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Masters Degrees (Biology Of Disease)

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*Please note that it is our intention to transform this programme into a new programme Biology of Cardiovascular Disease from September 2017 onwards. Read more
*Please note that it is our intention to transform this programme into a new programme Biology of Cardiovascular Disease from September 2017 onwards. The option to focus on areas other than cardiovascular disease then will be limited.*

The Master's in Biology of Disease focuses on the translation of disease into a scientifically secure experiment/model, in order to study its underlying mechanisms and reveal potential therapies.

The Master's programme in Biology of Disease offers the opportunity to study disease mechanisms in the broadest sense via internships in pre-clinical and clinical research in medical, biomedical, biological, industrial and veterinary labs; and to focus on more than one clinical specialty enabling you to conduct research projects on different subjects and diseases. Alternatively this programme offers the possibility to focus on cardiovascular research.

This two year research programme comprises theoretical courses, elective courses, seminars, a major and minor research project, and the writing of a Master's thesis. The core component of this two year research programme consists of independently planning and conducting the two research projects, which will take 15 months in total. The minor research project may be completed elsewhere in the Netherlands or abroad; or it may be replaced by a specific profile: Management, Teaching and Communication or Drug Regulatory Sciences. Graduates of this programme are prepared for PhD studies (approximately 65% choose for this option); or to take on a position in the medical-technical or pharmaceutical industry, or in science journalism.

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Our MSc Veterinary Microbiology programme, run in partnership with local world-leading veterinary research institutes (Pirbright, APHA and VMD), offers an in-depth understanding of veterinary infectious diseases and global issues such as AMR, and their associated impact on man. Read more
Our MSc Veterinary Microbiology programme, run in partnership with local world-leading veterinary research institutes (Pirbright, APHA and VMD), offers an in-depth understanding of veterinary infectious diseases and global issues such as AMR, and their associated impact on man.

It offers specialist practical training in the diagnosis of important viral and bacterial diseases of global animal and human health importance.

PROGRAMME OVERVIEW

This programme is intended for those who wish to enhance their understanding of the role of microorganisms in animal health and disease, and provides an excellent grounding in molecular biology, immunology, epidemiology and microbiology.

This grounding leads into the study of the complex mechanisms of host/microbe interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of specific animal diseases, and provides insights into diagnosis and interventions, such as vaccines, essential for disease control.

You will enhance your critical and analytical skills and gain hands-on experience in the diagnosis of veterinary diseases, such that you may identify problems, formulate hypotheses, design experiments, acquire and interpret data, and draw conclusions.

PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

This programme is studied full-time over one academic year. The following modules are indicative, reflecting the information available at the time of publication. Please note that not all modules described are compulsory and may be subject to teaching availability and/or student demand.
-Microbiology and Veterinary Immunology
-Microbial Genetics
-Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
-Transmission and Control of Infectious Diseases of Animals (Non-vector)
-Transmission and Control of Infectious Diseases of Animals (Vector)
-Infectious Diseases of Animals - Practical sessions (APHA, Pirbright ^ PHE/VMD)
-Diseases of Animal Systems: Gastro-intestinal Diseases of Animals
-Diseases of Animal Systems: Respiratory Diseases of Animals
-Diseases of Animal Systems: Multi-system Diseases of Animals
-Diseases of Animal Systems: CNS/Skin Diseases of Animals
-Research Project

WHO IS THE PROGRAMME FOR?

This is a full or part-time programme, intended mainly for graduates, those already working in veterinary diagnostic/research laboratories and staff from other laboratories who want to enhance their understanding of the role of microorganisms in animal health and disease.

Pharmaceutical research personnel, policymakers, veterinarians, public health personnel and environmental biologists will also benefit.

EDUCATIONAL AIMS OF THE PROGRAMME

This is a one year full-time programme aimed at preparing graduates to work in a range of fields in which a detailed understanding of veterinary microbiology is a valuable asset.

These fields include research, commerce, government and policy, reference laboratory and diagnostic work, epidemiology and disease mapping, veterinary science, farming especially animal production, wild and zoo animal conservation and education.

As such, it is intended that graduates will achieve the highest levels of professional understanding of veterinary microbiology within a range of contexts.

The programme combines the study of the theoretical foundations of, and scholarly approaches to, understanding the application and various practices of veterinary microbiology within the contexts described above along with the development of practical and research skills.

The main aims are to enable students to:
-Acquire sound knowledge of the major principles of veterinary microbiology
-Develop the skills to perform relevant interpretation and evaluation of data
-Apply those acquired skills in practice through research
-To utilise acquired knowledge and evaluative skills to communicate successfully with stakeholders

PROGRAMME LEARNING OUTCOMES

The programme provides opportunities for students to develop and demonstrate knowledge and understanding, skills, qualities and other attributes in the following areas.

The learning outcomes have been aligned with the descriptor for qualification at level 7 given in the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) produced by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) for Higher Education.

Knowledge and understanding
-The main principles of current veterinary microbiology
-The methods and approaches used for the molecular characterisation, and diagnosis of disease agents
-The main principles of infectious diseases epidemiology
-The analysis of disease and disease carriage that impact on the development and application of control measures to combat diseases
-Modes of control of infectious diseases
-Modes of transmission
-The various aspects of host pathology and immune responses to disease agents
-Analytical skills to allow interpretation of data and formulation of conclusions

Intellectual/cognitive skills
-Critically appraise scholarly and professional writing on a wide range of subjects pertaining to the various aspects of veterinary microbiology
-Critically analyse experimental data to enable the formulation of hypotheses
-Design relevant experiments to test formulated hypotheses
-Efficiently analyse new developments in technology and critically assess their utilisation to answer existing and new problems

Professional practical skills
-Plan and execute an experiment/investigation, act autonomously and demonstrate originality
-Analyse numerical data using appropriate computer tools including specialist computer packages
-Communicate experiments at a project level, including report writing
-Perform specific specialised experimental skills

Key/transferable skills
-Problem solve
-Evaluate and exploit new technology
-Communicate ideas, principles and theories effectively by oral, written and visual means
-Work effectively in small groups and teams towards a common goal/outcome
-Apply basic statistical and numerical skills to data
-Use information technology including specialist packages

GLOBAL OPPORTUNITIES

We often give our students the opportunity to acquire international experience during their degrees by taking advantage of our exchange agreements with overseas universities.

In addition to the hugely enjoyable and satisfying experience, time spent abroad adds a distinctive element to your CV.

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Wild animal health has become increasingly popular among non-veterinarians with a first degree in zoology and biology. Read more
Wild animal health has become increasingly popular among non-veterinarians with a first degree in zoology and biology. Recognising this, the RVC, University of London, together with the Zoological Society of London, has developed a unique course aimed at non-veterinary biological science graduates and leading to the MSc in Wild Animal Biology.

Under the microscope

This course has been designed to provide you with practical exposure to wild animal species and an understanding of wild animal health, welfare and conservation, as well as providing training in research methods relevant to the study of wildlife.

You will benefit from working and studying alongside veterinary graduates taking the MSc in Wild Animal Health as well as learning from internationally renowned experts in their field.

The course

The MSc in Wild Animal Biology consists of three levels:

Certificate in Wild Animal Biology - you are introduced to the course objectives, the mission of the partner organizations running the Course and the services you can receive at the Zoological Society of London and the Royal Veterinary College. You will also undertake four core modules:
- Conservation biology module
- The Impact of disease on populations
- Health and welfare of captive wild animals
- Interventions


Diploma in Wild Animal Biology - building on the knowledge and skills learned in the Certificate in Wild Animal Biology, you will undertake four further modules of study:
- Detection, surveillance and emerging diseases
- Ecosystem health
- Evaluation of the health and welfare of captive wild animals
- Practical module


Master of Science in Wild Animal Biology - a graduate of the Master of Science in Wild Animal Biology must demonstrate (in addition to the achievements of the PG Certificate and Diploma):
- A comprehensive understanding of research and inquiry including (i) critical appraisal of the literature, (ii) scientific writing and (iii) scientific presentation
- The ability to design and analyse hypothesis-driven laboratory and/or field studies

Research planning - develop the extensive skills required to design and conduct practical research projects, critically appraise and review the literature, deliver effective scientific presentations, and write scientific papers suitable for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

Project - each MSc student will be required to undertake an individual research project, between mid-June and the end of August, and to submit a typewritten report not exceeding 10,000 words in the form of a literature review and a scientific paper suitable for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. The project will encompass a practical study on an approved aspect of wild animal biology. The project may be undertaken at any place approved by the Institute/College with the guidance of a course supervisor.

