmacists range from £21,000 to £35,000 depending on location, conditions of employment and experience.

Most pharmacists work in the following areas:
Community pharmacy: this involves working in pharmacies on high streets or in large stores. You will dispense prescriptions, deal with minor ailments, advise on the use of medicines and liaise with other health professionals.

Hospital pharmacy: this involves the purchasing, dispensing, quality testing and supply of medicines used in hospitals.

Primary care: this involves working in General Practice surgeries, either as an employee of the Practice or the Primary Care Trust. Roles include Medicines Management Pharmacists, who are responsible for prescribing budgets and the development of prescribing directives.

Secondary care: this involves working in hospitals to supply medicines, manage clinics, provide drug information and prescribe medicines.

Industrial pharmacists are involved in areas such as Research & Development, Quality Assurance and product registration.
Research degrees can be undertaken in many aspects of pharmacy. Sunderland Pharmacy School offers excellent facilities and a wide range of research expertise.

You can also work in areas of the pharmaceutical industry, medical writing and in education. By completing a Masters project in addition to your OSPAP postgraduate diploma it will enhance opportunities in academic roles or further study towards a PhD.

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Adult nurses help care for people over 18 who are ill, injured, or have physical disabilities. They check patients' progress and decide with doctors what care to give, as well as advising and supporting patients and their relatives. Read more
Adult nurses help care for people over 18 who are ill, injured, or have physical disabilities. They check patients' progress and decide with doctors what care to give, as well as advising and supporting patients and their relatives. Although, demanding and intense work, it can also be exceptionally rewarding.

This innovative two year course will prepare you for a career in a wide range of rewarding adult nursing opportunities across both general medical and surgical wards as well as specialist units such as Accident and Emergency or intensive care. Many of our graduates take their first posts as qualified practitioners in the NHS Trusts and hospitals in which they gained experience during their training.

Throughout the course you will have the opportunity to work with qualified practitioners both to gain experience of the differing clinical environments, and to appreciate the expertise of these specialist nurses whilst on placement.

See the website http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/courses/course-finder/adult-nursing-pre-registration-pgdip

Modules

You will be taught separately from the traditional three-year undergraduate students and will study the following:

Year 1:
- Applied biological and pharmacological sciences for nursing
- Adult nursing and professional practice
- Public health and well-being

Year 2:
- Caring for adults with long-term conditions
- Adult acute and complex care
- Politics and leadership
- Dissertation (optional)

Employability

- Adult nursing as a career:
The course will enable you to develop a wide range of employability skills through the emphasis on a vocational approach to teaching which leads to a professional qualification leading to registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).

- Role and responsibilities:
It is said that no two days as an adult nurse are the same. However common tasks include monitoring vital signs like pulse and blood pressure; meeting the hygiene needs of patients and providing care for patients. With experience, there are multiple opportunities for specialisation as your career progresses such as: district nurse, occupational health nurse, sexual health nurse and specialist nurse.

- Working hours and salary:
Hours can be demanding for adult nurses – with long shifts, unsocial hours and possibly being called to work at the last minute all common. An adult nurse starts on a salary around £21,000 – however with career progression this could increase up to £98,453 at senior level. (Prospects)

- Career progression:
This course will prepare you for a career in a wide range of rewarding adult nursing opportunities across both general medical and surgical wards as well as specialist units such as Accident and Emergency or intensive care. Many graduates take their first post as qualified practitioners in the NHS Trusts and hospitals which they gained experience during their training. Recent graduates have achieved prominent employment positions in areas such as advanced clinical practice, management of health services or as researchers or lecturers.

Successful graduates of the PgDip can top-up to MSc in one year and will be qualified to study a range of further specialist postgraduate pathways. With additional experience, advanced practice is available at Masters level with the potential to progress to doctorate studies. Once you are a registered nurse browse our online CPPD prospectus to find out what courses are on offer to help with your professional development.