Assessment - you will be assessed by four written papers, course work (assignments, casebook), an individual research project report and an oral examination, irrespective of students’ performance in other parts of the course. Project reports are submitted by the end of August and oral examinations are held in mid-September

Project reports are submitted at the end of August and oral examinations are held in mid-September.

How will I learn?

The MSc in Wild Animal Biology is completed over one year of full-time study.

The course starts in mid-September each year, and can be broken down broadly into three sections, comprising two groups of taught modules and a research project. The first section is completed by mid-January, the second by mid-May, and the MSc research project is undertaken during the summer months, finishing in mid-September. More detailed information can be found in the course outline (see link in the top left of the page).

We deliver the programme through two terms of lectures, seminars, tutorials and problem-based learning, with modular examinations. There are no part-time or distance-learning options available.

Learning outcomes

During the programme you will acquire:
- A critical awareness of current problems in wildlife disease with implications for wildlife conservation and welfare·
- A new insight into veterinary interventions for the management of captive and free-living wild animals·
- A systematic understanding of the biological principles underpinning wild animal conservation and management, and the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of wildlife disease·
- Basic competence in veterinary techniques and preventative medicine for wild animals·
- A conceptual and practical understanding of how established techniques of research and enquiry are used to create knowledge in the field of wild animal health·
- A comprehensive understanding of scientific skills, including critical review of the scientific literature, and design and analysis of laboratory or field studies.
- Upon completion of the MSc in Wild Animal Biology, you will have gained the analytical skills, understanding, confidence and the language to progress your career within a wide range of organisations, such as zoos, national parks, universities, conservation organisations and government departments worldwide.

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Upon graduation from the Master’s Programme in Translational Medicine (TRANSMED) you can be expected to. -Be fluent in medical sciences and clinical practice from the point of view of a researcher. Read more
Upon graduation from the Master’s Programme in Translational Medicine (TRANSMED) you can be expected to:
-Be fluent in medical sciences and clinical practice from the point of view of a researcher.
-Be familiar with up-to-date translational research methodologies.
-Be adept at scientific reasoning and critical analysis of scientific literature.
-Acknowledge the regulatory and ethical aspects of biomedical and clinical research.
-Have mastered scientific and medical terminologies.
-Have excellent communication and interpersonal skills, enabling you to find employment in an international and interdisciplinary professional setting.

The University of Helsinki will introduce annual tuition fees to foreign-language Master’s programmes starting on August 1, 2017 or later. The fee ranges from 13 000-18 000 euros. Citizens of non-EU/EEA countries, who do not have a permanent residence status in the area, are liable to these fees. You can check this FAQ at the Studyinfo website whether or not you are required to pay tuition fees: https://studyinfo.fi/wp2/en/higher-education/higher-education-institutions-will-introduce-tuition-fees-in-autumn-2017/am-i-required-to-pay-tuition-fees/

Programme Contents

The TRANSMED studies are built upon three core educational themes:
Development of Research Skills
These include an introduction to current methodologies, which are further developed during a training period in a research group; research ethics: principles of clinical investigation; and writing of research or grant proposals.

Studies in Human Disease
These range from normal human physiology and anatomy, and basic biomedical courses, to more specialised studies covering various topics pertinent to the specialist option. You supplement these studies with clinical rounds, during which you have an opportunity to study selected patient cases in hospital wards, under the supervision of a clinician mentor.

Development of Communication Skills
These are promoted throughout the curriculum, through utilisation of interactive approaches and discussions, problem-based learning and oral presentations. The multidisciplinary TRANSMED community encompasses a wide range of educational backgrounds and provides ample opportunities for direct interactions with medical students, science and clinical teachers to enable you to practice and adopt interdisciplinary communication skills. At the end of the course of study, your communication skills will be evaluated in the final exam, during which you will orally present your research plan to expert examiners.

Selection of the Majors

The major of the programme is Translational medicine. During your first study year you can choose any of the five available specialisation options. These options and their specific goals are:
Neuroscience and Psychobiology
-To acquire knowledge on research methodology and state-of-the-art information in systems and cognitive neuroscience, as well as in clinical neuropsychology.
-To learn to produce new scientific information in the fields of psychobiology of human life, health, and stress, and to transfer the results between basic research and clinical settings.

Cancer
-To acquire basic knowledge of the principles of neoplastic growth, cancer progression and dissemination.
-To acquire basic understanding of the interplay between different cell types during neoplastic growth.
-To acquire knowledge of major research methodologies and disease models in cancer biology.

Regenerative Medicine
-To understand the principles of developmental and stem cell biology and regenerative pharmacology as the basis of regenerative therapies.
-To be familiar with the major technologies applied in regenerative medicine, including tissue engineering, cell and organ transplantation and transplantation immunology.
-To understand the ethical principles of clinical translation of basic research and application of regenerative medicine therapies.

Metabolic Disorders
-To be able to understand the basic metabolic pathways.
-To understand the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and obesity.
-To be able to use genetic knowledge as a basis for prediction, diagnosis and treatment of metabolic disorders.

Cross-Disciplinary Translational Medicine
-To achieve a broad understanding of topics and methods in the field of Translational medicine.

Programme Structure

The scope of the programme is 120 credits (ECTS) and can be completed within two academic years (60 ECTS / year).

The Master of Science in Translational medicine degree includes 60 ECTS of advanced and 60 ECTS of other studies. Both of these include both obligatory and optional studies.

The majority of the advanced studies are related to the chosen specialist option and include:
-Master’s thesis (30 ECTS)
-Placement in a research group for learning advanced methods in your selected field of study
-Methodological and human health and disease-related courses
-Clinical rounds in Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) clinics
-Final examination in your field of specialisation

The other studies include e.g.
-Article analysis, scientific writing and presentation
-Biomedicine and introductory courses in research methods
-Career planning and orientation
-Individual study coaching and personal study plans
-Research ethics

You can select the optional courses based on your personal interests, or to support your chosen specialisation option. You can also include courses from other suitable Master’s programmes at the University of Helsinki, such as:
-Life Science Informatics
-Genetics and molecular biosciences
-Neuroscience
-Human Nutrition and Food Behaviour

You can also include studies in other universities under the flexible study right-agreement (JOO).

Career Prospects

The Master of Science in Translational medicine degree provides excellent opportunities to apply for and attend postgraduate studies. Currently, 50% of TRANSMED graduates are continuing their studies in doctoral programmes, either at the University of Helsinki or abroad.

TRANSMED graduates are also highly valued in the private sector. Around 35% of graduates have been employed directly by bioindustry, pharma or other health sector enterprises either in Finland or abroad. Titles include product manager, product specialist, personalised health care manager etc. All such enterprises usually recruit both at the graduate (MSc) and postgraduate (PhD) levels.

The health and health technology sectors represent a rapidly emerging field, and one of the areas with a growing importance as the population ages and the costs of new therapies steadily increase. Thus, the demand for well-trained specialists in the field of translational medicine is likely to increase in the near future, providing excellent career prospects globally.

Internationalization

The Translational Medicine major is only available in this international programme, making the programme attractive to both Finnish and international students. Indeed, opportunities for personal interaction with students from different cultures are an integral feature of the studies. During your studies, you can also volunteer to act as a tutor for the incoming international students.

The international research community in The Academic Medical Centre Helsinki actively participates in teaching in TRANSMED. You complete the research group practice for your Master’s thesis in multicultural research groups.

It is also possible to complete your Master’s thesis work or research group placement abroad, or to include coursework done at a foreign university.

Research Focus

The specialisation options of the programme – Neuroscience and psychobiology, Cancer, Regenerative medicine, Metabolic disorders, and Cross-disciplinary translational medicine – are closely aligned with the research focus areas of the Faculty of Medicine: malignancy, inflammation, metabolism, degenerative processes as well as psychiatric disorders and their mechanisms. You therefore have an opportunity to learn from, and be supervised by, the leading experts and professors in their fields.