- LSBU Employability Services:
LSBU is committed to supporting you develop your employability and succeed in getting a job after you have graduated. Your qualification will certainly help, but in a competitive market you also need to work on your employability, and on your career search. Our Employability Service will support you in developing your skills, finding a job, interview techniques, work experience or an internship, and will help you assess what you need to do to get the job you want at the end of your course. LSBU offers a comprehensive Employability Service, with a range of initiatives to complement your studies, including:

- direct engagement from employers who come in to interview and talk to students
- Job Shop and on-campus recruitment agencies to help your job search
- mentoring and work shadowing schemes.

Professional links

Practice experience is gained in a variety of leading NHS Trusts across London including Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital and University College London Hospitals (UCLH).

The Nursing and Midwifery Council regulates nurses and midwives in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Islands.

Placements

- Time spent on placement:
During the course you will spend 50% of your time involved in academic study and 50% in clinical practice. A clinical practice placement allows you to put theory into practice by working with a range of health professionals in clinical situations to develop the skills, knowledge and experience required to become a competent nurse. Although sometimes challenging, practice learning is one of the most interesting and exciting aspects of learning to be a nurse.

- Clinical settings:
At LSBU, you will experience a variety of clinical settings such as NHS acute Trusts, community placements, independent sector and voluntary sector organisations.

If you are based at our Southwark campus you are able to experience placements at Guy's Hospital, St Thomas' Hospital, University College London Hospital, Newham University Hospital and Whipps Cross University Hospital. You will also undertake a placement in the community.

If you are based at our Havering campus you are able to experience placements at Newham University Hospital, Whipps Cross University Hospital, King George Hospital and Queen's Hospital; along with a placement within the community.

- Structure of placements:
Placements are spread over the two years:

Your first clinical placements are designed to introduce you to working in a professional setting and to develop essential care and basic assessment skills, infection control and learn about safeguarding vulnerable people.

You will then begin to take on more responsibility, progressing your clinical reasoning skills and begin to look small groups of patients making confident, proactive decision for their health management with little supervision.

You will also have one four week elective placement in which you can choose a speciality (e.g. working with Clinical Nurse Specialists, specialist services or independent and 3rd sector providers), or a different context of care (e.g. prison, private health care facility, social care, charity, hospice etc.), or a lived experience of a certain condition (e.g. charity work, carer shadowing, etc.)

-Supported by a mentor
Whilst in the clinical placement we ensure you receive continuous support and guidance from a dedicated mentor and practice learning teams made up of lecturers and practitioners.

Facilities

- Adult Nursing skills laboratories
We have two adult nursing skills laboratories at our Southwark campus and three at our Havering campus. Our nursing skills labs; set up like hospital wards are used by all student nurses and midwives throughout their courses. They learn manual handling and basic life support skills and skills that are specific to their field of nursing or midwifery.

- SimMan
The nursing wards have simulator mannequins: SimMan, SimBaby and SimMom. These life-size mannequins are computer controlled and can be programmed with various clinical conditions. These are operated by a computer in real-time and so respond to a student's actions. They also allow students to see the outcome of specific interventions in certain scenarios, which could make the patient better or deteriorate quite quickly.

The mannequins are used to teach students how to recognise clinical signs, and to also associate those clinical signs with the actions they are taking to care for the patient. SimMan can be male or converted to female with fully accurate anatomy and can breathe, blink, sweat, speak and groan in pain as well as have a pulse. Read more about SimMan here http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/case-studies/sim-man .

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Develop your personal and professional practice in an innovative and flexible teaching style. This part-time Clinical Pharmacy course allows patient-facing pharmacists in all sectors to build upon current knowledge and experience and extend their professional development. Read more
Develop your personal and professional practice in an innovative and flexible teaching style.

Course overview

This part-time Clinical Pharmacy course allows patient-facing pharmacists in all sectors to build upon current knowledge and experience and extend their professional development.

Gain core skills and knowledge required to become a highly competent pharmacist, and benefit from research-based teaching and learning strategies.

This is the only part-time MSc Clinical Pharmacy course in the North East of England. It runs on a distance learning basis and allows you to combine study with work and family commitments. Access all learning materials through the University VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) and attend two weekend conference-style events in December and June of the course. Learn from key and expert speakers within their respective fields and participate in workshop-based sessions.