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The MSc in Cancer Biology is for students who wish to gain an advanced education and training in the biological sciences, within the context of a disease that affects a large proportion of the global population. Read more
The MSc in Cancer Biology is for students who wish to gain an advanced education and training in the biological sciences, within the context of a disease that affects a large proportion of the global population.

The programme provides training in the modern practical, academic and research skills that are used in academia and industry. Through a combination of lectures, small-group seminars and practical classes, students will apply this training towards the development of new therapies.

The programme culminates with a research project that investigates the molecular and cellular basis of cancer biology or the development of new therapies under the supervision of active cancer research scientists.

Visit the website: https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/226/cancer-biology

About the School of Biosciences

The School of Biosciences is among the best-funded schools of its kind in the UK, with current support from the BBSRC, NERC, MRC, Wellcome Trust, EU, and industry. It has 38 academic staff, 56 research staff (facility managers, research fellows, postdoctoral researchers and technicians), approximately 100 postgraduate students and 20 key support staff. The school's vibrant atmosphere has expanded to become a flourishing environment to study for postgraduate degrees in a notably friendly and supportive teaching and research environment.

Research in the School of Biosciences revolves around understanding systems and processes in the living cell. It has a strong molecular focus with leading-edge activities that are synergistic with one another and complementary to the teaching provision. Our expertise in disciplines such as biochemistry, microbiology and biomedical science allows us to exploit technology and develop groundbreaking ideas in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, protein science and biophysics. Fields of enquiry encompass a range of molecular processes from cell division, transcription and translation through to molecular motors, molecular diagnostics and the production of biotherapeutics and bioenergy.

In addition to research degrees, our key research strengths underpin a range of unique and career-focused taught Master’s programmes that address key issues and challenges within the biosciences and pharmaceutical industries and prepare graduates for future employment.

Course structure

Each one-hour lecture is supplemented by two hours of small-group seminars and workshops in which individual themes are explored in-depth. There are practical classes and mini-projects in which you design, produce and characterise a therapeutic protein with applications in therapy.

In additional to traditional scientific laboratory reports, experience will be gained in a range of scientific writing styles relevant to future employment, such as literature reviews, patent applications, regulatory documents, and patient information suitable for a non-scientific readership.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year in response to new curriculum developments and innovation. Most programmes will require you to study a combination of compulsory and optional modules. You may also have the option to take modules from other programmes so that you may customise your programme and explore other subject areas that interest you.

BI830 - Science at Work (30 credits)
BI836 - Practical and Applied Research Skills for Advanced Biologists (30 credits)
BI837 - The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cancer (15 credits)
BI838 - Genomic Stability and Cancer (15 credits)
BI840 - Cancer Therapeutics: From the Laboratory to the Clinic (15 credits)
BI857 - Cancer Research in Focus (15 credits)
BI845 - MSc Project (60 credits)

Assessment

The programme features a combination of examinations and practically focused continuous assessment, which gives you experience within a range of professional activities, eg, report writing, patent applications and public health information. The assessments have been designed to promote employability in a range of professional settings.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

- provide an excellent quality of postgraduate-level education in the field of cancer, its biology and its treatment

- provide a research-led, inspiring learning environment

- provide a regional postgraduate progression route for the advanced study of a disease that affects a high proportion of the population

- promote engagement with biological research into cancer and inspire you to pursue a scientific career inside or outside of the laboratory

- develop subject specific and transferable skills to maximise employment prospects

- promote an understanding of the impact of scientific research on society and the role for scientists in a range of professions.

Research areas

Research in the School of Biosciences is focused primarily on essential biological processes at the molecular and cellular level, encompassing the disciplines of biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology and biomedical research.

The School’s research has three main themes:

- Protein Science – encompasses researchers involved in industrial biotechnology and synthetic biology, and protein form and function

- Molecular Microbiology – encompasses researchers interested in yeast molecular biology (incorporating the Kent Fungal Group) and microbial pathogenesis

- Biomolecular Medicine – encompasses researchers involved in cell biology, cancer targets and therapies and cytogenomics and bioinformatics.

Each area is led by a senior professor and underpinned by excellent research facilities. The School-led development of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre (IBC), with staff from the other four other schools in the Faculty of Sciences, facilitates and encourages interdisciplinary projects. The School has a strong commitment to translational research, impact and industrial application with a substantial portfolio of enterprise activity and expertise.

Careers

A postgraduate degree in the School of Biosciences is designed to equip our graduates with transferable skills that are highly valued in the workplace. Our research-led ethos ensures that students explore the frontiers of scientific knowledge, and the intensive practical components provide rigorous training in cutting edge technical skills that are used in the modern biosciences while working in areas of world-leading expertise within the School.

Destinations for our graduates include the leading pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies within the UK and leading research institutes both at home and abroad.

Find out how to apply here - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/apply-online/226

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Aspiring to contribute to the development of new therapies for metabolic, infectious and immunological diseases or cancer? Radboud University's internationally acclaimed Research Master's programme in Molecular Mechanisms of Disease provides an excellent foundation for a career in academic or commercial research. Read more

Understanding the molecular basis of disease

Aspiring to contribute to the development of new therapies for metabolic, infectious and immunological diseases or cancer? Radboud University's internationally acclaimed Research Master's programme in Molecular Mechanisms of Disease provides an excellent foundation for a career in academic or commercial research.

Only by dissecting the molecular mechanisms that trigger and advance diseases and dysfunctions can we design effective treatments and medicines. The Research Master's in Molecular Mechanisms of Disease (MMD) offers you an intensive two-year programme that provides you with in-depth knowledge and research experience of disease-related molecular mechanisms. In addition, you will acquire skills such as academic writing and presentation skills and learn how to successfully apply for grants and market yourself.

Passion for molecular biomedical research

As an MMD student you will be part of the unique research community that is found within the Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS). Like you, RIMLS researchers have a strong passion for research. They will assist you throughout the programme with guidance and expertise, supporting you in acquiring knowledge and developing excellent research skills. The RIMLS is one of the research institutes of the Radboud university medical center, so their research is closely linked to the clinic and thus aimed at translating results into treatments for patients. Examples include the translation of insights into the biology of antigen-presenting cells into new immunological cancer therapies and understanding the mutations underlying blindness into the development of gene therapies for patients with inherited blindness.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/mmd

Why study Molecular Mechanisms of Disease at Radboud University?

- You will follow a broad biomedical programme that allows you to specialise in your specific field-of-interest.
- You will have intense daily contact with established researchers.
- You will participate in group-oriented education and be part of a small group of highly motivated national and international students.
- A personal mentor will help you to reflect on your study programme and career perspective.
- You will do two 6-months research internships one of which will be abroad.
- There is a 92% pass rate of MMD students within the two years.
- International MMD students can apply for scholarships from the Radboudumc Study Fund.

Career prospects

There is considerable demand for experts in the molecular biomedical sciences as well as in their application to the development of treatments for diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and metabolic diseases.

Graduates in MMD are equipped with cutting-edge knowledge of multidisciplinary research in the mechanisms of disease and in state-of-the-art diagnostic methods and technologies. During the programme, you will develop a highly critical, independent approach to problem-solving. You will also acquire the basic management skills needed to lead R&D projects in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

Most of our graduates will enter an international PhD programme to continue with research in academia or industry.

PhD opportunities

The MSc Molecular Mechanisms of Disease aims to provide all skills and knowledge necessary to rapidly enter an international PhD programme. In the Netherlands and many places in Europe, it is impossible to start a PhD programme directly after obtaining a Bachelor's degree. This research Master’s programme seriously increases your chances for obtaining an excellent PhD training position by giving you a mature perspective and a broad range of experimental approaches. In fact, over 90% of our graduates has started a (funded) PhD project.

The Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS) recruits about fifty PhD students a year. MMD graduates are excellent candidates for these positions. Furthermore, the Radboud university medical centre offers the opportunity for its research-oriented Master's students to write their own research project. The best candidates are awarded a fully funded four-year PhD studentship at the department of their choice.

Our approach to this field

The molecular regulation of cellular processes is crucial for human development, and maintenance of health throughout life. It's evident that cellular malfunction is the cause of common multi-factorial diseases such as diabetes, immune and inflammatory disorders, renal disease, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases as well as obesity and cancer.

The Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS) Graduate School plays a key role in developing new therapies for the fight against such diseases. RIMLS aims to improve diagnostics and develop new treatments by generating basic knowledge in the molecular biomedical life sciences and translating it into clinical application and experimental research in patients.

The RIMLS – which is part of Radboud university medical center – offers an exclusive Master's programme in Molecular Mechanisms of Disease. Top researchers and clinicians teach the programme.

Key themes

The MMD programme is organised along three major educational themes which reflect the main research areas present in the RIMLS and which each include both a fundamental and a disease-related aspect:
- Theme 1 Infection, Immunity and Regenerative Medicine / Immunity-related Disorders and Immunotherapy
- Theme 2 Metabolism, Transport and Motion / Metabolic Disorders
- Theme 3 Cell Growth and Differentiation / Developmental Disorders and Malignancies

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/mmd

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This course offers a wide ranging, in depth knowledge of oral biology in its broadest sense including relevant microbiology and disease processes. Read more
This course offers a wide ranging, in depth knowledge of oral biology in its broadest sense including relevant microbiology and disease processes. It also provides a sound educational background so that you can go on to lead academic oral biology programmes within dental schools.

Why study Oral Biology at Dundee?

This course is specifically designed for individuals who wish to pursue career pathways in academic oral biology, with a focus, though not exclusively, on developing individuals who can deliver and, more importantly, lead oral biology courses within dental schools.

Oral Biology is a significant subject area that is integral to undergraduate and postgraduate dental training worldwide. The scope of Oral Biology includes a range of basic and applied sciences that underpin the practise of dentistry. These subjects include: oral and dental anatomy; craniofacial and dental development; oral physiology; oral neuroscience; oral microbiology. These subjects will be integrated with the relevant disease processes, for example, craniofacial anomalies, dental caries and tooth surface loss.

What's so good about studying Oral Biology at Dundee?

This programme focuses on the research and education experience of the staff in the Dental School in Dundee. Such expertise lies in the fields of craniofacial development and anomalies; pain and jaw muscle control; salivary physiology; cancer biology; microbiology; cariology and tooth surface loss.

In addition it makes use of the extensive resources available for postgraduate programmes: extensive histological collections; virtual microscopy; oral physiology facilities; cell biology and dental materials laboratories.

Who should study this course?

The MSc in Oral Biology is for graduates who wish to pursue a career in academic oral biology. The course will be of particular interest for those wishing to establish themselves as oral biology teachers, innovators and course leaders within a dental school.

Teaching and Assessment

The Dental School is well placed to deliver such a course with an established staff of teaching and research active within oral biology, and its related fields, an in-house e-learning technologist and substantial links to the Centre for Medical Education in the School of Medicine. There will be an opportunity for students to exit with a PGCert in Oral Biology after successful completion of modules 1 -4 or a Diploma in Oral Biology after successful completion of modules 1 - 7.

How you will be taught

The programme will be delivered via a blend of methodologies including: face-to-face lectures / seminars / tutorials; on-line learning; directed and self- directed practical work; self-directed study; journal clubs.
What you will study

The MSc will be taught full-time over one year (September to August). Semester one (Modules 1 – 4) and Semester 2A, 2B (Modules 5 – 8) will provide participants with wide ranging, in-depth knowledge of oral biology, together with focused training in research (lab-base, dissertation or e- Learning) and its associated methodology. The MSc course is built largely on new modules (5) supported by 2 modules run conjointly with the Centre for Medical Education within the Medical School. All modules are compulsory:

Semester 1:

Module 1: Academic skills 1: principles of learning and teaching (15 credits)
Module 2: Cranio-facial development and anomalies (15 credits)
Module 3: Dental and periodontal tissues, development and structure (20 credits)
Module 4: Oral mucosa and disorders (10 credits)

Semesters 2A and 2B

Module 5a: Academic skills 2a: principles of assessment (15 credits)
Module 5b: Academic Skills 2b:educational skills
Module 6: Neuroscience (20 credits)
Module 7: Oral environment and endemic oral disease (20 credits)
Module 8: Project (60 credits)

The project is designed to encourage students to further develop their skills. This could take the form of a supervised laboratory research project, a literature based dissertation or an educational project. The educational project would be based around the development of an innovative learning resource utilising the experience of the dental school learning technologist.

How you will be assessed

Exams on the taught element of the programme will be held at the end of semester one. Essays and assignments will also contribute to the final mark, and the dissertation will be assessed through the production of a thesis and a viva exam.

Careers

The MSc Oral Biology is aimed at dental or science graduates who are either early in their careers or wish to establish themselves as oral biologists within dental schools. Oral Biology is a recognised discipline in many dental schools worldwide. Graduates will have gained sufficient knowledge and skills to enable them to be teachers, innovators and educational leaders in the field. In addition, successful graduates will be well placed to undertake further postgraduate study at PhD level. In some cases, this may possible within the existing research environments within the Dental School, the wider College of Medicine Dentistry and Nursing and the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification of the University of Dundee.

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This Masters in Bioinformatics, Polyomics and Systems Biology is a new, exciting and innovative programme that has grown out of our well-regarded MRes in Bioinformatics. Read more
This Masters in Bioinformatics, Polyomics and Systems Biology is a new, exciting and innovative programme that has grown out of our well-regarded MRes in Bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is a discipline at the interface between biology and computing and is used in organismal biology, molecular biology and biomedicine. ‘Polyomics’ is a new term used to describe the modern integrated approach to biological analysis involving genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and systems-level datasets. The MSc Bioinformatics programme focuses on using computers to glean new insights from DNA, RNA and protein sequence data and related data at the molecular level through data storage, mining, analysis and display - all of which form a core part of modern biology.

Why this programme

-Our programme emphasises understanding core principles in practical bioinformatics and functional genomics, and then implementing that understanding in a series of practical-based elective courses in Semester 2 and in a summer research project.
-You will benefit from being taught by scientists at the cutting edge of their field and you will get intensive, hands-on experience in an active research lab during the summer research project.
-Bioinformatics and the 'Omics' technologies have evolved to play a fundamental role in almost all areas of biology and biomedicine.
-Advanced biocomputing skills are now deemed essential for many PhD studentships/projects in molecular bioscience and biomedicine, and are of increasing importance for many other such projects.
-The Semester 2 elective courses are built around real research scenarios, enabling you not only to gain practical experience of working with large molecular datasets, but also to see why each scenario uses the particular approaches it does and how to go about organizing and implementing appropriate analysis pipelines.
-You will be based in the College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, an ideal environment in which to train in bioinformatics; our College has carried out internationally-recognised research in functional genomics and systems biology.
-The new programme reflects the development and activities of 'Glasgow Polyomics'. Glasgow Polyomics is a world-class facility set up in 2012 to provide research services using microarray, proteomics, metabolomics and next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. Its scientists have pioneered the 'polyomics' approach, in which new insights come from the integration of data across different omics levels.
-In addition, we have several world-renowned research centres at the University, such as the Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology and the Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, whose scientists do ground-breaking research employing bioinformatic approaches in the study of disease.
-You will learn computer programming in courses run by staff in the internationally reputed School of Computing Science, in conjunction with their MSc in Information Technology.

Programme structure

Bioinformatics helps biologists gain new insights about genomes (genomics) and genes, about RNA expression products of genes (transcriptomics) and about proteins (proteomics); rapid advances have also been made in the study of cellular metabolites (metabolomics) and in a newer area: systems biology.

‘Polyomics’ involves the integration of data from these ‘functional genomics’ areas - genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics - to derive new insights about how biological systems function.

The programme structure is designed to equip students with understanding and hands-on experience of both computing and biological research practices relating to bioinformatics and functional genomics, to show students how the computing approaches and biological questions they are being used to answer are connected, and to give students an insight into new approaches for integration of data and analysis across the 'omics' domains.

On this programme, you will develop a range of computing and programming skills, as well as skills in data handling, analysis (including statistics) and interpretation, and you will be brought up to date with recent advances in biological science that have been informed by bioinformatics approaches.

The programme has the following overall structure
-Core material - 60 credits, Semester 1, made up of 10, 15 and 20 credit courses.
-Elective material - 60 credits, Semester 2, students select 4 courses (two 10 credit courses and two 20 credit courses) from those available.
-Project - 60 credits, 14 weeks embedded in a research group over the summer.