The University of Sunderland has an excellent reputation in pharmacy. The Sunderland Pharmacy School is accredited by the General Pharmaceutical Council, and our research in pharmacy has been classed as ‘world leading’ in the latest Research Excellence Framework.

Please note that part-time courses are not available to international students who require a Tier 4 visa to study in the UK.

Course content

The content of this Clinical Pharmacy course has been developed by healthcare professionals and academics to reflect the most relevant areas to a pharmacist’s practice.

Modules on this course include:
Year 1
-Clinical Decision Making and Stages of Care (20 Credits)
-Patient Safety (20 Credits)

Year 1 or 2
-The Acute Patient (20 Credits)
-The Chronic Patient (20 Credits)
-Clinical Skills 1 (10 Credits)
-Evidence-based Medicine (10 Credits)
-Clinical Investigation and Diagnostics (10 Credits)
-Healthcare Systems and Service Provisions (10 Credits)
-Personalised Healthcare (10 Credits)
-Population Healthcare (10 Credits)
-Social Pharmacy and Primary Care (10 Credits)

Year 2
-Clinical Skills 2 (10 Credits)
-Independent Prescribing (45 credits)
-Clinical Audit (15 credits)

Year 3
-Independent Prescribing (45 credits)
-MSc Research Module (15 credits)
-Research Methods (30 Credits)
-Research Project (30 Credits)

Teaching and assessment

Teaching and learning methods include online lectures, expert interviews, directed reading, case-based scenarios, research, tutorials and online tutor support. The conferences will involve master classes delivered by experts in their field, supported by workshop based sessions.

Assessment on the course includes:
-Examinations (written and OSCE-style)
-Work-based portfolio mapped to competencies outlined in the Royal Pharmaceutical Society’s Foundation Pharmacy Framework (you will require a mentor* in practice to facilitate this)
-Case-based coursework tasks

Compared to an undergraduate course, you will find that this Masters requires a higher level of independent working.

Facilities & location

This course is based primarily in the Sciences Complex at our City Campus, which boasts multi-disciplinary laboratories and cutting-edge equipment thanks to multi-million pound investments.

Simulation technology
Each of our £57,000 SimMan mannequins has blood pressure, a pulse and other realistic physiological behaviour. The models can be pre-programmed with various medical scenarios, so you can demonstrate your pharmacological expertise in a realistic yet safe setting. Our academic team is also actively working with the SimMan manufacturers to develop new pharmacy simulations.

Pharmacy Practice
One of the most important skills of pharmacists is to communicate their expertise in a manner that the public can understand and accept. The University has invested in a purpose-built model pharmacy complete with consultation suite. This allows you to develop skills in helping patients take the correct medicine in the right way, with optional video recording of your interaction with patients for the purposes of analysis and improvement. In addition, we can accurately simulate hospital-based scenarios in a fully equipped ward environment where medical, nursing and pharmacy students can share learning.

University Library Services
We’ve got thousands of books and e-books on pharmaceutical and biomedical science, with many more titles available through the inter-library loan service. We also subscribe to a comprehensive range of print and electronic journals so you can access the most reliable and up-to-date academic and industry articles. Some of the most important sources for your studies include:
Embase, which is a complex database covering drug research, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, toxicology, clinical and experimental human medicine, health policy and management, public health, occupational health, environmental health, drug dependence and abuse, psychiatry, forensic medicine and biomedical engineering/instrumentation
PsycINF, which includes information about the psychological aspects of medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, pharmacology and physiology
PubMed, which contains life science journals, online books and abstracts that cover fields such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine and health care
Science Direct, which offers more than 18,000 full-text journals published by Elsevier
Web of Science, which covers a broad range of science areas

Learning Environment
Sunderland Pharmacy School has a rich heritage in scientific studies and our degree courses are extremely well respected in the industry. We are fully plugged into relevant medical and pharmaceutical industry bodies, with strong links and an exchange of ideas and people. Our vibrant learning environment helps ensure a steady stream of well-trained pharmacists whose most important concern is patient-centred pharmaceutical care.

Employment & careers

Postgraduate qualifications in clinical pharmacy will help you take on additional responsibility. We encourage you to plan your future contributions to your employer and how your career will progress.