Core and optional courses

Core courses include:
-Programming (Java)
-Database Theory and Application
-Foundations of Bioinformatics
-Omics and Systems Approaches in Biology
-These 4 courses are obligatory for those taking the MSc degree and the PgDip; they are also obligatory for those with no prior programming experience taking the PgCert.
-60-credit summer research project lasting 14 weeks - this is also obligatory for those taking the MSc programme; normally this will be with one of the research laboratories in Glasgow associated with the programme, but there is also the opportunity to study in suitable laboratories in other parts of the world

Optional courses include:
-RNA-seq and next generation transcriptomics
-Metagenomics
-Pathogen Polyomics
-Cancer Genomics - NGS and functional analysis methods
-Disease Pathway Analysis - Systems Approaches and De Novo Pathway Mapping
-Using Chemical Structure Databases in Drug Discovery for Protein Targets
-Identification of disease-causing genetic variants
-A range of more general biology and computing biology courses are also available in semester 2

Career prospects

Most of our graduates embark on a research career path here in the UK or abroad using the skills they've acquired on our programme - these skills are now of primary relevance in many areas of modern biology and biomedicine. Many are successful in getting a PhD studentship. Others are employed as a core bioinformatician (now a career path within academia in its own right) or as a research assistant in a research group in basic biological or medical science. A postgraduate degree in bioinformatics is also valued by many employers in the life sciences sector - e.g. computing biology jobs in biotechnology/biosciences/neuroinformatics/pharma industry. Some of our graduates have entered science-related careers in scientific publishing or education; others have gone into computing-related jobs in non-bioscience industry or the public sector.

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The only Master’s specialisation in the Netherlands covering the function of our epigenome, a key factor in regulating gene expression and in a wide range of diseases. Read more

Master's specialisation in Medical Epigenomics

The only Master’s specialisation in the Netherlands covering the function of our epigenome, a key factor in regulating gene expression and in a wide range of diseases.
Our skin cells, liver cells and blood cells all contain the same genetic information. Yet these are different types of cells, each performing their own specific tasks. How is this possible? The explanation lies in the epigenome: a heritable, cell-type specific set of chromosomal modifications, which regulates gene expression. Radboud University is specialised in studying the epigenome and is the only university in the Netherlands to offer a Master’s programme in this field of research.

Health and disease

The epigenome consists of small and reversible chemical modifications of the DNA or histone proteins, such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation. It changes the spatial structure of DNA, resulting in gene activation or repression. These processes are crucial for our health and also play a role in many diseases, like autoimmune diseases, cancer and neurological disorders. As opposed to modifications of the genome sequence itself, epigenetic modifications are reversible. You can therefore imagine the great potential of drugs that target epigenetic enzymes, so-called epi-drugs.

Big data

In this specialisation, you’ll look at a cell as one big and complex system. You’ll study epigenetic mechanisms during development and disease from different angles. This includes studying DNA and RNA by next-generation sequencing (epigenomics) and analysing proteins by mass spectrometry (proteomics). In addition, you‘ll be trained to design computational strategies that allow the integration of these multifaceted, high-throughput data sets into one system.

Why study Medical Epigenomics at Radboud University?

- Radboud University combines various state-of-the-art technologies – such as quantitative mass spectrometry and next-generation DNA sequencing – with downstream bioinformatics analyses in one department. This is unique in Europe.
- This programme allows you to work with researchers from the Radboud Institute for Molecular Life sciences (RIMLS), one of the leading multidisciplinary research institutes within this field of study worldwide.
- We have close contacts with high-profile medically oriented groups on the Radboud campus and with international institutes (EMBL, Max-Planck, Marie Curie, Cambridge, US-based labs, etc). As a Master’s student, you can choose to perform an internship in one of these related departments.
- Radboud University coordinates BLUEPRINT, a 30 million Euro European project focusing on the epigenomics of leukaemia. Master’s students have the opportunity to participate in this project.

Career prospects

As a Master’s student of Medical Epigenomics you’re trained in using state-of-the art technology in combination with biological software tools to study complete networks in cells in an unbiased manner. For example, you’ll know how to study the effects of drugs in the human body.
When you enter the job market, you’ll have:
- A thorough background of epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease, which is highly relevant in strongly rising field of epi-drug development
- Extensive and partly hands-on experience in state-of-the-art ‘omics’ technologies: next-generation sequencing, quantitative mass spectrometry and single cell technologies;
- Extensive expertise in designing, executing and interpreting scientific experiments in data-driven research;
- The computational skills needed to analyse large ‘omics’ datasets.

With this background, you can become a researcher at a:
- University or research institute;
- Pharmaceutical company, such as Synthon or Johnson & Johnson;
- Food company, like Danone or Unilever;
- Start-up company making use of -omics technology.

Apart from research into genomics and epigenomics, you could also work on topics such as miniaturising workflows, improving experimental devices, the interface between biology and informatics, medicine from a systems approach.

Or you can become a:
- Biological or medical consultant;
- Biology teacher;
- Policy coordinator, regarding genetic or medical issues;
- Patent attorney;
- Clinical research associate;

PhD positions at Radboud University

Each year, the Molecular Biology department (Prof. Henk Stunnenberg, Prof. Michiel Vermeulen) and the Molecular Developmental Biology department (Prof. Gert-Jan Veenstra) at the RIMLS offer between five and ten PhD positions. Of course, many graduates also apply for a PhD position at related departments in the Netherlands, or abroad.

Our approach to this field

- Systems biology
In the Medical Epigenomics specialisation you won’t zoom in on only one particular gene, protein or signalling pathway. Instead, you’ll regard the cell as one complete system. This comprehensive view allows you to, for example, model the impact of one particular epigenetic mutation on various parts and functions of the cell, or study the effects of a drug in an unbiased manner. One of the challenges of this systems biology approach is the processing and integration of large amounts of data. That’s why you’ll also be trained in computational biology. Once graduated, this will be a great advantage: you’ll be able to bridge the gap between biology, technology and informatics , and thus have a profile that is desperately needed in modern, data-driven biology.

- Multiple OMICS approaches
Studying cells in a systems biology approach means connecting processes at the level of the genome (genomics), epigenome (epigenomics), transcriptome (transcriptomics), proteome (proteomics), etc. In the Medical Epigenomics specialisation, you’ll get acquainted with all these different fields of study.

- Patient and animal samples
Numerous genetic diseases are not caused by genetic mutations, but by epigenetic mutations that influence the structure and function of chromatin. Think of:
- Autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus
- Cancer, in the forms of leukaemia, colon cancer, prostate cancer and cervical cancer
- Neurological disorders, like Rett Syndrome, Alzheimer, Parkinson, Multiple Sclerosis, schizophrenia and autism

We investigate these diseases on a cellular level, focusing on the epigenetic mutations and the impact on various pathways in the cell. You’ll get the chance to participate in that research, and work with embryonic stem cell, patient, Xenopus or zebra fish samples.

See the website http://www.ru.nl/masters/medicalbiology/epigenomics

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This one-year programme (two years part-time) is designed to give a deeper understanding of historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. Read more
This one-year programme (two years part-time) is designed to give a deeper understanding of historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. Research training includes historical methods, philosophical analysis and socio-cultural models, providing an interdisciplinary environment for those interested in progressing to a PhD or those simply interested in HPSM studies.

Former students have gone on to attract major doctoral funding awards and jobs in the media, government and NGOs. The core teaching staff are attached to the Department of Philosophy, the Northern Centre for the History of Medicine (co-run with Newcastle University) and the School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health. Modules are taught via lectures, seminars, personal tutorials and workshops. The diversity of staff research interests allows you to focus your research on a wide variety of topics, including historical, philosophical and/or cultural aspects of biology, biomedical ethics, the body, the environment, gender, medical humanities, medicine, and the physical sciences.

Programme Structure

Core Modules:
-Research Methods in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine
-Dissertation (Philosophy, Health, or History)

Optional Modules:
Students choose a total of three optional modules, with at least one from List A and one from List B. The module titles below are those offered in 2015/16. Not all the modules will necessarily run every year.
List A:
-History of Medicine
-Science and the Enlightenment
-Ethics, Medicine and History
-Gender, Medicine and Sexuality in Early Modern Europe
-Gender, 'Sex', Health and Politics

List B:
-Philosophical Issues in Science and Medicine
-Phenomenology and the Sciences of Mind
-Current Issues in Metaphysics
-Philosophy of Social Sciences
-Ethics of Cultural Heritage

Learning and Teaching

The MA in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine (HPSM) provides the opportunity for in-depth engagement with historical, philosophical and cultural issues in science and medicine from antiquity to the present day. In the process, students develop critical abilities and independent research skills in an interdisciplinary environment that prepare them for further postgraduate study and for a wide range of careers where such skills are highly prized.

Students select three topic modules from two lists of usually five historical and five philosophical options. They are also required to take a Research Methods in the History and Philosophy of Science and Medicine module and to complete a double-module dissertation in the Department of Philosophy, the Department of History, or the School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health.

Topic modules are typically taught via seven two-hour seminars, two one-to-one tutorials, and a workshop at the end of the module. Seminars incorporate staff-led discussion of topics, student presentations and small group discussions, in the context of a friendly, supportive environment. Seminars serve to (i) familiarise students with topics, positions and debates, (ii) help them to navigate the relevant literature, (iii) refine their oral and written presentation skills and (iv) further develop their ability to independently formulate, criticise and defend historical and philosophical positions. Students are expected to do approximately four hours of reading for each seminar. In consultation with the module leader students decide upon an essay topic, and the most appropriate supervisor available for their topic is allocated. At this point, they begin a more focused programme of reading and independent study, and also benefit from the one-to-one supervisions with the expert supervisor. These supervisions provide more focused teaching, tailored to a student’s chosen essay topic. Supervisions further enable students to develop and refine their own historiographical or philosophical positions, convey them clearly and support them with well constructed arguments. In the workshop students present a draft of their essay and receive further feedback from their peers as well as staff.

The core modules of the programme are the Research Methods module and the double-module Dissertation. The former consists of nine seminars, each of 2 hours duration and a feedback session. They introduce students to relevant methodologies and approaches in the history of medicine, history of science, philosophy of science, and medical humanities, as well as to HPSM resources in the University Library, research tools, MA-level essay composition and format, and other research-related matters. They also include focused advice and discussion concerning dissertation proposals, which students are required to submit as part of this module.

Having completed the three topic modules and the research methods module, students start work on their dissertations. The nature of the dissertation will vary depending upon the topic studied and the department in which the module is undertaken. Students are offered up to six one-to-one tutorials of up to an hour each, with a supervisor who will be an expert in their chosen field. The supervisions help to further refine skills acquired during the academic year (such as presenting and defending an argument in a clear, structured fashion) and to complete a substantial piece of high quality independent research.

In addition to this core teaching, students benefit from a range of activities, including an MA Dissertation Workshop, research seminars of the Centre for the History of Medicine and Disease, and regular meetings of EIDOS, the Philosophy Department’s postgraduate society. They are welcomed as full participants in the Department’s research culture, and are thus strongly encouraged to attend a range of other events, including weekly Research Seminars, and occasional Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures, conferences, workshops and reading groups. The programme director remains in regular contact with the students throughout the year and is available to discuss any issues that might arise (personal or academic).

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Taught in the School of Life Sciences’ state-of-the-art research laboratories and teaching facilities, the MSc in Integrated Physiology in Health and Disease, is the only one of its kind in the UK. Read more
Taught in the School of Life Sciences’ state-of-the-art research laboratories and teaching facilities, the MSc in Integrated Physiology in Health and Disease, is the only one of its kind in the UK.

The course promotes the importance of an integrated and multidisciplinary approach to studying fundamental physiological aspects of human health and disease, including diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease, by combining cutting-edge physiological and metabolic methodologies with relevant molecular biology approaches.

Course overview

The course is ideal for:

 students with a background in physiology, biochemistry, biomedical sciences, biology, nutrition, exercise science and other related disciplines
 those with work experience in health-related research
 health and exercise professionals.

It investigates the physiology underlying health and disease – a growing area of interest to academic, private and public sectors – and aims to:

 develop an understanding of the fundamental physiology underpinning the maintenance of health, and the development of disease
 equip students with both generic and specialist skills, including a wide range of laboratory techniques necessary to develop an integrated and translational approach to the study of human metabolism and physiology
 promote the importance of adopting a critical approach to questions of clinical relevance
 provide the necessary foundation for those who wish to pursue advanced research in this area, leading to the degree of PhD.

Course structure

The programme comprises eight modules: six compulsory, one optional, and a laboratory-based research project.

The six compulsory modules are:

 Nutrition in Health and Exercise
 Muscle Physiology and Metabolism
 Metabolism and Nutrition in Disease
 Cardiorenorespiratory Physiology
 Laboratory Techniques
 Statistics and Research Methods

Students choose one of the following two optional modules:

 Medical Pharmacology
 Clinical Neuroscience.

About the School and its staff

The School of Life Sciences, with its unique, high-quality expertise and excellent facilities, is one of the UK’s leaders in research into integrated physiology.

The programme is delivered by staff from the Metabolic Physiology Group. The group has an international research standing in the area of human nutrition, the control and integration of fuel utilisation in health and disease, such as in obesity and diabetes, and the regulation of muscle mass during exercise, inactivity and disease. The group is funded by industry, research charities and research councils.

In recent years, the School has undergone an impressive development and refurbishment programme. Research is conducted in a suite of human physiology laboratories; ex vivo pharmacology laboratories; neuroscience laboratories and a human primary tissue culture laboratory.

These facilities allow integrated metabolic investigations in both patients and healthy individuals to dovetail with relevant modern molecular biology technologies.

Students also benefit from our interactive, multidisciplinary approach to teaching and research alongside colleagues in other schools and clinics based in four regional hospitals: the Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham City Hospital, Derbyshire Royal Infirmary and Derby City General Hospital.

Career development

A range of rewarding employment opportunities is open to graduates in this field.

 Experience in the area of integrated and translational physiology is required by an increasing number of research groups in both academia and the private sector.
 The health and exercise sector offers a variety of employment opportunities in rehabilitation, and health and fitness centres.
 The School attracts a number of capacity-building Medical Research Council (MRC) and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) PhD studentships each year. On successful completion of the programme, students are considered as serious candidates for these research opportunities.


Assessment

The course requires students to accumulate 180 credits as follows:

 Autumn – three core taught modules (50 credits)
 Spring – five taught modules (80 credits)
 Summer – research project (50 credits).

Assessments are held either at the end of a module or the end of a semester and take the form of an exam, laboratory report or essay.

The research project is assessed through a 15,000-word dissertation and a viva voce.

Funding opportunities

The School offers competitive scholarships specific to the course each year and supports applications for funding to external organisations, including the research councils. For further details, please visit our website.

Related studies

To view related research opportunities with The School of Life Sciences, please visit our website.

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Neuroimaging has emerged as a new important methodology in the study of the structure and function of the human brain in health and disease. Read more
Neuroimaging has emerged as a new important methodology in the study of the structure and function of the human brain in health and disease. In Neuroscience it is being increasingly used to study the physiological correlates of mental processes. In Clinical practice it plays a prominent role in the detection and diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric illnesses and in the evaluation of new treatments. The techniques are getting increasingly sophisticated and as a result there is a high demand for well-trained professionals.

Our Neuroimaging MSc is one of only a few programmes dealing with modern neuroimaging in the UK. It is exceptional in its focus on practical and biomedical aspects of Neuroimaging. The success of the program is reflected in the success of our students with 60% either in further higher education, or fully employed in the first year after degree completion. This figure rises to 100% within 3 years of the degree.

The Neuroimaging MSc is designed to provide students with the background knowledge and technical skills to design, analyze and evaluate imaging data. The Neuroimaging MSc focuses on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) based techniques, including functional MRI, anatomical imaging, Diffusion Tensor Imaging, and Spectroscopy. Imaging techniques will be discussed with reference to relevant applications. The programme puts a strong emphasis on practical skills. In a dedicated computer lab, the students will learn and practice analysis and imaging techniques. Under supervision of our world-class academic staff, students will design their own imaging based studies, which will be run using the in-house 3T MRI scanner. Additional classes will provide students with a broad scope of professional skills.