On completing this course you will be equipped with the advanced skills and knowledge specifically needed for promotion in roles such as:
-Specialist clinical pharmacist
-Pharmacist with a special interest
-Senior clinical pharmacist

A promotion to a higher band of pay can quickly ensure a good return on your investment in the course. Within the NHS, salaries for specialist clinical pharmacist are rated as Band 7 (up to around £40,000).

A Masters in Clinical Pharmacy can also lead to teaching opportunities, research roles or further study.

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As well as giving a solid scientific understanding, the course also addresses commercial, ethical, legal and regulatory requirements, aided by extensive industrial contacts. Read more
As well as giving a solid scientific understanding, the course also addresses commercial, ethical, legal and regulatory requirements, aided by extensive industrial contacts.

Programme Structure

The MSc programmes in Biomedical Engineering are full-time, one academic year (12 consecutive months). The programmes consist of 4 core taught modules and two optional streams. Biomedical, Genetics and Tissue Engineering stream has 3 modules, all compulsory (individual course pages). The second option, Biomedical, Biomechanics and Bioelectronics Engineering stream consists of 5 modules. Students choosing this option will be required to choose 60 credit worth of modules.

The taught modules are delivered to students over two terms of each academic year. The taught modules are examined at the end of each term, and the students begin working on their dissertations on a part-time basis in term 2, then full-time during the months of May to September.

Core Modules
Biomechanics and Biomaterials (15 credit)
Design and Manufacture (15 credit)
Biomedical Engineering Principles (15 credit)
Innovation, Management and Research Methods (15 credit)
Plus: Dissertation (60 credit)

Optional Modules

60 credit to be selected from the following optional modules:
Design of Mechatronic Systems (15 credit)
Biomedical Imaging (15 credit)
Biofluid Mechanics (15 credit)
Artificial Organs and Biomedical Applications (15 credit)
Applied Sensors Instrumentation and Control (30 credit)

Module Descriptions

Applied Sensors Instrumentation and Control

Main topics:

Sensors and instrumentation – Sensor characteristics and the principles of sensing; electronic interfacing with sensors; sensor technologies – physical, chemical and biosensors; sensor examples – position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, strain, pressure, temperature; distributed sensor networks; instrumentation for imaging, spectroscopy and ionising radiation detection; 'lab-on-a-chip'.

Control – Control theory and matrix/vector operations; state-space systems, multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems, nonlinear systems and linearization. Recurrence relations, discrete time state-space representation, controllability and observability, pole-placement for both continuous and discrete time systems, Luenberger observer. Optimal control systems, Stochastic systems: random variable theory; recursive estimation; introduction to Kalman filtering (KF); brief look at KF for non-linear systems and new results in KF theory.

Artificial Organs and Biomedical Applications

Main topics include: audiology and cochlear implants; prostheses; artificial limbs and rehabilitation engineering; life support systems; robotic surgical assistance; telemedicine; nanotechnology.

Biofluid Mechanics

Main topics include: review of the cardiovascular system; the cardiac cycle and cardiac performance, models of the cardiac system, respiratory system and respiratory performance, lung models, physiological effects of exercise, trauma and disease; blood structure and composition, blood gases. oxygenation, effect of implants and prostheses, blood damage and repair, viscometry of blood, measurement of blood pressure and flow; urinary system: anatomy and physiology, fluid and waste transfer mechanisms, urinary performance and control, effects of trauma, ageing and disease; modelling of biofluid systems, review of mass, momentum and energy transfers related to biological flow systems, fluid mechanics in selected topics relating to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems; measurements in biomedical flows.

Biomechanics and Biomaterials

Main topics include: review of biomechanical principles; introduction to biomedical materials; stability of biomedical materials; biocompatibility; materials for adhesion and joining; applications of biomedical materials; implant design.

Biomedical Engineering Principles

Main topics include: bone structure and composition; the mechanical properties of bone, cartilage and tendon; the cardiovascular function and the cardiac cycle; body fluids and organs; organisation of the nervous system; sensory systems; biomechanical principles; biomedical materials; biofluid mechanics principles, the cardiovascular system, blood structure and composition, modelling of biofluid systems.