The Neuroimaging MSc is especially suited for:
students interested in pursuing an Academic career in the field of Neuroimaging;
students looking to find a job as research staff in industry or academic labs involved in translational research;
medical professional, looking to develop skills in a new emergent technology and research field;
students with a background in physics, mathematics or computer science who want to move into cognitive or clinical neuroscience;
students with a background in psychology or biology who want to improve your technical skills for a neuroscience career.

Content
The core of the Neuroimaging MSc consists of two modules on Neuroimaging. The first module concentrates on methodological aspects. It includes an introduction to the physics of MR imaging, the physiological basis of functional signals, processing and analysis of imaging data and the design of research studies. The second module provides an in-depth introduction to a number of specialized imaging techniques used to understand the biology of brain function in health and disease. The latter module aims to illustrate the use of imaging in the context of translational and clinical studies of disease processes affecting the human brain.

Both modules combine formal lectures, and computer-based laboratories, in which students learn and practice analysis and imaging techniques. Weekly practical labs and programming classes are held in a dedicated computer laboratory available to all students. The work done in the lab sections constitute 50% of the grade in first module, and 30% of the grade in the second module. The latter also includes student-led discussion of published scientific and clinical research.

In the weekly Bangor Imaging Group (BIG) meeting, academic staffs, postdocs and students discuss current research. All MSc and PhD students propose their research here.

Additional optional modules provide an in-depth view of several content areas of cognitive and clinical neuroscience (see below). Students are also welcome to attend weekly review of clinical scans performed at the local hospital for the purpose of patient recruitment and a monthly neuroradiology conference where cases of clinical interest are discussed. Journal-clubs and research meetings concerning fMRI, EEG, and TMS methodologies are open to all students.

Students are also required to take at least one additional module in advanced statistics or advanced computing. The module Communicating Research completes the curriculum by training students in a broad scope of professional skills.

The Bangor Imaging Unit houses a state-of-the-art 3T MRI machine, available for student projects. Setups for the measurement of eye-movement, arm and hand movement, and physiological parameters are also available.

In the beginning of the year you will choose your academic supervisor. The supervisor will be responsible for helping you plan, design and draft your research thesis. From your project proposal you will review the relevant literature, and formally outline your study. In the weekly Bangor-Imaging Group meeting we learn about and discuss proposed, ongoing and completed studies and important new publications in the field. Moreover, all MSc and PhD students present their proposed plan of research in this forum. Thus, you are tightly integrated into the research environment at the Bangor Imaging Unit, and profit from interactions with older PhD students, post-docs, and other supervisors. Your final research project is conducted over the summer months, most likely using the in-house, research-dedicated 3T MRI scanner. The course ends with the successful submission of your research thesis.

Structure
The Neuroimaging MSc consists of two parts. Part one comprises taught modules over two semesters. You are required to take the two core modules in Neuroimaging, which include a large component of laboratory work. You will also choose two 'content' modules, each designed to provide knowledge and promote understanding in a specific core area of neuroscience. You also take three 'skills' modules designed to hone your research skills. In addition, you will partner with one of the academic faculty in order to jointly develop a research proposal for your thesis. On successful completion of Part One, you'll proceed to Part Two (in the third semester), when you will carry out your research study and write your thesis.

Research Thesis
The thesis is the 'crown' of the Neuroimaging MSc and is an intensive research experience conducted in collaboration with your supervisor that allows you to put your knowledge and skills into practice. In conducting your thesis project, you will develop new skills such as planning, co-operative working, and the academic skills essential to understanding and reporting findings to others.
Career Prospects

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Over the past 30 years, interventions, for reasons of health, welfare and the conservation of free-living wild animals, have been undertaken with increasing frequency. Read more
Over the past 30 years, interventions, for reasons of health, welfare and the conservation of free-living wild animals, have been undertaken with increasing frequency. Specialist veterinary expertise is required in order to diagnose and control diseases in wildlife.

Emerging infectious diseases are also recognised as a serious hazard, both for wild animal species and for the domestic animal and human populations that interact with them. In addition, a large number of wild animal species are kept in captivity – in zoos and in laboratories – which has led to an increased demand for specialist skills and knowledge.

Under the microscope

The MSc in Wild Animal Health is a world-class specialist postgraduate veterinary science programme taught jointly by the RVC, University of London and the Zoological Society of London.

Aimed at qualified veterinarians, the MSc in Wild Animal Health will equip you with an in-depth knowledge of the management of wild animals and the epidemiology, treatment and control of wild animal disease.

The course

The MSc in Wild Animal Health consists of thee levels:

Certificate in Wild Animal Health - you are introduced to the course objectives, the mission of the partner organizations running the Course and the services you can receive at the Zoological Society of London and the Royal Veterinary College. You will also study four core modules:

- Conservation biology
- The impact of disease on populations
- Health and welfare of captive wild animals
- Interventions


Diploma in Wild Animal Health - building on the knowledge and skills learned in the Certificate in Wild Animal Health, you will study four further modules:

- Detection, surveillance and emerging diseases
- Ecosystem health
- Evaluation of the health and welfare of captive wild animals
- Practical module


MSc in Wild Animal Health - a graduate of the Master of Science in Wild Animal Health must demonstrate (in addition to the achievements of the PG Certificate and Diploma):

- A comprehensive understanding of research and inquiry including (i) critical appraisal of the literature, (ii) scientific writing and (iii) scientific presentation
- The ability to design and analyse hypothesis-driven laboratory and/or field studies

Research planning - in this module we will develop the extensive skills required to design and conduct practical research projects, critically appraise and review the literature, deliver effective scientific presentations, and write scientific papers suitable for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

Project - you will be required to undertake an individual research project, between mid-June and the end of August, and to submit a typewritten report not exceeding 10,000 words in the form of a literature review and a scientific paper suitable for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. The project will encompass a practical study on an approved aspect of wild animal health. The project may be undertaken at any place approved by the Institute/College with the guidance of a course supervisor.

Assessment - you will be assessed by four written papers, course work (assignments and casebook), an individual research project report and an oral examination for all candidates, irrespective of their performance in other parts of the course.

Project reports are submitted at the end of August and oral examinations are held in mid-September.

How will I learn?

The MSc in Wild Animal Health is completed over one year of full-time study.

The course starts in mid-September each year, and can be broken down broadly into three sections, comprising two groups of taught modules and a research project. The first section is completed by mid-January, the second by mid-May, and the MSc research project is undertaken during the summer months, finishing in mid-September. More detailed information can be found in the course outline (see link in the top left of the page).

We deliver the programme through two terms of lectures, seminars, tutorials and problem-based learning, with modular examinations. There are no part-time or distance-learning options available.

Learning outcomes

During the programme you will acquire:

- A critical awareness of current problems in wildlife disease with implications for wildlife conservation and welfare
- A new insight into veterinary interventions for the management of captive and free-living wild animal species
- A systematic understanding of the biological principles underpinning wild animal conservation and management, and the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of wildlife disease
- Basic competence in veterinary techniques and preventative medicine for wild animals
- A conceptual and practical understanding of how established techniques of research and enquiry are used to create knowledge in the field of wild animal health
- A comprehensive understanding of scientific skills, including critical review of the scientific literature, and design and analysis of laboratory or field studies.

Upon completion of the MSc in Wild Animal Health, you will have gained the analytical skills, the understanding, the confidence and the language to influence thinking and policy making within a wide range of organisations, such as zoos, national parks, universities, conservation organisations and government departments worldwide.

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The MSc in Infectious Diseases has been designed for students who wish to gain an advanced education and training in the biological sciences, within the context of a range of human diseases that affect a significant proportion of the global population. Read more
The MSc in Infectious Diseases has been designed for students who wish to gain an advanced education and training in the biological sciences, within the context of a range of human diseases that affect a significant proportion of the global population.

The programme provides training in the modern practical, academic and research skills that are used in academia and industry. Through a combination of lectures, small-group seminars and practical classes, you apply this training towards the development of new strategies to combat the spread of infectious diseases.

You learn skills in experimental design using appropriate case studies that embed you within the relevant research literature. You also gain experience of analysis and statistical interpretation of complex experimental data.

The programme culminates with a research project under the supervision of faculty that currently perform research on disease-causing microorganisms.

Visit the website: https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/361/infectious-diseases

About the School of Biosciences

The University of Kent’s School of Biosciences ranks among the most active in biological sciences in the UK. We have recently extended our facilities and completed a major refurbishment of our research laboratories that now house over 100 academic, research, technical and support staff devoted to research, of whom more than 70 are postgraduate students.

Research in the School of Biosciences revolves around understanding systems and processes in the living cell. It has a strong molecular focus with leading-edge activities that are synergistic with one another and complementary to the teaching provision. Our expertise in disciplines such as biochemistry, microbiology and biomedical science allows us to exploit technology and develop groundbreaking ideas in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, protein science and biophysics. Fields of enquiry encompass a range of molecular processes from cell division, transcription and translation through to molecular motors, molecular diagnostics and the production of biotherapeutics and bioenergy.

In addition to research degrees, our key research strengths underpin a range of unique and career-focused taught Master’s programmes that address key issues and challenges within the biosciences and pharmaceutical industries and prepare graduates for future employment.

Course structure

The MSc in Infectious Diseases involves studying for 120 credits of taught modules, as indicated below. The taught component takes place during the autumn and spring terms, while a 60-credit research project take place over the summer months.

The assessment of the course will involve a mixture of practical classes, innovative continuous assessment to gain maximise transferable and professional skills, and examinations.

In addition to traditional scientific laboratory reports, experience is gained in a range of scientific writing styles relevant to future employment, such as literature reviews, patent applications, regulatory documents, and patient information suitable for a non-scientific readership.

Modules

The following modules are indicative of those offered on this programme. This list is based on the current curriculum and may change year to year. Please note the modules listed below for this programme are compulsory core modules:

BI845 Research project (60 credits)
BI853 - Bacterial Pathogens (15 credits)
BI854 - Fungi as Human Pathogens (15 credits)
BI855 - Advances in Parasitology (15 credits)
BI856 - Viral Pathogens (15 credits)
BI830 - Science at Work (30 credits)
BI836 - Practical and Applied Research Skills for Advanced Biologists (30 credits)

Assessment

Assessment is by examination, coursework and the research project.

Programme aims

This programme aims to:

- provide an excellent quality of postgraduate level education in the field of infectious diseases, their biology and treatments

- provide a research-led, inspiring learning environment

- provide a regional postgraduate progression route for the advanced study of diseases that affect a high proportion of the global population

- promote engagement with biological research into infectious diseases and inspire students to pursue scientific careers inside or outside of the laboratory

- develop subject-specific and transferable skills to maximise employment prospects

- promote an understanding of the impact of scientific research on society and the role for scientists in a range of professions.

Research areas

Research in the School of Biosciences is focused primarily on essential biological processes at the molecular and cellular level, encompassing the disciplines of biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology and biomedical research.

The School’s research has three main themes:

- Protein Science – encompasses researchers involved in industrial biotechnology and synthetic biology, and protein form and function

- Molecular Microbiology – encompasses researchers interested in yeast molecular biology (incorporating the Kent Fungal Group) and microbial pathogenesis

- Biomolecular Medicine – encompasses researchers involved in cell biology, cancer targets and therapies and cytogenomics and bioinformatics.

Each area is led by a senior professor and underpinned by excellent research facilities. The School-led development of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre (IBC), with staff from the other four other schools in the Faculty of Sciences, facilitates and encourages interdisciplinary projects. The School has a strong commitment to translational research, impact and industrial application with a substantial portfolio of enterprise activity and expertise.

Careers

The MSc in Infectious Diseases provides advanced research skills training within the context of diseases that affect significant proportions of the UK and global populations. With the UK being a world leader in infectious diseases research and pharmaceutical development, and Kent having a strong research focus in this area, there are significant opportunities for career progression for graduates of this programme in academia (PhD) and industry.

There are also opportunities for careers outside the laboratory in advocacy, media, public health and education.

Find out how to apply here - https://www.kent.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/apply-online/361

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Food from aquatic systems is essential for much of the world’s population – but wild catches are declining. Fortunately Aquaculture (farming of aquatic animals) is an alternative source of high quality nutrition and employment. Read more

Introduction

Food from aquatic systems is essential for much of the world’s population – but wild catches are declining. Fortunately Aquaculture (farming of aquatic animals) is an alternative source of high quality nutrition and employment. Aquaculture has been very successful but diseases can be damaging. Aquaculture has over 40 years of experience in investigating and controlling fish and shrimp diseases worldwide, which it utilises to improve your problem-solving skills, equipping you to make a real contribution to the sustainability of aquaculture.

Key information

- Degree type: MSc, Postgraduate Diploma
- Study methods: Full-time
- Start date: September
- Course Director: Dr Trevor Telfer

Course objectives

The course is specifically aimed at students with a veterinary science qualification with the object of giving training in the wide range of disciplines and skills necessary for the investigation, prevention and control of aquatic animal diseases. You will gain an understanding of the biology, husbandry and environment of farmed aquatic species, in addition to specialist expertise in aquatic animal diseases. It is also intended to prepare students who plan to pursue a PhD in the area of aquatic animal health or disease.

English language requirements

If English is not your first language you must have one of the following qualifications as evidence of your English language skills:
- IELTS: 6.0 with 5.5 minimum in each skill
- Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE): Grade C
- Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English (CAE): Grade C
- Pearson Test of English (Academic): 54 with 51 in each component
- IBT TOEFL: 80 with no subtest less than 17

For more information go to English language requirements https://www.stir.ac.uk/study-in-the-uk/entry-requirements/english/

If you don’t meet the required score you may be able to register for one of our pre-sessional English courses. To register you must hold a conditional offer for your course and have an IELTS score 0.5 or 1.0 below the required standard. View the range of pre-sessional courses http://www.intohigher.com/uk/en-gb/our-centres/into-university-of-stirling/studying/our-courses/course-list/pre-sessional-english.aspx .

Structure and content

The full Master’s course for each degree outcome is divided into four taught modules containing 12 subject areas or topics; two Foundation modules, two Advanced modules and a single Research Project module. The overall course is divided into three parts:

- Foundation modules
The Foundation modules are taught between September and December. There are six compulsory topics of study within two taught modules, taken consecutively, giving instruction in basic aquaculture concepts and skills. Successful completion of both Foundation modules will qualify you for a Postgraduate Certificate in Sustainable Aquaculture.

- Advanced modules
The two Advanced modules consisting of six compulsory topics of study are taught between January and April. Successful completion of the advanced modules, subsequent to the Foundation modules, will qualify you for a Postgraduate Diploma in Aquatic Pathobiology.

- Research Project module
The Research Project module is normally completed between April and August, and involves research in many areas of aquatic animal health. These projects mostly laboratory based and often result in peer reviewed publications. Successful completion of the module, subsequent to foundation and advanced modules, will qualify you for an MSc in Aquatic Veterinary Studies.

Delivery and assessment

The course is delivered through a variety of formats including lectures, practical classes, seminars, field visits and directed study. Assessment consists of a number of assignments in a range of formats. The Research Project is graded on activities undertaken during the project, the thesis and a presentation you make in front of your peers, supervisors and examiners. The dissertation is examined by internal and external examiners.

Why Stirling?

REF2014
In REF2014 Stirling was placed 6th in Scotland and 45th in the UK with almost three quarters of research activity rated either world-leading or internationally excellent.

Rating

The Institute of Aquaculture, with a rating of 2.45 in the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE), was graded the top aquaculture department in the UK.

Strengths

The degree has been taught for almost 40 years and only one of its kind. It gives students the unique opportunity to study the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of aquatic animal diseases in cultured organisms in one of the top institutions of the world.

Career opportunities

The course has run for almost 40 years and has trained over 200 students (in combination with Aquatic Pathobiology) from all over the world. It equips you with expertise applicable to a wide range of potential careers. Our graduates generally find employment in their area of interest, and the world employment market in the area of aquatic animal health remains buoyant.
The course provides a natural career progression for most candidates and a conversion course for others wishing to enter the field. It also provides training for those who wish to pursue a PhD, especially in aquaculture, aquatic health, fisheries and aquatic resources management.
Over the last five intakes, in combination with the Aquatic Pathobiology degree, about 30 percent of graduates have gone on to a PhD or further research, about 25 percent have taken employment as fish health consultants or veterinarians, about 20 percent work in government fisheries departments, about 15 percent are university lecturers and the remainder are managers of farms or aquaria or have other types of employment.

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