Biomedical Imaging

Principle and applications of medical image processing – Basic image processing operations, Advanced edge-detection techniques and image segmentation, Flexible shape extraction, Image restoration, 3D image reconstruction, image guided surgery

Introduction of modern medical imaging techniques – Computerized tomography imaging (principle, image reconstruction with nondiffracting sources, artifacts, clinical applications)

Magnetic resonance imaging (principle, image contrast and measurement of MR related phenomena, examples of contrast changes with changes of instrumental parameters and medical applications)

Ultrasound imaging (description of ultrasound radiation, transducers, basic imaging techniques: A-scan, B-scan and Doppler technique; clinical application)

Positron emission tomography (PET imaging) (principle, radioactive substance, major clinical applications)

Design and Manufacture

Main topics include: design and materials optimisation; management and manufacturing strategies; improving clinical medical and industrial interaction; meeting product liability, ethical, legal and commercial needs.

Design of Mechatronic Systems

Microcontroller technologies. Data acquisition. Interfacing to power devices. Sensors (Infrared, Ultrasonic, etc.). Optoelectronic devices and signal conditioning circuits. Pulse and timing-control circuits. Drive circuits. Electrical motor types: Stepper, Servo. Electronic Circuits. Power devices. Power conversion and power electronics. Line filters and protective devices. Industrial applications of digital devices.

Innovation and Management and Research Methods

Main topics include: company structure and organisation will be considered (with particular reference to the United Kingdom), together with the interfacing between hospital, clinical and healthcare sectors; review of existing practice: examination of existing equipment and devices; consideration of current procedures for integrating engineering expertise into the biomedical environment. Discussion of management techniques; design of biomedical equipment: statistical Procedures and Data Handling; matching of equipment to biomedical systems; quality assurance requirements in clinical technology; patient safety requirements and protection; sterilisation procedures and infection control; failure criteria and fail-safe design; maintainability and whole life provision; public and environmental considerations: environmental and hygenic topics in the provision of hospital services; legal and ethical requirements; product development: innovation in the company environment, innovation in the clinical environment; cash flow and capital provision; testing and validation; product development criteria and strategies.

Dissertation

The choice of Dissertation topic will be made by the student in consultation with academic staff and (where applicable) with the sponsoring company. The topic agreed is also subject to approval by the Module Co-ordinator. The primary requirement for the topic is that it must have sufficient scope to allow the student to demonstrate his or her ability to conduct a well-founded programme of investigation and research. It is not only the outcome that is important since the topic chosen must be such that the whole process of investigation can be clearly demonstrated throughout the project. In industrially sponsored projects the potential differences between industrial and academic expectations must be clearly understood.

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The M.Sc. in Medical Physics is a full time course which aims to equip you for a career as a scientist in medicine. You will be given the basic knowledge of the subject area and some limited training. Read more
The M.Sc. in Medical Physics is a full time course which aims to equip you for a career as a scientist in medicine. You will be given the basic knowledge of the subject area and some limited training. The course consists of an intense program of lectures and workshops, followed by a short project and dissertation. Extensive use is made of the electronic learning environment "Blackboard" as used by NUI Galway. The course has been accredited by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (UK).

Syllabus Outline. (with ECTS weighting)
Human Gross Anatomy (5 ECTS)
The cell, basic tissues, nervous system, nerves and muscle, bone and cartilage, blood, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, nutrition, genital system, urinary system, eye and vision, ear, hearing and balance, upper limb – hand, lower limb – foot, back and vertebral column, embryology, teratology, anthropometrics; static and dynamic anthropometrics data, anthropometric dimensions, clearance and reach and range of movement, method of limits, mathematics modelling.

Human Body Function (5 ECTS)
Biological Molecules and their functions. Body composition. Cell physiology. Cell membranes and membrane transport. Cell electrical potentials. Nerve function – nerve conduction, nerve synapses. Skeletal muscle function – neuromuscular junction, muscle excitation, muscle contraction, energy considerations. Blood and blood cells – blood groups, blood clotting. Immune system. Autonomous nervous system. Cardiovascular system – electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. – the peripheral circulation. Respiratory system- how the lungs work. Renal system – how the kidneys work. Digestive system. Endocrine system – how hormones work. Central nervous system and brain function.

Occupational Hygiene (5 ECTS)
Historical development of Occupational Hygiene, Safety and Health at Work Act. Hazards to Health, Surveys, Noise and Vibrations, Ionizing radiations, Non-Ionizing Radiations, Thermal Environments, Chemical hazards, Airborne Monitoring, Control of Contaminants, Ventilation, Management of Occupational Hygiene.

Medical Informatics (5 ECTS)
Bio statistics, Distributions, Hypothesis testing. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, T-tests, ANOVA, regression. Critical Appraisal of Literature, screening and audit. Patient and Medical records, Coding, Hospital Information Systems, Decision support systems. Ethical consideration in Research.
Practicals: SPSS. Appraisal exercises.

Clinical Instrumentation (6 ECTS)
Biofluid Mechanics: Theory: Pressures in the Body, Fluid Dynamics, Viscous Flow, Elastic Walls, Instrumentation Examples: Respiratory Function Testing, Pressure Measurements, Blood Flow measurements. Physics of the Senses: Theory: Cutaneous and Chemical sensors, Audition, Vision, Psychophysics; Instrumentation Examples: Evoked responses, Audiology, Ophthalmology instrumentation, Physiological Signals: Theory Electrodes, Bioelectric Amplifiers, Transducers, Electrophysiology Instrumentation.

Medical Imaging (10 ECTS)
Theory of Image Formation including Fourier Transforms and Reconstruction from Projections (radon transform). Modulation transfer Function, Detective Quantum Efficiency.
X-ray imaging: Interaction of x-rays with matter, X-ray generation, Projection images, Scatter, Digital Radiography, CT – Imaging. Fundamentals of Image Processing.
Ultrasound: Physics of Ultrasound, Image formation, Doppler scanning, hazards of Ultrasound.
Nuclear Medicine : Overview of isotopes, generation of Isotopes, Anger Cameras, SPECT Imaging, Positron Emitters and generation, PET Imaging, Clinical aspects of Planar, SPECT and PET Imaging with isotopes.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging : Magnetization, Resonance, Relaxation, Contrast in MR Imaging, Image formation, Image sequences, their appearances and clinical uses, Safety in MR.

Radiation Fundamentals (5 ECTS)
Review of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Radiation from charged particles. X-ray production and quality. Attenuation of Photon Beams in Matter. Interaction of Photons with Matter. Interaction of Charged Particles with matter. Introduction to Monte Carlo techniques. Concept to Dosimetry. Cavity Theory. Radiation Detectors. Practical aspects of Ionization chambers

The Physics of Radiation Therapy (10 ECTS)
The interaction of single beams of X and gamma rays with a scattering medium. Treatment planning with single photon beams. Treatment planning for combinations of photon beams. Radiotherapy with particle beams: electrons, pions, neutrons, heavy charged particles. Special Techniques in Radiotherapy. Equipment for external Radiotherapy. Relative dosimetry techniques. Dosimetry using sealed sources. Brachytherapy. Dosimetry of radio-isotopes.

Workshops / Practicals
Hospital & Radiation Safety [11 ECTS]
Workshop in Risk and Safety.
Concepts of Risk and Safety. Legal Aspects. Fundamental concepts in Risk Assessment and Human Factor Engineering. Risk and Safety management of complex systems with examples from ICU and Radiotherapy. Accidents in Radiotherapy and how to avoid them. Principles of Electrical Safety, Electrical Safety Testing, Non-ionizing Radiation Safety, including UV and laser safety.
- NUIG Radiation Safety Course.
Course for Radiation Safety Officer.
- Advanced Radiation Safety
Concepts of Radiation Protection in Medical Practice, Regulations. Patient Dosimetry. Shielding design in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy.
- Medical Imaging Workshop
Operation of imaging systems. Calibration and Quality Assurance of General
radiography, fluoroscopy systems, ultrasound scanners, CT-scanners and MR scanners. Radiopharmacy and Gamma Cameras Quality Control.

Research Project [28 ECTS]
A limited research project will be undertaken in a medical physics area. Duration of this will be 4 months full time

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